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We have undertaken a Spitzer campaign to measure the IR structures and spectra of low-redshift 3CRR radio galaxies. The results show that the 3.6 – 160 μm infrared properties vary systematically with integrated source power, and so demonstrate that contemporary core activity is characteristic of the behaviour of sources over their lifetimes. IR synchrotron emission is seen from jets and hotspots in some cases. Thermal emission is found from a jet/gas interaction in NGC7385. Most of the near-IR integrated colours of the low-redshift 3CRR radio galaxies are similar to those of passive galaxies, so that IR colours are poor indicators of radio activity.
Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science. With a surge of studies in affective neuroscience in recent decades, scientists are poised to answer this question. In this target article, we present a meta-analytic summary of the neuroimaging literature on human emotion. We compare the locationist approach (i.e., the hypothesis that discrete emotion categories consistently and specifically correspond to distinct brain regions) with the psychological constructionist approach (i.e., the hypothesis that discrete emotion categories are constructed of more general brain networks not specific to those categories) to better understand the brain basis of emotion. We review both locationist and psychological constructionist hypotheses of brain–emotion correspondence and report meta-analytic findings bearing on these hypotheses. Overall, we found little evidence that discrete emotion categories can be consistently and specifically localized to distinct brain regions. Instead, we found evidence that is consistent with a psychological constructionist approach to the mind: A set of interacting brain regions commonly involved in basic psychological operations of both an emotional and non-emotional nature are active during emotion experience and perception across a range of discrete emotion categories.
In our response, we clarify important theoretical differences between basic emotion and psychological construction approaches. We evaluate the empirical status of the basic emotion approach, addressing whether it requires brain localization, whether localization can be observed with better analytic tools, and whether evidence for basic emotions exists in other types of measures. We then revisit the issue of whether the key hypotheses of psychological construction are supported by our meta-analytic findings. We close by elaborating on commentator suggestions for future research.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), complex sugars that are highly abundant in breast milk, block viral and bacterial attachment to the infant's intestinal epithelium and lower the risk of infections. We hypothesised that HMO also prevent infections with the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, as its major virulence factor is a lectin that facilitates parasite attachment and cytotoxicity and binds galactose (Gal) and N-acetyl-galactosamine. HMO contain Gal, are only minimally digested in the small intestine and reach the colon, the site of E. histolytica infection. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether HMO reduce E. histolytica attachment and cytotoxicity. Our in vitro results show that physiological concentrations of isolated, pooled HMO detach E. histolytica by more than 80 %. In addition, HMO rescue E. histolytica-induced destruction of human intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The cytoprotective effects were structure-specific. Lacto-N-tetraose with its terminal Gal rescued up to 80 % of the HT-29 cells, while HMO with fucose α1–2-linked to the terminal Gal had no effect. Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), which also contain terminal Gal and are currently added to infant formula to mimic some of the beneficial effects of HMO, completely abolished E. histolytica attachment and cytotoxicity at 8 mg/ml. Although our results need to be confirmed in vivo, they may provide one explanation for why breast-fed infants are at lower risk of E. histolytica infections. HMO and GOS are heat tolerant, stable, safe and in the case of GOS, inexpensive, which could make them valuable candidates as alternative preventive and therapeutic anti-amoebic agents.
Orientation patterned (OP)-GaAs crystals are attractive materiasl for mid-infrared and terahertz lasers sources, using non linear optics frequency conversion from shorter wavelength sources. The optical propagation losses are critical to the fabrication of these sources; among the causes of optical losses the generation of defects and the incorporation of impurities must play a relevant role. The control of the incorporation of impurities and defects is, therefore, crucial to improve the performance of the OP-GaAs crystals as non linear optical materials. We present herein a cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis of OP-GaAS crystals intentionally doped with Si, in order to understand the incorporation paths of Si in the OP-GaAs crystals.
Orientation patterned (OP)-GaAs crystals have high potential as non linear optical systems. Mid-infrared and terahertz lasers sources can be fabricated with these crystals by frequency conversion from shorter wavelength sources. The optical propagation losses are critical; therefore, the OP-GaAs crystals must have high quality with low incorporation of defects and high homogeneity to reduce the refractive index fluctuations. Defects with electro-optic signature must be characterized in order to reduce their presence. Cathodoluminescence studies of these crystals permit the distribution of the main defects to be established, both extended and point defects. Special attention is paid to the role of the walls between the two domain orientations, and to the incorporation of impurities in Si-doped samples.
