To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are the most common primary benign brain tumors in adults. Given the extended life expectancy of most meningiomas, consideration of quality of life (QOL) is important when selecting the optimal management strategy. There is currently a dearth of meningioma-specific QOL tools in the literature. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we analyze the prevailing themes and propose toward building a meningioma-specific QOL assessment tool. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted, and only original studies based on adult patients were considered. QOL tools used in the various studies were analyzed for identification of prevailing themes in the qualitative analysis. The quality of the studies was also assessed. RESULTS: Sixteen articles met all inclusion criteria. Fifteen different QOL assessment tools assessed social and physical functioning, psychological, and emotional well-being. Patient perceptions and support networks had a major impact on QOL scores. Surgery negatively affected social functioning in younger patients, while radiation therapy had a variable impact. Any intervention appeared to have a greater negative impact on physical functioning compared to observation. CONCLUSION: Younger patients with meningiomas appear to be more vulnerable within social and physical functioning domains. All of these findings must be interpreted with great caution due to great clinical heterogeneity, limited generalizability, and risk of bias. For meningioma patients, the ideal QOL questionnaire would present outcomes that can be easily measured, presented, and compared across studies. Existing scales can be the foundation upon which a comprehensive, standard, and simple meningioma-specific survey can be prospectively developed and validated.
In Hong Kong, universal varicella vaccination started in July 2014. Before this, children could receive varicella vaccine via the private market. We analysed the epidemiology of varicella and zoster before universal vaccination. We estimated varicella vaccination coverage through surveys in preschool children. We estimated the burden of varicella and zoster with varicella notifications from 1999/00 to 2013/14, Accident and Emergency Department (A&E) attendance and inpatient admissions to public hospitals from 2004/05 to 2013/14. We fitted a catalytic model to serological data on antibodies against varicella-zoster virus to estimate the force of infection. We found that varicella vaccination coverage gradually increased to about 50% before programme inception. In children younger than 5 years, the annual rate of varicella notifications, varicella admission and zoster A&E attendance generally declined. The annual notification, A&E attendance and hospitalisation rate of varicella and zoster generally increased for individuals between 10 and 59 years old. Varicella serology indicated an age shift during the study period towards a higher proportion of infections in slightly older individuals, but the change was most notable before vaccine licensure. In conclusion, we observed a shift in the burden of varicella to slightly older age groups with a corresponding increase in incidence but it cannot necessarily be attributed to private market vaccine coverage alone. Increasing varicella vaccination uptake in the private market might affect varicella transmission and epidemiology, but not to the level of interrupting transmission.
There is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.
To assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.
Mixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.
Mixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.
The CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.
With the proportion of older adults in Hong Kong projected to double in size in the next 30 years, it is important to develop measures for detecting individuals in the earliest stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD, 0.5 in Clinical Dementia Rating, CDR). We tested the utility of a non-verbal prospective memory task (PM, ability to remember what one has to do when a specific event occurs in the future) as an early marker for AD in Hong Kong Chinese.
A large community dwelling sample of older adults who are healthy controls (CDR 0, N = 125), in the earliest stage of AD (CDR 0.5, N = 125), or with mild AD (CDR 1, N = 30) participated in this study. Their reaction time/accuracy data were analyzed by mixed-factor analyses of variance to compare the performance of the three CDR groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to test the discriminative power of these measures for CDR 0 versus 0.5 participants.
Prospective memory performance declined as a function of AD severity: CDR 0 > CDR 0.5 > CDR 1, suggesting the effects of early-stage AD and AD progression on PM. After partialling out the variance explained by psychometric measures (e.g., ADAS-Cog), reaction time/accuracy measures that reflected the PM still significantly discriminated between CDR 0 versus 0.5 participants in most of the cases.
The effectiveness of PM measures in discriminating individuals in the earliest stage of AD from healthy older adults suggests that these measures should be further developed as tools for early-stage AD discrimination.
