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Despite the significant health disparities experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, few investigators affiliated with the National Institutes of Health-funded Clinical and Translational Science Award Programs are conducting research related to this underserved population. We provide recommendations shared during a half-day workshop aimed at increasing researcher readiness to conduct LGBT research. This workshop was presented as part of a series on conducting research with underserved populations offered by the Recruitment, Retention, and Community Engagement Program of the Center for Clinical and Translational Science at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Six LGBT health research experts provided focused presentations. The workshop presentations included a summary of significant health inequality issues, theoretical models relevant to research on LGBT health, best practices in measuring sexual orientation and gender identity, recommendations for recruitment and retention, a discussion of community engagement, and ethical considerations in conducting LGBT research. We provide a summary of recommendations to guide future research, training, and public policy related to LGBT health. The information can increase capacity among Clinical and Translational Science Award affiliated researchers in conducting research in this special population.
Transport of test particles in two-dimensional weak turbulence with waves propagating along the poloidal direction is studied using a reduced model. Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects are included by gyroaveraging over one particle orbit. For low wave amplitudes the motion is mostly regular with particles trapped in the potential wells. As the amplitude increases the trajectories become chaotic and the Larmor radius modifies the orbits. For a thermal distribution of Finite Larmor radii the particle distribution function (PDF) is Gaussian for small
(thermal gyroradius) but becomes non-Gaussian for large
. However, the time scaling of transport is diffusive, as characterized by a linear dependence of the variance of the PDF with time. An explanation for this behaviour is presented that provides an expression for an effective diffusion coefficient and reproduces the numerical results for large wave amplitudes which implies generalized chaos. When a shear flow is added in the direction of wave propagation, a modified model is obtained that produces free-streaming particle trajectories in addition to trapped ones; these contribute to ballistic transport for low wave amplitude but produce super-ballistic transport in the chaotic regime. As in the previous case, the PDF is Gaussian for low
becoming non-Gaussian as it increases. The perpendicular transport presents the same behaviour as in the case with no flow but the diffusion is faster in the presence of the flow.
This study aimed to examine the association between vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 biomarkers and plasma fatty acids in European adolescents. A subsample from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study with valid data on B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters, and all the other covariates used in the analyses such as BMI, Diet Quality Index, education of the mother and physical activity assessed by a questionnaire, was selected resulting in 674 cases (43 % males). B-vitamin biomarkers were measured by chromatography and immunoassay and fatty acids by enzymatic analyses. Linear mixed models elucidated the association between B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters (changes in fatty acid profiles according to change in 10 units of vitamin B biomarkers). DHA, EPA) and n-3 fatty acids showed positive associations with B-vitamin biomarkers, mainly with those corresponding to folate and vitamin B12. Contrarily, negative associations were found with n-6:n-3 ratio, trans-fatty acids and oleic:stearic ratio. With total homocysteine (tHcy), all the associations found with these parameters were opposite (for instance, an increase of 10 nmol/l in red blood cell folate or holotranscobalamin in females produces an increase of 15·85 µmol/l of EPA (P value <0·01), whereas an increase of 10 nmol/l of tHcy in males produces a decrease of 2·06 µmol/l of DHA (P value <0·05). Positive associations between B-vitamins and specific fatty acids might suggest underlying mechanisms between B-vitamins and CVD and it is worth the attention of public health policies.
The ovaries of 31 franciscana dolphins (19 immature and 12 mature) by-caught in coastal waters of Argentina were examined to describe the reproductive biology. No ovarian polarity was found, both ovaries were functional and showed similar amounts of corpora. A positive trend was observed between the number of corpora and age (3–8 years old), indicating that ovulation scars are detectable for at least 4 years, and a ovulation rate of 0.39 was found for the sampled population. Age, length and weight at sexual maturity were estimated at 3.92 ± 0.09 years, 133.47 ± 11.11 cm and 32.68 ± 2.72 kg, respectively. The annual pregnancy rate was 0.36 ± 0.02 (95% CI = 0.10–0.65). The proportion of lactating and resting females found were 0.25 and 0.33 respectively. These outcomes constitute the first reproductive and life history information on franciscana dolphins from the southernmost population and are important in relation with adequate conservation management plans for this small cetacean.
The histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ is implicated in processes of chromatin remodelling and gene expression regulation. It has been associated with the control of developmental processes, but little is known about its function in helminth parasites. In Mesocestoides corti, a partial cDNA sequence related to SET/TAF-Iβ was isolated in a screening for genes differentially expressed in larvae (tetrathyridia) and adult worms. Here, the full-length coding sequence of the M. corti SET/TAF-Iβ gene was analysed and the encoded protein (McSET/TAF) was compared with orthologous sequences, showing that McSET/TAF can be regarded as a SET/TAF-Iβ family member, with a typical nucleosome-assembly protein (NAP) domain and an acidic tail. The expression patterns of the McSET/TAF gene and protein were investigated during the strobilation process by RT-qPCR, using a set of five reference genes, and by immunoblot and immunofluorescence, using monospecific polyclonal antibodies. A gradual increase in McSET/TAF transcripts and McSET/TAF protein was observed upon development induction by trypsin, demonstrating McSET/TAF differential expression during strobilation. These results provided the first evidence for the involvement of a protein from the NAP family of epigenetic effectors in the regulation of cestode development.
This study is the first to investigate the mineral composition of the atmospheric particulate matter deposited at Rio Tinto, Spain, an historical mining district of world-class importance, with emphasis on metal-bearing particles and their environmental implications. The dustfall is
composed of quartz, feldspars, phyllosilicates (mica, chlorite and/or kaolinite) and a variety of accessory heavy minerals, the most common being primary sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite with minor galena, sphalerite and bornite) and their oxidation products (notably goethite, hematite and jarosite).
This mineral assemblage suggests a local source of wind-blown dust and it is consistent with the large deposition levels of sulfide-related elements (As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn) registered at the sampling site adjacent to the mine waste dumps. However, the generation of potentially harmful
dust particles is not restricted to mine wastes. Anthropogenic metallic compounds arising from a nearby hazardous waste disposal centre can make a relevant additional contribution to the metal deposition, particularly for Fe, Ni, Cr and Mn. Atmospheric fallout is a major mechanism for metal
input to soils and plants around or near the mining area.
The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES), is a global robotic
observatory network, which started in 1998 with Spanish leadership devoted to study
optical emissions from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) that occur in the Universe. We present shot
history and current status of BOOTES network. The Network philosophy, science and some
details of 117 GRBs followed-up are discussed.
The effect of high-pressure treatment (400, 500 and 650 MPa) on the structure and activity of bovine lactoferrin in different iron-saturation forms has been studied by several techniques. The structural changes produced in lactoferrin by high-pressure were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy, and the immunoreactivity by ELISA. The effect of high-pressure was also studied on some biological properties of lactoferrin, such as iron binding capacity, retention of the bound iron, and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Results obtained indicate that treatment at 400 MPa does not substantially modify the conformation of lactoferrin, meanwhile treatments at 500 and 650 MPa greatly affect some of its properties. With respect to the antibacterial activity, the apo and native forms of lactoferrin maintain that activity against Esch. coli only after 400 MPa treatment.
SMS language presents special phenomena and important deviations from natural language. Every day, an impressive amount of chat messages, SMS messages, and e-mails are sent all over the world. This widespread use makes important the development of systems that normalize SMS language into natural language. However, typical machine translation approaches are difficult to adapt to SMS language because of many irregularities that are shown by this kind of language. This paper presents a new approach for SMS normalization that combines lexical and phonological translation techniques with disambiguation algorithms at two different levels: lexical and semantic. The method proposed does not depend on big annotated corpus, which is difficult to build and is applied in two different domains showing its easiness of adaptation across different languages and domains. The results obtained by the system outperform some of the existing methods of SMS normalization despite the fact that the Spanish language and the corpus created have some features that complicate the normalization task.
The cyanide is the main process for the extraction of gold from its ores. This process produces rich cyanide solutions containing gold and silver, and waste cyanide solutions with different metal compounds such as copper, zinc and iron. These elements or compounds can be extracted in the form of high-value compounds as nanoparticles. This work presents some result of the remove and recovery of metallic values from waste cyanide solutions to obtain novel metallic nanoparticles. These materials were obtaining by modified sol-gel method from an industrial cyanide waste solution previously treated by advanced oxidation. This work reports the characterization from the nanoparticles by DRX and SEM-EDX. The results indicate that multimetallic nanoparticles can be obtained from cyanidation effluents.
