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Analysis of human remains and a copper band found in the center of a Late Archaic (ca. 5000–3000 cal BP) shell ring demonstrate an exchange network between the Great Lakes and the coastal southeast United States. Similarities in mortuary practices suggest that the movement of objects between these two regions was more direct and unmediated than archaeologists previously assumed based on “down-the-line” models of exchange. These findings challenge prevalent notions that view preagricultural Native American communities as relatively isolated from one another and suggest instead that wide social networks spanned much of North America thousands of years before the advent of domestication.
Narrow-band photometric surveys, such as the Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survey (J-PLUS), provide not only a means of pre-selection for high-resolution follow-up, but open a new era of precision photometric stellar parameter determination. Using a family of machine learning algorithms known as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), we have obtained photometric estimates of effective temperature (Teff) and metallicity ([Fe/H]) across a wide parameter range of temperature and metallicity (4000 < Teff <7000 K; −3.5 <[Fe/H]<0.0) for a number of stars in the J-PLUS Early Data Release. With this methodology, we expect to increase the number of known Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor (CEMP; [C/Fe]>+0.7) stars by several orders of magnitude, as well as constrain the metallicity distribution function of the Milky Way Halo system.
To observe patient care across hemodialysis facilities enrolled in the National Opportunity to Improve Infection Control in ESRD (end-stage renal disease) (NOTICE) project in order to evaluate adherence to evidence-based practices aimed at prevention of infection.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
Thirty-four hemodialysis facilities were randomly selected from among 772 facilities in 4 end-stage renal disease participating networks. Facility selection was stratified on dialysis organization affiliation, size, socioeconomic status, and urban/rural status.
Trained infection control evaluators used an infection control worksheet to observe 73 distinct infection control practices at the hemodialysis facilities, from October 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012.
There was considerable variation in infection control practices across enrolled facilities. Overall adherence to recommended practices was 68% (range, 45%–92%) across all facilities. Overall adherence to expected hand hygiene practice was 72% (range, 10%–100%). Compliance to hand hygiene before and after procedures was high; however, during procedures hand hygiene compliance averaged 58%. Use of chlorhexidine as the specific agent for exit site care was 19% overall but varied from 0% to 35% by facility type. The 8 checklists varied in the frequency of perfect performance from 0% for meeting every item on the checklist for disinfection practices to 22% on the arteriovenous access practices at initiation.
Our findings suggest that there are many areas for improvement in hand hygiene and other infection prevention practices in end-stage renal disease. These NOTICE project findings will help inform the development of a larger quality improvement initiative at dialysis facilities.
Mentalizing deficits are a hallmark of the autism spectrum condition (ASC) and a potential endophenotype for atypical social cognition in ASC. Differences in performance and neural activation on the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ task (the Eyes task) have been identified in individuals with ASC in previous studies.
Performance on the Eyes task along with the associated neural activation was examined in adolescents with ASC (n = 50), their unaffected siblings (n = 40) and typically developing controls (n = 40). Based on prior literature that males and females with ASC display different cognitive and associated neural characteristics, analyses were stratified by sex. Three strategies were applied to test for endophenotypes at the level of neural activation: (1) identifying and locating conjunctions of ASC–control and sibling–control differences; (2) examining whether the sibling group is comparable to the ASC or intermediate between the ASC and control groups; and (3) examining spatial overlaps between ASC–control and sibling–control differences across multiple thresholds.
Impaired behavioural performance on the Eyes task was observed in males with ASC compared to controls, but only at trend level in females; and no difference in performance was identified between sibling and same-sex control groups in both sexes. Neural activation showed a substantial endophenotype effect in the female groups but this was only modest in the male groups.
Behavioural impairment on complex emotion recognition associated with mental state attribution is a phenotypic, rather than an endophenotypic, marker of ASC. However, the neural response during the Eyes task is a potential endophenotypic marker for ASC, particularly in females.
