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Background: Brain tumors present unique challenges to patient and family quality of life (QOL). Cognitive dysfunction is common and functionally limiting, with no established treatments. These studies evaluate feasibility and preliminary efficacy of behavioral interventions developed for neuro-oncology patients. Study 1: A randomized controlled trial (N=25 primary brain tumor patients) compared an adapted version of Goal Management Training (GMT, a neuroscience-based integration of mindfulness and strategy training) and a newly-designed supportive psychoeducational intervention (Brain Health Program, BHP) to standard of care. Each intervention comprised 8 individual sessions and at-home practice between sessions. GMT patients’ executive functions improved immediately (p=.077, d=1.13), with maintenance at 4-month follow-up (p=.046, d=1.09). Both intervention groups reported improvements in everyday cognitive functioning immediately (p=.049; d’s GMT=0.43, BHP=0.79) and at follow-up (p=.001; d’s GMT=0.22, BHP=1.01). BHP patients also reported improved mood (p’s=.026 & .012, d’s=0.61 & 0.62). Study 2: Following a needs assessment about cognitive concerns and QOL in brain metastases patients (N=109) and caregivers (N=31), we developed a novel, brief (3 sessions + homework) Cognitive Support Program to provide education and strategy-training in key areas of concern: executive functions, memory, and communication. Options include caregiver co-training, and in-person or web-based delivery. Preliminary data from a pilot trial in progress demonstrate objective and subjective improvements. Conclusions: Cognitive rehabilitation may be a feasible and effective option for primary or metastatic brain tumor patients, addressing a need that is largely unmet in standard cancer care. Further development and larger trials appear warranted, with capacity for remote delivery recommended.
Network analysis is an emerging approach in the study of psychopathology, yet few applications have been seen in eating disorders (EDs). Furthermore, little research exists regarding changes in network strength after interventions. Therefore the present study examined the network structures of ED and co-occurring depression and anxiety symptoms before and after treatment for EDs.
Participants from residential or partial hospital ED treatment programs (N = 446) completed assessments upon admission and discharge. Networks were estimated using regularized Graphical Gaussian Models using 38 items from the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
ED symptoms with high centrality indices included a desire to lose weight, guilt about eating, shape overvaluation, and wanting an empty stomach, while restlessness, self-esteem, lack of energy, and feeling overwhelmed bridged ED to depression and anxiety symptoms. Comparisons between admission and discharge networks indicated the global network strength did not change significantly, though symptom severity decreased. Participants with denser networks at admission evidenced less change in ED symptomatology during treatment.
Findings suggest that symptoms related to shape and weight concerns and guilt are central ED symptoms, while physical symptoms, self-esteem, and feeling overwhelmed are links that may underlie comorbidities in EDs. Results provided some support for the validity of network approaches, in that admission networks conveyed prognostic information. However, the lack of correspondence between symptom reduction and change in network strength indicates that future research is needed to examine network dynamics in the context of intervention and relapse prevention.
The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important pest of pepper (Capsicum Linnaeus; Solanaceae) crops in North America. Native to Mexico, the southern United States of America, and Central America, it is intercepted in Canada when peppers are imported to supplement domestic production. Given the proximity of greenhouse and field production to packing facilities, this pest poses a serious risk to the cultivation of peppers in Canada. Once established, it is difficult to control because immature stages of the weevil are protected within the pepper fruit. As such, chemical control targeting these life stages is not effective, and other strategies, including biological control, may prove useful. To explore the potential for biological control options to manage the pepper weevil in areas at risk in Canada, natural enemy surveys were conducted in southern Ontario following the reports of transient, localised field populations in 2016. Parasitoids belonging to three Hymenoptera families including Pteromalidae (Jaliscoa hunteri Crawford, Pteromalus anthonomi Ashmead), Eupelmidae (Eupelmus pulchriceps Cameron), and Braconidae (Nealiolus Mason species, Bracon Fabricius species) were reared from infested field-collected pepper fruits. Together, these new natural enemy records could facilitate the exploration and development of novel agents for the biological control of the pepper weevil.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
Neighboring tidewater glaciers often exhibit asynchronous dynamic behavior, despite relatively uniform regional atmospheric and oceanic forcings. This variability may be controlled by a combination of local factors, including glacier and fjord geometry, fjord heat content and circulation, and glacier surface melt. In order to characterize and understand contrasts in adjacent tidewater glacier and fjord dynamics, we made coincident ice-ocean-atmosphere observations at high temporal resolution (minutes to weeks) within a 10 000 km2 area near Uummannaq, Greenland. Water column velocity, temperature and salinity measurements reveal systematic differences in neighboring fjords that imply contrasting circulation patterns. The observed ocean velocity and hydrography, combined with numerical modeling, suggest that subglacial discharge plays a major role in setting fjord conditions. In addition, satellite remote sensing of seasonal ice flow speed and terminus position reveal both speedup and slow-down in response to melt, as well as differences in calving style among the neighboring glaciers. Glacier force budgets and modeling also point toward subglacial discharge as a key factor in glacier behavior. For the studied region, individual glacier and fjord geometry modulate subglacial discharge, which leads to contrasts in both fjord and glacier dynamics.