With the development of applications involving high sensitivity ferromagnetic-ferroelectric laminates, a systematic analysis of the noise floor for magneto-electric (ME) laminated sensor has become crucial. We report and discuss the results of such an analysis on the noise floor of magnetostrictive-piezoelectric laminates in terms of the magnetic noise spectral density at room temperature. The noise floor of highly sensitive ME laminates with a JFET charge amplifier detection method has been studied. A good correlation was found between the theoretical and experimental noise curves within the measurement bandwidth. The dominating noise sources were found to include the dielectric loss noise, mechanical loss noise of the magneto-electric laminates and the noise sources of the charge amplifier. By using an appropriate low noise JFET charge amplifier, the noise contributions from the amplifier can be made negligible, enabling the measurement of the intrinsic noise of the ME laminates sensor. Thus, we have shown that at low frequencies, below the resonant frequency, the dielectric loss noise predominates with a one-per-root-frequency dependence whereas, around the resonance, the mechanical loss noise prevails over all other noise sources as expected from our theoretical analysis.
Defect structures in YBa2Cu3O7−x produced by electron irradiation at 300 K were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Threshold energies for the production of visible defects were determined to be 152 keV and 131 keV (+ 7 keV) in directions near the a and b (b>a) axes (both perpendicular to c, the long axis in the orthorhombic structure), respectively. During above threshold irradiations in an electron flux of 3×1018 cm-2 s-1, extended defects were observed to form and grow to sizes of 10–50 nm over 1000 s in material thicknesses 20–200 nm. Such low electron threshold energies suggest oxygen atom displacements with recoil energies near 20 eV. The observation of movement of twin boundaries during irradiation just above threshold suggests movement of the basal plane oxygen atoms by direct displacement or defect migration processes. Crystals irradiated above threshold were observed after about 24 hours to have transformed to a structure heavily faulted on planes perpendicular to the c axis.
Single crystals of YBa2Cu3O7-y were studied by transmission Laue photography and monochromatic diffraction techniques, using the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source and a rotating anode x-ray source. A new type of twinning, with two orthorhombic domains rotated exactly 90 degree about the c axis, was observed in one sample and the conventional (110) type twinning in another sample with nominally identical growth conditions. A high resolution diffraction study of the sample with the conventional (110) twinning shows that measured orthorhombicity (proportional to oxygen ordering parameter) varies from one domain to another.
TiO2 thin films were grown epitaxially on (1120) sapphire (α-Al2O3) at 800 °C by the MOCVD method. The TiO2 films and TiO2/Al2O3 interfaces were characterized by TEM and HREM. The observations indicate that the TiO2 films are single crystalline and have the rutile structure. A majority of the films has the epitaxial orientation relationship between the TiO2 rutile films (R) and the α-Al2O3 substrates (S): (101)R||(1120)S, while the epitaxial relationship of (100)R||(1120)s has also been observed for one film. HREM studies show that the (100) film was grown on an off-cut substrate, vicinal to (1120). Detailed atomic structures of the interfaces will be presented and discussed in terms of the growth mechanism and misfit dislocation structure.
Laboratory investigations of the self-hardening properties of selected subbituminous fly ashes have been conducted. Chemical analyses of the fly ashes are given in Table I. The self-hardening value of the fly ashes was determined by conducting unconfined compressive strength tests on compacted samples of the moistened ashes. Various physical and chemical tests were performed to identify the reaction products, if any, of the hardened compacted fly ash paste, and to delineate the source of self-hardening properties. Results from x-ray diffraction analyses, scanning electron microscopic examination and differential thermal analyses indicated that the hydration products include calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates, and ettringite. Chemical and physical tests conducted to evaluate pertinent fly ash properties included chemical analysis, water soluble fraction, dilute hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid soluble fractions, heat of solution on dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid, specific surface area, and electrical conductivity tests.
Titanium and vanadium oxide thin films have been prepared in a cold wall low pressure MOCVD system for the study of MOCVD processing of epitaxial oxide films. Films were deposited on Si(111) and sapphire (0001) and (1120) at temperatures from 400 to 800°C. Processing parameter-structureproperty relationship was examined in detail and the result is presented.
We report optical waveguiding in single-crystal, epitaxial (101) oriented rutile (TiO2) thin films grown on (1120) sapphire (α-Al2O3) substrates using the MOCVD technique. The propagation constants for asymmetric planar waveguides composed of an anisotropic dielectric media applicable to these films are derived. Modifications to the prism-film coupling theory for this anisotropic case are also discussed. By application of this model to (101) oriented rutile thin films, we directly obtain values of the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indexes, no and ne, of the rutile thin films as well as film thicknesses. We obtain typical values of the refractive indexes (no=2.5701±0.0005; ne=2.934±0.001) near to those for bulk rutile single crystals indicating the exceptional quality of these films.