We hypothesised that hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides are differentially expressed in obese-prone and lean-prone rats and trigger overeating-induced obesity. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we measured energy balance and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expressions in male JCR:LA-cp rats. We compared, in independent cohorts, free-feeding obese-prone (Obese-FF) and lean-prone (Lean-FF) rats at pre-weaning (10 d old), weaning (21–25 d old) and early adulthood (8–12 weeks). A group of Obese-pair-feeding (PF) rats pair-fed to the Lean-FF rats was included in the adult cohort. The body weights of 10-d-old Obese-FF and Lean-FF pups were not significantly different. However, when the pups were shifted from dams' milk to solid food (weaning), the obese-prone rats exhibited more energy intake over the days than the lean-prone rats and higher body and fat pad weights and fasting plasma glucose, leptin, insulin and lipid levels. These differences were consistent with higher energy consumption and lower energy expenditure. In the young adult cohort, the differences between the Obese-FF and Lean-FF rats became more pronounced, yielding significant age effects on most of the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, which were reduced in the Obese-PF rats. The obese-prone rats displayed higher NPY expression than the lean-prone rats at pre-weaning and weaning, and the expression levels did not differ by age. In contrast, POMC expression exhibited significant age-by-genotype differences. At pre-weaning, there was no genotype difference in POMC expression, but in the weanling cohort, obese-prone pups exhibited lower POMC expression than the lean-prone rats. This genotype difference became more pronounced at adulthood. Overall, the development of hyperphagia-induced obesity in obese-prone JCR rats is related to POMC expression down-regulation in the presence of established NPY overexpression.
The consequences of a low litter average birth weight phenotype for postnatal growth performance and carcass quality of all progeny, and testicular development in male offspring, were investigated. Using data from 25 sows with one, and 223 sows with two consecutive farrowing events, individual birth weight (BW) was measured and each litter between 9 and 16 total pigs born was classified as low (LBW), medium (MBW) or high (HBW) birth weight: low and high BW being defined as >1 standard deviation below or above, respectively, the population mean for each litter size. Litter average BW was repeatable within sows. At castration, testicular tissue was collected from 40 male pigs in LBW and HBW litters with individual BW close to their litter average BW and used for histomorphometric analysis. LBW piglets had a lower absolute number of germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells in their testes and a higher brain : testis weight ratio than HBW piglets. Overall, LBW litters had lower placental weight and higher brain : liver, brain : intestine and brain : Semitendinosus muscle weight ratios than MBW and HBW litters. In the nursery and grow–finish (GF) phase, pigs were kept in pens by BW classification (9 HBW, 17 MBW and 10 LBW pens) with 13 males and 13 females per pen. Average daily gain tended to be lower in LBW than HBW litters in lactation (P = 0.06) and throughout the nursery and GF phases (P < 0.01), resulting in an increasing difference in body weight between LBW, MBW and HBW litters (P < 0.05). Average daily feed intake was lower (P < 0.001) in LBW than HBW litters in the nursery and GF phases. Feed utilization efficiency (feed/gain) was similar for LBW and HBW litters in the nursery, but was lower (P < 0.001) in HBW than LBW litters in the GF phase. By design, slaughter weight was similar between BW classifications; however, LBW litters needed 9 more days to reach the same slaughter weight than HBW litters (P < 0.001). BW classification did not affect carcass composition traits. In conclusion, LBW litters showed benchmarks of intrauterine growth retardation, LBW had a negative impact on testicular development and germ and somatic cell populations, and was associated with decreased postnatal growth during all phases of production; however, no measurable effect on carcass composition traits was established.
The aim of this study was to investigate spatial variation in risk of hospitalization in childhood pneumonia and empyema in the North of England and associated risk factors. Data on childhood (0–14 years) hospital admissions with a diagnosis pneumonia or empyema were linked to postcode districts. Bayesian conditional autoregressive models were used to evaluate spatial variation and the relevance of specific spatial covariates in an area-based study using postcode as the areal unit. There was a sixfold variation in the risk of hospitalization due to pneumonia across the study region. Variation in risk was associated with material deprivation, Child Well-being Index (CWI) health domain score, number of children requiring local authority support, and distance to hospital. No significant spatial variation in risk for empyema was found.