1.1.1. In October 1980 the Council of the Faculty of Actuaries set up a Working Party with the following brief:—
(1) To investigate the criteria by which the solvency of life assurance companies should be assessed and to determine the amount of the solvency margin which should be required in practice by supervisory authorities. The existing requirements of the E.E.C. Life Establishment Directive should be considered with a view to recommending any desirable alterations thereto to be made when those requirements are reviewed in due course by the E.E.C. Commission. In carrying out its work the Working Party should co-operate with Working Parties or Committees of other actuarial bodies.
(2) To report the result of their investigations to Council.
The paper is an investigation into the withdrawal rates of seven Scottish Offices and covers the years 1972-76 with an appendix giving the results for 1977.
The rates were basically analysed by class and duration with further investigations mainly on the 1976 data by age at entry, sex, size of sum assured, premium paying term, premium payment frequency and by type of agent introducing the business. Comparisons were made of the level of withdrawal rates among the various Offices and also the variations from year to year separately. A graduation of the combined data for 1975 and 1976 for each of the five main classes was carried out.
An overview of the Czech national R&D project HiLASE (High average power pulsed laser) is presented. The project focuses on the development of advanced high repetition rate, diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) systems with energies in the range from mJ to 100 J and repetition rates in the range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Some applications of these lasers in research and hi-tech industry are also presented.
The Environment Agency Guidance on Requirements for Authorisation (GRA) of a geological disposal facility (GDF) requires a demonstration that "the possibility of a local accumulation of fissile material such as to produce a neutron chain reaction is not a significant concern." A neutron chain reaction that is just self-sustaining is also known as critical.
Waste packages can be designed to ensure that criticality is impossible during the transport and operational phases of a GDF, and for a significant period post-closure. Over longer times, however, packages may degrade, and groundwater flows could lead to a localized accumulation of fissile material. Hence, even though the initial distribution of materials would need to change substantially, criticality cannot be ruled out completely.
This paper describes how an accumulation of fissile material could, hypothetically, lead to a critical configuration; how such a system could evolve; what the local consequences could be; and how the engineered and geological barriers could be affected. The conclusion from studies to date is that, even for large (and very unlikely) fissile accumulations, the consequences of a post-closure criticality event are not a significant concern.
With the financial services industries in the member countries of the European Union coming under increasing attention resulting in relaxation of cross border controls, this paper addresses some pensions matters in this European context and how they may relate to the U.K. The main theme of the paper is the book reserve approach to pensions provision. Details of the German book reserve method are provided before developing possible ways in which this philosophy could be introduced into the U.K. These possibilities are assessed and consideration given to the effect they may have on the economy, commerce, the pension fund industry and, not least, the actuarial profession in the U.K.
The use of nanoparticle precursors for electronic materials including sulfides, selenides, oxides and the elements has potentially wide ranging implications for improving device properties and substantially reducing the deposition costs. To realize this goal the complex interfacial chemistry of these small particles must be controlled. In this paper we present a number of cases demonstrating the complexity of this chemistry. These include CuInSe2 where the kinetics of phase formation dominate the sintering process; CdTe where sintering proceeds with and without the sintering enhancement of CdCl2, but produces materials different electronically than bulk materials; and the use of compound and elemental nanoparticles ( Ag, Al, Hg-Cu-Te and Sb-Te) for contacts to elemental and compound semiconductors (Si and CdTe).
Organic agriculture aims to build soil quality and provide long-term benefits to people and the environment; however, organic practices may reduce crop yields. This long-term study near Mead, NE was conducted to determine differences in soil fertility and crop yields among conventional and organic cropping systems between 1996 and 2007. The conventional system (CR) consisted of corn (Zea mays L.) or sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)–soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)–sorghum or corn–soybean, whereas the diversified conventional system (DIR) consisted of corn or sorghum–sorghum or corn–soybean–winter wheat (wheat, Triticum aestivum L.). The animal manure-based organic system (OAM) consisted of soybean–corn or sorghum–soybean–wheat, while the forage-based organic system (OFG) consisted of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)–alfalfa–corn or sorghum–wheat. Averaged across sampling years, soil organic matter content (OMC), P, pH, Ca, K, Mg and Zn in the top 15 cm of soil were greatest in the OAM system. However, by 2008 OMC was not different between the two organic systems despite almost two times greater carbon inputs in the OAM system. Corn, sorghum and soybean average annual yields were greatest in either of the two conventional systems (7.65, 6.36 and 2.60 Mg ha−1, respectively), whereas wheat yields were greatest in the OAM system (3.07 Mg ha−1). Relative to the mean of the conventional systems, corn yields were reduced by 13 and 33% in the OAM and OFG systems, respectively. Similarly, sorghum yields in the OAM and OFG systems were reduced by 16 and 27%, respectively. Soybean yields were 20% greater in the conventional systems compared with the OAM system. However, wheat yields were 10% greater in the OAM system compared with the conventional DIR system and 23% greater than yield in the OFG system. Alfalfa in the OFG system yielded an average of 7.41 Mg ha−1 annually. Competitive yields of organic wheat and alfalfa along with the soil fertility benefits associated with animal manure and perennial forage suggest that aspects of the two organic systems be combined to maximize the productivity and sustainability of organic cropping systems.
