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Defining the rights that must be protected in a democracy is an integral component of the process of democratization. In the case of Argentina, the definition of these rights results partly from important debates between human rights organizations (HROs) and the state. Argentine HROs have framed their demands for state protection of human rights in terms of the need to protect the family. Yet HROs' successes in using international courts as arbiters may be reducing their need to present their demands in this framework.
When children have marked problems with motor coordination, they often have problems with attention and impulse control. Here, we map the neuroanatomic substrate of motor coordination in childhood and ask whether this substrate differs in the presence of concurrent symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Participants were 226 children. All completed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5)-based assessment of ADHD symptoms and standardized tests of motor coordination skills assessing aiming/catching, manual dexterity and balance. Symptoms of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were determined using parental questionnaires. Using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance data, four latent neuroanatomic variables (for the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and thalamus) were extracted and mapped onto each motor coordination skill using partial least squares pathway modeling.
The motor coordination skill of aiming/catching was significantly linked to latent variables for both the cerebral cortex (t = 4.31, p < 0.0001) and the cerebellum (t = 2.31, p = 0.02). This effect was driven by the premotor/motor cortical regions and the superior cerebellar lobules. These links were not moderated by the severity of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. In categorical analyses, the DCD group showed atypical reduction in the volumes of these regions. However, the group with DCD alone did not differ significantly from those with DCD and co-morbid ADHD.
The superior cerebellar lobules and the premotor/motor cortex emerged as pivotal neural substrates of motor coordination in children. The dimensions of these motor coordination regions did not differ significantly between those who had DCD, with or without co-morbid ADHD.
The Carabineros de Chile played an active role in the repression and leadership of the Pinochet regime, yet today, the police force is one of the most respected institutions in Chile. Few post-authoritarian democracies have been able to restore such esteem for their police as quickly. But what does respect mean? This study analyses the narratives of approximately 50 police experts in Chile. It finds that police experts regard the positive image of the Carabineros as having more to do with fear and an effective communications strategy than police reform. It is important to understand how those Chileans most involved in policy discussions on policing interpret the reasons for respect, as their interpretations can shape the types of policing advocated or practised.
Huntington disease (HD) is associated with decline in cognition and progressive morphological changes in brain structures. Cognitive reserve may represent a mechanism by which disease-related decline may be delayed or slowed. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive reserve and longitudinal change in cognitive functioning and brain volumes among prodromal (gene expansion-positive) HD individuals. Participants were genetically confirmed individuals with prodromal HD enrolled in the PREDICT-HD study. Cognitive reserve was computed as the composite of performance on a lexical task estimating premorbid intellectual level, occupational status, and years of education. Linear mixed effects regression (LMER) was used to examine longitudinal changes on four cognitive measures and three brain volumes over approximately 6 years. Higher cognitive reserve was significantly associated with a slower rate of change on one cognitive measure (Trail Making Test, Part B) and slower rate of volume loss in two brain structures (caudate, putamen) for those estimated to be closest to motor disease onset. This relationship was not observed among those estimated to be further from motor disease onset. Our findings demonstrate a relationship between cognitive reserve and both a measure of executive functioning and integrity of certain brain structures in prodromal HD individuals. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–12).
We present a systematic study of the low-temperature photoluminescence from undoped GaAs layers grown directly on Si substrates by MOCVD. GaAs layers from 100Å to 4 μm in thickness were deposited on Si substrates prepared with a variety of doping levels and orientations. The emission from thicker samples is dominated by pairs of lines in the band-edge region. Photoluminescence excitation measurements show that this multiplicity results from two regions in the material with different levels of strain. The stress-induced splitting of the valence band is also studied using excitation spectroscopy. In thinner samples we observe strong emission in the midgap range due to stoichiometric defects. The nature of the defects near the interface depends strongly on the character of the substrate.
The orientation dependence of phase separation has been examined in detail in InGaAsP layers grown by liquid phase epitaxy on (001), (110), (111)In and (123) InP substrates. It is shown that phase separation is two-dimensional in nature and does not occur along the growth direction for the cases examined. Further, phase separation takes place along the soft directions lying in the growth plane. These results very strongly suggest that phase separation evolves at the surface while the layer is growing.
CuPt-type ordering characteristics of InGaAsP layers are presented. In addition, the Influence of growth temperature and growth rate on domain sizes have been investigated in GaInP2 layers. A model has been proposed to rationalize the formation of domains and involves steps present on the surface. Results suggest that ordering like phase separation occurs at the surface while the layers is being deposited. It is inferred that the two microstructural features evolve concomitantly at the surface during layer growth.
We present low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of MBE and MOCVD ZnTe layers deposited on (100) GaAs substrates under different growth conditions. Strong bands associated with Zn vacancies are observed in the MBE materials, while the MOCVD spectra are dominated by sharp impurity-related lines. Stress levels less than 0.1 kbar are determined for both the MBE and MOCVD layers. A study of the effects of the Zn:Te ratio in the MBE growth chamber reveals an optimal value of −2.2 for a growth temperature of 325°C.
