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With still limited information on vitamin requirements and considering that many commercial practices adopt dietary vitamin levels above the values suggested by nutritional tables, this study aimed to assess the effect of administering vitamin supplementation to sows in gestation and lactation and to their litters on the reproductive performance and body condition of the sows and on the performance and immune profile of the litters until slaughter. The trial was split into two phases. The first phase used 104 sows, assigned to be randomized to blocks according to parity, submitted until 21 days of lactation to two treatments: control–standard (standard levels of vitamins) and test–elevated (elevated levels of vitamins). Each sow and its respective farrow were considered an experimental unit. The sows underwent evaluations of body condition score, back fat thickness and reproductive performance. In the second phase, 60 barrows and 60 gilts at 21 days of age and mean initial weight of 5.33 ± 1.5 kg until slaughter at 164 days of age. The piglets were assigned to randomized blocks according to the weight and sex of the animals in a 2 × 2 factorial model, with 10 replicates per treatment, where a pen with three animals represented the experimental unit. Following the same treatments of the first phase, the piglets were evaluated for daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate and humoral immune response. Vitamin supplementation had no positive effects on the reproductive parameters or body composition of sows. However, it positively impacted the performance of the litters in the early nursery stage, but did not lead to superior effects on the immune responses to vaccination against circovirus or mycoplasma.
Englerophytum and Synsepalum are two closely related genera of trees and shrubs from the African tropics. Previous molecular studies have shown that these genera collectively form a clade within the subfamily Chrysophylloideae (Sapotaceae). However, little is known about the inter-relationships of the taxa within the Englerophytum–Synsepalum clade. In this study, nuclear ribosomal DNA and plastid trnH–psbA sequences were used to estimate the phylogeny within the clade. Results indicate that the clade consists of six major lineages, two composed solely of taxa from the genus Englerophytum and four composed of taxa from the genus Synsepalum. Each lineage can be distinguished by suites of vegetative and floral characters. Leaf venation patterns, calyx fusion, style length and staminodal structure were among the most useful characters for distinguishing clades. Some of the subclades within the Englerophytum–Synsepalum clade were also found to closely fit descriptions of former genera, most of which were described by Aubréville, that have since been placed in synonymy with Englerophytum and Synsepalum. The clade with the type species of Englerophytum also contains the type species of the genera Wildemaniodoxa and Zeyherella, which are confirmed as synonyms.
We report first principles spin-polarized density functional theory calculations to study the electronic structure of pure and Magnesium doped (replacing Al) CuAlO2 and AgAlO2 transparent conducting oxides in the hexagonal 2H structural phase. Hole effective masses are obtained from the band structure. Additionally, the complex dielectric function is obtained. A discussion of the effects of Mg-doping on the optical properties and its effectiveness in reducing hole effective masses and increasing conductivity is also presented.
Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) course finds a substantial proportion of cases remit within 6 months, a majority within 2 years, and a substantial minority persists for many years. Results are inconsistent about pre-trauma predictors.
The WHO World Mental Health surveys assessed lifetime DSM-IV PTSD presence-course after one randomly-selected trauma, allowing retrospective estimates of PTSD duration. Prior traumas, childhood adversities (CAs), and other lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were examined as predictors using discrete-time person-month survival analysis among the 1575 respondents with lifetime PTSD.
20%, 27%, and 50% of cases recovered within 3, 6, and 24 months and 77% within 10 years (the longest duration allowing stable estimates). Time-related recall bias was found largely for recoveries after 24 months. Recovery was weakly related to most trauma types other than very low [odds-ratio (OR) 0.2–0.3] early-recovery (within 24 months) associated with purposefully injuring/torturing/killing and witnessing atrocities and very low later-recovery (25+ months) associated with being kidnapped. The significant ORs for prior traumas, CAs, and mental disorders were generally inconsistent between early- and later-recovery models. Cross-validated versions of final models nonetheless discriminated significantly between the 50% of respondents with highest and lowest predicted probabilities of both early-recovery (66–55% v. 43%) and later-recovery (75–68% v. 39%).
We found PTSD recovery trajectories similar to those in previous studies. The weak associations of pre-trauma factors with recovery, also consistent with previous studies, presumably are due to stronger influences of post-trauma factors.
Graphynes and graphdiynes are carbon 2D allotrope structures presenting both sp2 and sp hybridized atoms. These materials have been theoretically predicted but due to intrinsic difficulties in their synthesis, only recently some of these structures have been experimentally realized. Graphyne nanoscrolls are structures obtained by rolling up graphyne sheets into papyrus-like structures. In this work, we have investigated, through fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics of nanoscroll formation for a series of graphyne (α, β, and δ types) structures. We have also investigated their thermal stability for a temperature range of 200-1000K. Our results show that stable nanoscrolls can be formed for all structures considered here. Their stability depends on a critical value of the ratio between length and height of the graphyne sheets. Our findings also show that these structures are structurally less stable then graphene-based nanoscrolls. This can be explained by the graphyne higher structural porosity which results in a decreased pi-pi stacking interactions.
Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents that is frequently used to obtain heterologous antigens for immunological diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. The aim of this study was to identify antigens from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis for immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Soluble and membrane fractions from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis were obtained in phosphate saline (SS and SM) and in Tris–HCl buffer (TS and TM), and were analysed by Western blotting. Different antigenic components were recognized by IgG antibodies from the sera of strongyloidiasis patients. Highest recognition was observed for a 30–40 kDa mass range present in all antigenic fractions. The band encompassing this mass range was then excised and subjected to mass spectrometry for protein identification. Immunoreactive proteins identified in the soluble fractions corresponded to metabolic enzymes, whereas cytoskeletal proteins and galectins were more abundant in the membrane fractions. These results represent the first approach towards identification of S. venezuelensis antigens for use in immunodiagnostic assays for human strongyloidiasis.
Kau Bay Halmahera, Indonesia is a small marine basin that is separated from the adjacent SW Pacific Ocean by a shallow sill, 40m deep. Radiocarbon dating on piston cores in combination with a study on microfossils demonstrate that Kau Bay was a freshwater lake in Weichselian times. At 10,000 BP, the Bay became reconnected with the open ocean. It sill depth did not change in the intervening years, sea level at 10,000 BP stood 40m below the present level.
Density Functional Theory calculations of electronic and optical properties of NiO, with and without O vacancies, are the focus of this work. Two bands, one fully occupied and the other unoccupied, induced by an O vacancy, are found in the gap. These energy levels are identified and analyzed by means of a local density of states (LDOS) calculation, and notable crystal field splitting can be seen. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function are calculated, and an additional optical transition can be seen at lower energy, which can be attributed to the O vacancy induced state in the band gap.
The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow-band imaging, very wide field cosmological survey. It will last 5 years and will observe 8500 sq. deg. of the sky. There will be 54 contiguous narrow-band filters of 145Å FWHM, from 3,500 to 10,000Å. Two broad-band filters will be added at the extremes, UV and IR, plus the 3–g, r, and i– SDSS filters. Thus, J-PAS can be an important tool to search for new planetary nebulae (PNe) at the halo, increasing their numbers, because only 14 of them have been convincingly identified in the literature. Halo PNe are able to reveal precious information for the study of stellar evolution and the early chemical conditions of the Galaxy. The characteristic low continuum and intense emission lines of PNe make them good objects to be searched by J-PAS. Though covering a significantly smaller sky area, data from the ALHAMBRA survey were used to test our J-PAS strategy to search for PNe. Our first results are shown in this contribution.
The aim of this study is to analyse and determine elemental abundances for a large sample of distant B stars in the outer Galactic disk in order to constrain the chemical distribution of the Galactic disk and models of chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Here, we present preliminary results on a few stars along with the adopted methodology based on securing simultaneous O and Si ionization equilibria with consistent NLTE model atmospheres.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (P<0.05), however, there were no treatment effects on plasma progesterone concentrations. Dietary energy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (P<0.05). There were no treatment effects on pregnancy rate, embryo survival rate and volume of amniotic fluid. A positive correlation between progesterone concentration 18 h after ovulation and ovulation rate was observed (r=0.75; P<0.01). These results suggest that it is possible to manipulate dietary insulin response in cyclic gilts and, thus, improve reproductive efficiency when feeding starch as the main energy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.
To examine barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment among individuals with common mental disorders.
Data were from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Representative household samples were interviewed face to face in 24 countries. Reasons to initiate and continue treatment were examined in a subsample (n = 636 78) and analyzed at different levels of clinical severity.
Among those with a DSM-IV disorder in the past 12 months, low perceived need was the most common reason for not initiating treatment and more common among moderate and mild than severe cases. Women and younger people with disorders were more likely to recognize a need for treatment. A desire to handle the problem on one's own was the most common barrier among respondents with a disorder who perceived a need for treatment (63.8%). Attitudinal barriers were much more important than structural barriers to both initiating and continuing treatment. However, attitudinal barriers dominated for mild-moderate cases and structural barriers for severe cases. Perceived ineffectiveness of treatment was the most commonly reported reason for treatment drop-out (39.3%), followed by negative experiences with treatment providers (26.9% of respondents with severe disorders).
Low perceived need and attitudinal barriers are the major barriers to seeking and staying in treatment among individuals with common mental disorders worldwide. Apart from targeting structural barriers, mainly in countries with poor resources, increasing population mental health literacy is an important endeavor worldwide.
The Parkes pulsar data archive currently provides access to 144044 data files obtained from observations carried out at the Parkes observatory since the year 1991. Around 105 files are from surveys of the sky, the remainder are observations of 775 individual pulsars and their corresponding calibration signals. Survey observations are included from the Parkes 70 cm and the Swinburne Intermediate Latitude surveys. Individual pulsar observations are included from young pulsar timing projects, the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array and from the PULSE@Parkes outreach program. The data files and access methods are compatible with Virtual Observatory protocols. This paper describes the data currently stored in the archive and presents ways in which these data can be searched and downloaded.
Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, little
information is available about the treatment of suicidal people, or about
barriers to treatment.
To examine the receipt of mental health treatment and barriers to care
among suicidal people around the world.
Twenty-one nationally representative samples worldwide
(n=55 302; age 18 years and over) from the World
Health Organization's World Mental Health Surveys were interviewed
regarding past-year suicidal behaviour and past-year healthcare use.
Suicidal respondents who had not used services in the past year were
asked why they had not sought care.
Two-fifths of the suicidal respondents had received treatment (from 17%
in low-income countries to 56% in high-income countries), mostly from a
general medical practitioner (22%), psychiatrist (15%) or
non-psychiatrist (15%). Those who had actually attempted suicide were
more likely to receive care. Low perceived need was the most important
reason for not seeking help (58%), followed by attitudinal barriers such
as the wish to handle the problem alone (40%) and structural barriers
such as financial concerns (15%). Only 7% of respondents endorsed stigma
as a reason for not seeking treatment.
Most people with suicide ideation, plans and attempts receive no
treatment. This is a consistent and pervasive finding, especially in
low-income countries. Improving the receipt of treatment worldwide will
have to take into account culture-specific factors that may influence the
process of help-seeking.
A comprehensive and systematic study has been made on Sm(CobalFevCuyZrx)zmagnets to completely understand the effects of composition and processing on their magnetic properties. The homogenized Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)z magnets have a featureless microstructure. A cellular/lamellar microstructure develops after 2-3 hours of aging at 800-850°C, but the coercivity increases only after a subsequent slow cooling to 400°C. During cooling, diffusion takes place and Cu is concentrated in the 1:5 cell boundaries and Fe in the 2:17R cells. This dilutes the magnetic properties of the 1:5 phase and causes domain wall pinning/nucleation at the cell boundaries. Higher ratio z leads to larger cells as expected due to the larger amount of the 2:17 phase. For a fixed Cu content, this translates to a larger amount of Cu in the 1:5 cell boundaries, and therefore, to a higher coercivity. Magnets without Cu but with Zr have a lamellar and a cellular like microstructure. In Zr free samples, however, a larger amount of Cu is needed to form the cellular microstructure. This cellular microstructure is unstable with prolonged isothermal aging. A uniform and stable cellular/lamellar microstructure is only observed in alloys containing both Cu and Zr. A higher aging temperature Tag leads to larger cells and higher coercivity as explained above. The results of all these studies clearly show that the amount of Cu in the 1:5 cell boundaries controls both the coercivity and its temperature dependence leading to positive and negative temperature coefficients of coercivity in low and high Cu content alloys, respectively.
Magnetic nanocomposites have been successfully prepared by encapsulating nanosized entities of iron, cobalt, and nickel compounds in poly(amido-amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer hosts. Problems related to the instability of the magnetic structures under the influence of an external electromagnetic field have been overcome by using a solid polystyrene matrix to embed the dendrimer hosts containing the magnetic guests. SQUID magnetometry measurements on these nanocomposites showed that after subtraction of the diamagnetic polymer background, at 300 K all samples exhibited paramagnetic behavior, with susceptibilities of 1.14, 1.68, and 0.70 × 10−6 m3/kg for Fe-, Co-, and Ni-containing samples respectively. The temperature dependence for T<300 K showed typical paramagnetic behavior, with the susceptibility increasing for decreasing temperatures. Curie-Weiss (1/M vs. T) graphs displayed a linear behavior at high temperatures, with temperature axis intercepts (θ) occurring at –139 K (Fe), –16 K (Co), and 0 K (Ni). Negative deviations from Curie-Weiss behavior occurred at T<175 K for the Fe and T<25 K for the Co samples. Magnetic moments calculated from the high temperature Curie constant indicated that Fe, Co, and Ni possessed effective moments of 3.5, 4.4, and 2.8μB. The negative intercepts and the fact that these moments are larger than those expected for metallic transition metals are indicative that these species are probably present in an oxidized form. The low-temperature behavior indicates either superparamagnetic or soft ferromagnetic behavior.
This paper presents results of the spatial and frequency detection limits of an integrated array of 32 one-dimensional amorphous silicon thin film position sensitive detectors with a nip structure, under continuous and pulsed laser operation conditions. The data obtained show that 0.45×0.06 cm arrays, occupying a total active area of about 1 cm2 have a spatial resolution better than 10 m m (modulation transfer function of about 0.2), with a cut-off frequency of about 6.8 KHz. Besides that, under pulsed laser conditions the device non-linearity has its minimum (about 1.6%), for a frequency of about 200Hz. Up to the limits of the cut-off frequency, the device nonlinearity increases to values above 4%.