Arc-melted alloys of stoichiometric β-NiAl with additions of up to 1.5 atomic percent Re were examined to determine the nature of the quasi-binary phase diagram. Analysis of the Re segregation during solidification confirmed the eutectic nature. Solubility of Re in the β-NiAl structure was limited to approximately 0.5 atomic percent and precipitation of α-Re was observed in the hypoeutectic alloys. An orientation relationship with (101)β // (0001)α and α // βwas determined for these rod-like precipitates.
The addition of Mo5Si3 as a reinforcing second phase in a MoSi2 matrix has been investigated for possible high temperature strengthening effects. MoSi2 with up to 45 vol % Mo5Si3 was fabricated using powder metallurgy (PM) and arc-casting (AC) techniques. Effects of processing routes, which result in different microstructures, on their mechanical properties are given. PM composites, which have an equiaxed microstructure, exhibit a limited increase in hardness. Higher hardnesses are observed in script-structured AC eutectics and Er-modifiedeutectics throughout the temperatures studied (25–1300°C). Crack propagation paths induced by indentation show long transphase cracks in the AC materials vs short intergranular and interphase cracks in the PM composites at high temperatures.
Transmission electron microscopy discloses that the interface in the AC composites has a low-index orientation relationship between the two phases and shows regularly faceted interfacial structures, while planar interfaces are found in the PM composites. These observations suggest the interface is stronger and lower in energy in the AC composites, which is consistent with the higher hardness values and long transphase cracks observed.
Dislocation analysis shows the presence of ordinary dislocations (<100>, <110> and 1/2<111>) in MoSi2 in the as-fabricated composites. These types of dislocation are also responsible for the high temperature plastic deformation in compression in both the monolithic MoSi2 and the composites. <331> types of dislocation are only found in MoSi2 either near the interface of the AC composites or in materials deformed below 1000°C.
Layered copper-oxide superconductors exhibit the highest critical transition temperatures of any materials. Yet all of the known double perovskites A′A″B′B″O6 containing copper have a random or rock salt distribution of the B cations with the exception of the unique layered arrangement found in La2CuSnO6. Only the layered arrangement contains the CuO22- planes which are necessary for high-temperature superconductivity. The occurrence of layered or two dimensional structures increases markedly when vacancies are introduced on the oxygen sublattice, as evidenced in Ln2AEmCu2TimO5+3m (Ln = lanthanide, Y: AE = Ba, Ca: 2 ≤ m ≤ 4). Similarities among oxygen-deficient structures, especially those with two-dimensional solid-state features, are discussed. Combined conductivity and thermopower analysis are presented to elucidate their unique internal chemistry, defect structure, and conduction parameters. In particular, data for La2-xSrxCuSnO6 are presented and related to the crystal chemistry of the copper-oxygen layer. These data are compared with La2Ba2Cu2Sn2O11 and La2Ba2Cu2Ti2O11 to illustrate the significance of oxygen vacancies on the properties of the copper oxygen planes. New layered cuprates are discussed including the mixed A-site stoichiometries Ln′Ln″AEmCu2TimO5+3m (Ln = lanthanide, Y: AE = Ba, Ca: 2 ≤ m ≤ 4) which contain the smaller lanthanide (Ln″) ordered between the closely spaced, facing sheets of Cu-O square pyramids.
Crystalline diamond coatings and, increasingly, diamond like amorphous carbon (DLC) films are used for tribological and protective layers for their hardness and chemical inertness. They are also under investigation for their electron emitting properties, with possible applications in field emission displays. DLC films were deposited by laser ablation using a KrF excimer laser and fluences between 0.5 and 2 J/cm2. FTIR measurements did not show the presence of hydrogen in the films. Raman spectra allowed for the determination of the nature of the graphitic and diamond bonds (sp2 and sp3) as well as information about the disorder and short range order in the films. For a better determination of the sp3-content, which is often hidden in the Raman spectra, a correlation with optical properties in the near IR to near UV region was established. These values depended strongly on the substrate temperature and the laser fluence. DLC formation could be demonstrated even at substrate temperatures close to room temperature. Vickers hardness values and first measurements on the electron emissivity of the films can be correlated to the diamond character and the preparation method of the films.