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Two new species of Oreocharis, O. tribracteata and O. rufescens, are described and a key to the species in Vietnam is provided. The new species have distinct features not previously, or rarely, observed in the genus, both showing the partial fusion of the calyx lobes into a tube, and the presence of three bracts in Oreocharis tribracteata.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
One view of major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is that these (proton-dominated) fluxes are accelerated in heliospheric shock sources created by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), and then travel mainly along interplanetary magnetic field lines connecting the shock(s) to the observer(s). This places a particular emphasis on the role of the heliospheric conditions during the event, requiring a realistic description of the latter to interpret and/or model SEP events. The well-known ENLIL heliospheric simulation with cone model generated ICME shocks is used together with the SEPMOD particle event modeling scheme to demonstrate the value of applying these concepts at multiple inner heliosphere sites.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
Structural deviations from ideal layering of bulk constituents can have dramatic effects on the properties of multilayered materials. We discuss three examples of the use of x-ray diffraction in non-standard geometries to examine these effects. In Mo/Ni multilayers, we use asymmetric diffraction and grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS) to deduce the strain and intermixing. We find that coherency stresses between the BCC Mo and FCC Ni planes play a major role. In the Fe/Cr system, we use rocking curves and asymmetric scans about the small angle superlattice lines to investigate the nature and extent of layer roughness. We find that conformai roughness dominates our best samples, while non-conformal roughness increases with sputter deposition pressure. In the Gd/Co system, we use in-situ GIXS to investigate amorphization reaction during deposition. We find a strong diffusional asymmetry and rapid reaction during growth.
To compare the effects of hospital cleaning agents and germicides on the survival of epidemic Clostridium difficile strains.
We compared the activity of and effects of exposure to 5 cleaning agents and/or germicides (3 containing chlorine, 1 containing only detergent, and 1 containing hydrogen peroxide) on vegetative and spore forms of epidemic and non-epidemic C. difficile strains (3 of each). We carried out in vitro exposure experiments using a human fecal emulsion to mimic conditions found in situ.
Cleaning agent and germicide exposure experiments yielded very different results for C. difficile vegetative cells, compared with those for spores. Working-strength concentrations of all of the agents inhibited the growth of C. difficile in culture. However, when used at recommended working concentrations, only chlorine-based germicides were able to inactivate C. difficile spores. C. difficile epidemic strains had a greater sporulation rate than nonepidemic strains. The mean sporulation rate, expressed as the proportion of a cell population that is in spore form, was 13% for all strains not exposed to any cleaning agent or germicide, and it was significantly increased by exposure to cleaning agents or germicides containing detergent alone (34%), a combination of detergent and hypochlorite (24%), or hydrogen peroxide (33%). By contrast, the mean sporulation rate did not change substantially after exposure to germicides containing either a combination of detergent and dichloroisocyanurate (9%) or dichloroisocyanurate alone (15%).
These results highlight differences in the activity of cleaning agents and germicides against C. difficile spores and the potential for some of these products to promote sporulation.
Brindley et al. (1951) reported the earliest efforts to obtain international collaboration on nomenclature and classification of clay minerals, initiated at the International Soil Congress in Amsterdam in 1950. Since then, national clay groups were formed, and they proposed various changes in nomenclature at group meetings of the International Clay Conferences. Most of the national clay groups have representation on the Nomenclature Committee of the Association Internationale pour l'Etude des Argiles (AIPEA, International Association for the Study of Clays), which was established in 1966. The precursor committee to the AIPEA Nomenclature Committee was the Nomenclature Subcommittee of the Comité International pour l'Etude des Argiles (OPEA, International Committee for the Study of Clays).
In this study with the filarial model Litomosoides sigmodontis, we demonstrate that the worms ingest host red blood cells at a precise moment of their life-cycle, immediately after the fourth moult. The red blood cells (RBC) were identified microscopically in live worms immobilized in PBS at 4 °C, and their density assessed. Two hosts were used: Mongolian gerbils, where microfilaraemia is high, and susceptible BALB/c mice with lower microfilaraemia. Gerbils were studied at 12 time-points, between day 9 post-inoculation (the worms were young 4th stage larvae) and day 330 p.i. (worms were old adults). Only the very young adult filarial worms had red blood cells in their gut. Haematophagy was observed between days 25 and 56 p.i. and peaked between day 28 and day 30 p.i. in female worms. In males, haematophagy was less frequent and intense. Similar kinetics of haematophagy were found in BALB/c mice, but frequency and intensity tended to be lower. Haematophagy seems useful to optimize adult maturation. These observations suggest that haematophagy is an important step in the life-cycle of L. sigmodontis. This hitherto undescribed phenomenon might be characteristic of other filarial species including human parasites.