We have synthesized core-shell 1D nanostructures by the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism. Gold (Au) was used as a catalyst and tin oxide (SnO) powder as a precursor; the growth temperature was of 600 °C. These structures were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS, and PL. The nanowires have an average diameter of 20 nm and their lengths are of tens of micrometers; the core is tin dioxide (SnO2) with the tetragonal rutile structure and it has an average diameter of 12 nm; the shell is amorphous Sn of 8 nm average thickness. Photoluminescence measurements show a broad band in the 400-800 nm range. On the same growth process, SnO2 nanoparticles and a mixture of SnO2 rods and wires were also obtained, at 400 °C and 800 °C, respectively.
The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and dietary intake in European adolescents. The study comprised 1492 adolescents (770 females) from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. Adolescents were grouped into low and high CRF levels according to the FITNESSGRAM Standards. Dietary intake was self-registered by the adolescents using a computer-based tool for 24 h dietary recalls (HELENA-Dietary Assessment Tool) on two non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Higher CRF was associated with higher total energy intake in boys (P = 0·003). No association was found between CRF and macronutrient intake (as percentage of energy), yet some positive associations were found with daily intake of bread/cereals in boys and dairy products in both boys and girls (all P < 0·003), regardless of centre, age and BMI. CRF was inversely related to sweetened beverage consumption in girls. These findings were overall consistent when CRF was analysed according to the FITNESSGRAM categories (high/low CRF). A high CRF was not related to compliance with dietary recommendations, except for sweetened beverages in girls (P = 0·002). In conclusion, a high CRF is associated with a higher intake of dairy products and bread/cereals, and a lower consumption of sweetened beverages, regardless of centre, age and BMI. The present findings contribute to the understanding of the relationships between dietary factors and physiological health indicators such as CRF.
We study different aspects of the connections between local theory of Banach spaces and the problem of the extension of bilinear forms from subspaces of Banach spaces. Among other results, we prove that if X is not a Hilbert space then one may find a subspace of X for which there is no Aron–Berner extension. We also obtain that the extension of bilinear forms from all the subspaces of a given X forces such X to contain no uniform copies of ℓpn for p ∈ [1, 2). In particular, X must have type 2 − ϵ for every ϵ > 0. Also, we show that the bilinear version of the Lindenstrauss–Pełczyński and Johnson–Zippin theorems fail. We will then consider the notion of locally α-complemented subspace for a reasonable tensor norm α, and study the connections between α-local complementation and the extendability of α*-integral operators.
Copper indium diselenide (CIS) based solar cells are one among the promising thin film solar cells. Most of the processes reported for the preparation of CIS directly or indirectly involve Se vapor or H2Se gases which are extremely toxic to health and environment. In this work, we report the preparation of CIS thin films by stacked layers of Glass/In/Se/Cu2Se and Glass/In/Se/Cu2Se/Se. For this, first indium (In) thin film was thermally evaporated on glass substrate on which selenium (Se) and copper selenide (Cu2Se) thin films were deposited sequentially by chemical bath deposition. Selenium thin films were grown from an aqueous solution containing Na2SeSO3 and CH3COOH at room temperature, triple deposition for 7, 7 and 10 min from consecutive baths. Copper selenide thin films were deposited at 35 °C for 1 hour from an aqueous bath containing CuSO4, Na2SeSO3 and NH4OH. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns of the thin films formed at 400 °C from the precursor layer containing extra selenium layer showed the presence of chalcopyrite CuInSe2, without any secondary phase. Morphology of all the samples was analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Optical band gap was evaluated from the UV-Visible absorption spectra of these films and the values were 1.1 eV and 1 eV respectively for CIS thin films formed at 400 °C from the selenium deficient and selenium rich precursor layers. Electrical characterizations were done using photocurrent measurements. Thus preparation of a CuInSe2 absorber material by a non-toxic selenization process may open up a low cost technique for the fabrication of CIS based solar cells.