The role of radio polarimetry in the understanding of GPS and CSS sources is explored. After an initial discussion of what can be learned from polarimetry, the expectations of a simple evolutionary sequence of GPS/CSO to CSS to FR I/FR II sources are explored. Observational results are then compared with the expectations. Conclusions include: the GPS category is likely not a single homogeneous class of objects; Faraday depth effects are very strong inside the inner 3 kpc of CSS and CSO sources; in at least 3C 138 the Faraday screen has very fine scale (subparsec) structure; and there is evidence for increased ionisation near bends in some CSS jets probably due to jet–ISM interaction. New results on 3C 138, 3C 43, and 3C 454 are given.
The compact steep spectrum (CSS) and gigahertz peaked spectrum (GPS) sources are widely believed to be young radio sources, with ages ≤106 yr. If the activity in the nucleus is fuelled by the supply of gas, one might find evidence of this gas by studying the structural and polarisation characteristics of CSS sources and their evolution through this gas. In this paper we discuss some of the possible ‘smoking-gun’ evidence of this gas which may have triggered and fuelled the radio source.
Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P < 0.01). In conclusion, feeding n-3 LCPUFA to gilts tended to improve litter growth, but did not have an effect on overall subsequent reproductive performance.
There is increasing interest in the potential chronic beneficial effects of dietary n-3 PUFA on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated cardiovascular complications. We have recently established that increased dietary n-3 PUFA has a profound acute benefit on fasting lipids and the postprandial pro-inflammatory response in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the MetS. However, it is unclear to what extent chronic dietary n-3 PUFA intervention can modulate the progression of end-stage metabolic and vascular complications. The present study aimed to determine the chronic effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on fasting and non-fasting dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and vascular complications in the JCR:LA-cp rodent model. JCR:LA-cp rats were fed an isoenergetic lipid-balanced diet supplemented with 5 % n-3 PUFA (w/w) of the total fat (fish oil-derived EPA/DHA) for 16 weeks. Fasting and non-fasting (postprandial) plasma lipid profile was assessed. Hepatic and adipose tissue was probed for the expression of lipogenic proteins (acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1)), while the activity of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was assessed via Western blot to target phosphorylated JNK protein in primary enterocytes. The frequency of myocardial lesions was assessed by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Increased dietary n-3 PUFA improved both the fasting and postprandial lipid profiles (TAG, cholesterol and apoB48) in the JCR:LA-cp rat, potentially via the down-regulation of the hepatic or adipose tissue expression of lipogenic enzymes (ACC, FAS and SREBP-1). Rats fed the 5 % n-3 PUFA diet had lower (58·2 %; P < 0·01) enterocytic phosphorylated JNK protein and secreted less cholesterol (30 %; P < 0·05) into mesenteric lymph compared with the control. The chronic metabolic benefits of dietary n-3 PUFA may underlie the potential to reduce vascular complications during the MetS, including the observed reduction in the frequency (approximately 80 %) of late-stage 3 myocardial lesions.
The epidemiology of human campylobacteriosis is complex but in recent years understanding of this disease has advanced considerably. Despite being a major public health concern in many countries, the presence of multiple hosts, genotypes and transmission pathways has made it difficult to identify and quantify the determinants of human infection and disease. This has delayed the development of successful intervention programmes for this disease in many countries including New Zealand, a country with a comparatively high, yet until recently poorly understood, rate of notified disease. This study investigated the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni at the genotype-level over a 3-year period between 2005 and 2008 using multilocus sequence typing. By combining epidemiological surveillance and population genetics, a dominant, internationally rare strain of C. jejuni (ST474) was identified, and most human cases (65·7%) were found to be caused by only seven different genotypes. Source association of genotypes was used to identify risk factors at the genotype-level through multivariable logistic regression and a spatial model. Poultry-associated cases were more likely to be found in urban areas compared to rural areas. In particular young children in rural areas had a higher risk of infection with ruminant strains than their urban counterparts. These findings provide important information for the implementation of pathway-specific control strategies.