Three soil profiles classed as brown forest soils on schistose parent material, in close proximity but under different land uses, have been studied. The profile under 50 year-old Sitka spruce trees is the most acidic, the second profile under rough grassland is less acidic, and the third profile in an arable field which has been fertilized is the least acidic. The clay fractions (ς μm) of all three profiles are very similar. However, computer simulations of the X-ray diffraction patterns of clay phases using a modified version of NEWMOD revealed two possible weathering trends: (1) an increasing proportion of vermiculite in interstratified mica-vermiculite in the upper horizons of the arable and forested soils; (2) formation of high-charge corrensite by weathering of chlorite in all three profiles but least pronounced in the arable soil. The differences in clay mineralogy amongst the profiles are minor, but these two different weathering trends may be due to the effects of different land use.
The purpose of this report is to describe the appropriate use of indices relating to crystallinity, such as the ‘crystallinity index’, the ‘Hinckley index’, the ‘Kü bler index’, and the ‘Árkai index’. A ‘crystalline’ solid is defined as a solid consisting of atoms, ions, or molecules packed together in a periodic arrangement. A ‘crystallinity index’ is purported to be a measure of crystallinity, although there is uncertainty about what this means (see below). This report discusses briefly the nature of order, disorder and crystallinity in phyllosilicates and discusses why the use of a ‘crystallinity index’ should be avoided. If possible, it is suggested that indices be referred to using the name of the author who originally described the parameter, as in ‘Hinckley index’ or ‘Kübler index’, or in honour of a researcher who investigated the importance of the parameter extensively, as in ‘Árkai index’.
Several studies have indicated that additional genes in the major histocompatibility complex
(MHC) region, other than the class II genes HLA-DQB1 and -DRB1 (the IDDM1 locus), may
contribute to susceptibility and resistance to type 1 diabetes. The relative magnitude of these non-
DR/DQ effects is uncertain and their map location is unknown owing to the extraordinary linkage
disequilibrium that extends over the 3.5 Mb of the MHC. The homozygous parent test has been
proposed as a method for detection of additional risk factors conditional on HLA-DQB1 and -DRB1.
However, this method is inefficient since it uses only parents homozygous for the primary disease
locus, the DQB1-DRB1 haplotype. To overcome this limitation, Conditional ETDT was used in the
present report to test for association conditional on the DQB1-DRB1 haplotype, thereby allowing all
parents to be included in the analysis. First, we confirm in UK and Sardinian type 1 diabetic families
that allelic variation at HLA-DRB1 has a very significant effect on the association of DQB1 and vice
versa. The Conditional ETDT was then applied to the HLA TNF (tumour necrosis factor) region and
microsatellite marker D6S273 region, both of which have been reported to contribute to IDDM1
independent of the HLA-DQB1-DRB1 genes. We found no evidence for a major role for either of these
two regions in IDDM1.
Well crystallized chlorite has been detected in a Typic Hapludult developed on quartz porphyry at Ulsan, Korea, after treatment of the <0.2 µm fraction with a high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) characteristics of the chlorite suggest that it is an Fe-rich variety and this was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The chlorite could not be detected with certainty in the <0.2 µm fraction but is clearly present throughout the soil profile in the <0.2 µm fraction. It is suggested that this chlorite is residual inherited chlorite, the rest of which has dissolved in the acidic environment (pH 4—5).
Laser zone texturing of nickel-plated, aluminum based magnetic media has become a preferred method of providing a precisely controlled head landing zone. The Nd:YAG lasers used for this process are not suitable for directly texturing glass substrates. A novel method has been developed which allows the use of the existing Nd:YAG laser systems to zone texture glass based magnetic media.
An amorphous sputtered film of a non-magnetic Ni alloy provides a texturing layer which absorbs the laser pulse and controllably forms regular, small protrusions. Optimization of the alloy composition results in small cone-shaped bumps. Laser power sensitivity exhibits a region of invariance for a range of film thickness. This behavior provides a wide margin for manufacture by reducing the effect of thickness variation on laser bump height.
Disks fabricated using this form of laser zone texture exhibit excellent tribology performance. TEM images show the Ni alloy to be amorphous and featureless. The sputtered film does not influence the properties of the subsequently sputter deposited isotropic magnetic films.
Amorphous hard carbon films deposited by filtered cathodic arc deposition exhibit very high hardness and elastic modulus, high mass density, low coefficient of friction, and the films are very smooth. All these properties are beneficial to applications of these films for the head/disk interface tribology. The properties of cathodic arc deposited amorphous carbon films are summarized, and they are compared to sputter deposited, hydrogenated (CHx), and nitrogenated (CNx) carbon films which are the present choice for hard disk and slider coatings. New developments in cathodic arc coaters are discussed which are of interest to the disk drive industry. Experiments on the nanotribology, mass density and hardness, corrosion behavior, and tribochemical behavior of cathodic arc films are reported. A number of applications of cathodic arc deposited films to hard disk and slider coatings are described. It is shown that their tribological performance is considerably better compared to CHx and CNx films.