The ultrasonic pulse transmission method (100-500 kHz) was adapted to measure compressional (P) and shear (S) wave velocities for synthetic soils fabricated from quartz-clay and quartz-peat mixtures. Velocities were determined as samples were loaded by small (up to 0.1 MPa) uniaxial stress to determine how stress at grain contacts affects wave amplitudes, velocities, and frequency content. Samples were fabricated from quartz sand mixed with either a swelling clay or peat (natural cellulose). P velocities in these dry synthetic soil samples were low, ranging from about 230 to 430 m/s for pure sand, about 91 to 420 m/s for sand-peat mixtures, and about 230 to 470 m/s for dry sand-clay mixtures. S velocities were about half of the P velocity in most cases, about 130 to 250 m/s for pure sand, about 75-220 m/s for sand-peat mixtures, and about 88-220 m/s for dry sand-clay mixtures. These experiments demonstrate that P and S velocities are sensitive to the amount and type of admixed second phase at low concentrations. We found that dramatic increases in all velocities occur with small uniaxial loads, indicating strong nonlinearity of the acoustic properties. Composition and grain packing contribute to the mechanical response at grain contacts and the nonlinear response at low stresses.
The development of a direct polish process for STI CMP on 200mm wafers using highselectivity slurry (HSS) has been achieved for production of 0.13μm technology microelectronic devices. The new process has improved on-wafer performance compared to standard STI CMP processes. The step height range across the wafer was decreased by 84%, planarity Cpk values (silicon nitride thickness and step-height uniformity) were increased by >25%, leakage current statistics were superior, and the cost of ownership was lowered by 78%. Cross-sectional SEMs both after direct polish CMP and after removal of the silicon nitride show improved planarity.
Birth weight is emerging as a potentially important risk factor for several chronic diseases with adult onset, including breast cancer. Because participant recall is frequently used to gather data on early life exposures, it is essential that the accuracy of recall be assessed and validated. Self-reported birth weights and birth certificate weights were compared in women aged 35–51 years from the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study, a population-based case–control study. A total of 180 participants had both birth certificate and interview data on birth weight. Participants reported birth weight to one of six categories (<5, 5–5.5, 5.6–7, 7.1–8.5, 8.6–10 and >10 lbs). The Spearman correlation for self-reported and birth certificate weights was 0.67. Sixty percent of participants reported weights with exact agreement with birth certificate; unweighted and weighted kappas (κ) were 0.39 and 0.68, respectively. Spearman correlations were similar for cases (0.67) and controls (0.68). Controls exhibited a significantly higher unweighted κ (0.51) than cases (0.27; P = 0.03), but weighted κ were not statistically different [controls, 0.73; cases, 0.64 (P = 0.32)]. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were not different between participants who underreported, overreported, or correctly reported their birth weight for either cases or controls. Overall, the level of agreement for report of birth weight and actual birth weight was fair to moderate.
PLATO is a 6 tonne completely self-contained robotic observatory that provides its own heat, electricity, and satellite communications. It was deployed to Dome A in Antarctica in January 2008 by the Chinese expedition team, and is now in its second year of operation. PLATO is operating four 14.5cm optical telescopes with 1k × 1k CCDs, a wide-field sky camera with a 2k × 2k CCD and Sloan g, r, i filters, a fibre-fed spectrograph to measure the UV to near-IR sky spectrum, a 0.2m terahertz telescope, two sonic radars giving 1m resolution data on the boundary layer to a height of 180m, a 15m tower, meteorological sensors, and 8 web cameras. Beginning in 2010/11 PLATO will be upgraded to support a Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor and three AST3 0.5m schmidt telescopes, with 10k × 10 CCDs and 100TB/annum data requirements.
The possibility that primary CRM− isolates at the td locus of Neurospora crassa are multisite lesions has been examined. By comparing the behavior of primary CRM− mutants to known multisite CRM− mutants in the genetic tests of recombination and reversion, it can be concluded that primary CRM− mutants are not multisite. The genetic implications of a CRM− and CRM+ mutant have been discussed.
Dome A, the summit of the Antarctic plateau, is expected to have even
better atmospheric conditions for ground-based astronomy than Dome C.
Instruments to evaluate and exploit Dome A's astronomical potential
must operate within logistical constraints, which are currently
very stringent. Instrumentation now at Dome A exemplifies the
techniques and solutions required by this environment. Future
instrumentation and infrastructure will allow the qualities of the site
to be exploited much more fully.
The Antarctic plateau has superb astronomical seeing above a
turbulent boundary layer. This layer has a thickness of between tens
of metres and a few hundred metres, depending on the site. We are
developing a sonic radar, SNODAR, to measure the turbulence in the
boundary layer from 10 to 50 m, and, in particular, to measure
the height of the boundary layer to an accuracy of 1 m.
Commercial sonic radars typically have a lower limit of about 10 m, and have 10 m range bins. The results from SNODAR should
allow a confident assessment of the height at which one must mount a
telescope in order to realise the superb free atmosphere seeing from
the Antarctic plateau, which has been measured at Dome C to be 0.27
arcsecs on average, and better than 0.15 arcsecs for 25% of the
Quantified magnetic resonance measurements were made of superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampal, frontal and temporal lobe volumes and of the planar area of the thalamus and basal ganglia structures in 47 late paraphrenic patients and 33 healthy elderly controls. The late paraphrenics were divided into 31 schizophrenics and 16 patients with delusional disorder according to ICD-10 guidelines. Patients with delusional disorder tended to have smaller left temporal volumes compared with control subjects and patients with schizophrenia, but this difference failed to reach accepted levels of statistical significance after correction for the effects of multiple statistical comparisons, age and total brain size. Physiological right–left asymmetry, reported for temporal and frontal lobe volumes, was present in control, schizophrenic and delusional disorder subjects but delusional disorder patients had a significantly greater degree of temporal lobe asymmetry. The results add to the evidence for heterogeneity among late-onset psychoses and emphasize the subtle nature of any structural brain abnormalities in these patients.