Vickers indentations of ZnO crystals grown by the hydrothermal method were studied by cathodoluminescence. The defects induced by indentation influenced the luminescence spectrum, indicating the generation of non radiative recombination centers and a band close to the first phonon replica of the free exciton, in the surrounding area near the indentation. The possible nature of the defects responsible for such band is discussed. A comparison with polishing induced damage is also presented.
X-ray absorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy are complementary analytical techniques on energy and spatial resolution. These techniques are based on the same fundamental physical process of core excitation with either an incident photon or incident electron. In the proper experimental configuration the electron and photon inelastic scattering amplitudes are comparable and thus the x-ray and electron absorption edges look identical. We have applied these two complementary analytical techniques to investigate the electronic structure of C ion implanted U. Implantation of C+ ions into U238 has been shown to produce a physically and chemically modified surface layer that passivates the surface preventing further air oxidation and corrosion. Comparison of the resultant spectra reveal that transitions between the initial state and a series of final states yield numerous strong features at the absorption edge that can provide structural information and information on the local chemical environment, including the character of the U 5f state.
The evolution of stress during the MOCVD growth of AlN thin films on sapphire substrates under both low and high temperature conditions has been evaluated. The final stress state of the films is assumed to consist of the summation of stresses from three different sources: (1) the stress which arises from residual lattice mismatch between film and substrate i.e. that which persists after partial relaxation by misfit dislocation formation. The extent of relaxation is determined from High Resolution TEM analysis of the substrate/film interface; (2) the stress arising from the coalescence of the 3D islands nucleated in this high mismatch epitaxy process. This requires knowledge of the island sizes just prior to coalescence and this was provided by AFM studies of samples grown under the conditions of interest; and (3) the stress generated during post-growth cooling which arises from the differences in thermal expansion coefficient between AlN and sapphire. The final resultant stress, comprising the summation of stresses arising from these three sources, is found to be tensile in the sample grown at lower temperature and compressive in the sample grown at higher temperature. These results are in general qualitative agreement with results of TEM and High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) studies, which show evidence for tensile and compressive stresses in the low temperature and high temperature cases, respectively.
The standard method to determine the band structure of a condensed phase material is to (1) obtain a single crystal with a well defined surface and (2) map the bands with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (occupied or valence bands) and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (unoccupied or conduction bands). Unfortunately, in the case of Pu, the single crystals of Pu are either nonexistent, very small and/or having poorly defined surfaces. Furthermore, effects such as electron correlation and a large spin-orbit splitting in the 5f states have further complicated the situation. Thus, we have embarked upon the utilization of unorthodox electron spectroscopies, to circumvent the problems caused by the absence of large single crystals of Pu with well-defined surfaces. Our approach includes the techniques of resonant photoelectron spectroscopy , x-ray absorption spectroscopy [1,2,3,4], electron energy loss spectroscopy [2,3,4], Fano Effect measurements , and Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy , including the utilization of micro-focused beams to probe single-crystallite regions of polycrystalline Pu samples. [2,3,6]
Large hydrothermal ZnO crystals were grown using 3N NaOH, 1N KOH and 0.5N Li2CO3 mineralizer. The crystals were studied by cathodoluminescence (CL), showing a good crystalline quality. Different growth regions were identified by CL imaging. These regions were characterized by their corresponding luminescence spectra, showing that the incorporation of impurities and non radiative recombination centers depend on the growth sector. The surface is shown to introduce band tailing modifying the high energy part of the spectrum. The main spectral signatures of each sector are discussed.
Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) processing has recently emerged as a novel surface smoothing technique to improve the finish of chemical-mechanical polished (CMP) GaSb (100) and InSb (111) wafers. This technique is capable of improving the smoothness CMP surfaces and simultaneously producing a thin desorbable oxide layer for molecular beam epitaxial growth. By implementing recipes with specific gas mixtures, cluster energy sequences, and doses, an engineered oxide can be produced. Using GaSb wafers with a high quality CMP finish, we have demonstrated surface smoothing of GaSb by reducing the average roughness from 2.8Å to 1.7Å using a dual energy CF4/O2-GCIB process with a total charge fluence of 4×1015ions/cm2. For the first time, a GCIB grown oxide layer that is comprised of mostly gallium oxides which desorbed at 530°C in our molecular beam epitaxy system is reported, after which GaSb/AlGaSb epilayers have been successfully grown. Using InSb, we successfully demonstrated substrate smoothing by reducing the average roughness from 2.5Å to 1.6Å using a triple energy O2-GCIB process with a charge fluence 9×1015ions/cm2. In order to further demonstrate the ability of GCIB to smooth InSb surfaces, sharp ∼900nm high tips have been formed on a poorly mechanically polished InSb (111)A wafer and subsequently reduced to a height of ∼100nm, an improvement by a factor of eight, using a triple energy SF6/O2-GCIB process with a total charge fluence of 6×1016ions/cm3.
Bromine Ion Beam Assisted Etching (Br-IBAE) is shown to be useful in removing GaSb wafer chemical mechanical polish (CMP) surface and subsurface damage; creating microstructure patterns in GaSb surfaces through stencil, photoresist, and oxides masks; and stabilizing the as-etched GaSb surface with a thin, easily thermally desorbed oxide layer. Thus, the Br-IBAE technique is well suited as a GaSb surface final-polish technique in overgrowth applications that require “epi-ready” GaSb (100) surfaces for molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) as well as applications such as quantum wires and dots that require high-quality GaSb/AlInGaSb MBE overgrowth over patterned GaSb (100) surfaces.
Halide vapor transport epitaxy (HVTE) is demonstrated for growth of AlN layers with thickness up to 50 μm at deposition rates up to 60 μm/h. The HVTE process uses an aluminum chloride amine adduct as the aluminum source of both aluminum and nitrogen. This new technique eliminates the main difficulties of the conventional hydride VPE growth, where aluminum oxidation and the strong reactivity of aluminum chloride with fused silica create the potential for oxygen contamination. This study shows the effect of temperature, gas flow velocities, and reactor pressure on the growth rate and layer quality. It is found that the growth rate and the layer quality strongly depend on the gas ratio. The species of carrier gas, the flow rates and partial pressures can be used as tools to optimize growth rate and to avoid any etching effects resulting from reverse chemical reactions. The crystalline layer quality as determined by x-ray rocking curve measurement shows FWHM of 300–900 and 500–1300 arc-sec for (002) and (102) planes, respectively.
Interest in wide band gap III-V nitride semiconductor devices is increasing for optoelectronic and microelectronic device applications. to ensure the highest quality, TEM analysis can characterize the substrate and buffer layer interface. Measurements taken by TEM reveal the density of dislocations/cm2 and the orientation of Burger's vectors. This information allows for changes to be made in deposition rates, temperatures, gas flow rates, and other parameters during the processing.
The GaN/sapphire samples grown at AFRL were produced in two consecutive steps, first to provide a thin buffer layer, and the other to grow a lum thick epitaxial film. Both growth steps were prepared using metallic organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in a vertical reactor. Buffer layers were prepared using a range of temperatures from 525 to 535°C and with a range of flow rates and pressures in order to optimize the nucleation conditions for the epitaxial films.
High peak electron mobilities were observed in free-standing c-plane GaN substrates. Two layers, a low mobility degenerate layer and a high mobility bulk layer, were present in these samples. The carrier concentrations and mobilities for the layers were extracted using two methods: 1) magnetic field dependent Hall effect analysis and 2) a simple two carrier model with the assumption that one of the layers is degenerate. In addition, measurements were performed after etching away the degenerate layer. The mobility of the bulk layer is found to peak at nearly 8000 cm2/Vs at 60K using the magnetic field dependent Hall effect data. Record room temperature mobility for bulk GaN of 1190 cm2/V s was measured.
Zinc Oxide crystals have historically been grown in hydrothermal autoclaves with a basic mineralizer; however, doubts have been raised about the quality of such crystals because they have often exhibited large x-ray rocking curve widths and low photoluminescence (PL) yield with large linewidths. Several ZnO crystals were grown hydrothermally and sliced parallel to the c-plane. This resulted in opposite surfaces (the C+ and C−) exhibiting pronounced chemical and mechanical differences. Different surface treatments were investigated and compared by PL both at room temperature and liquid helium temperatures, and by double axis X-ray rocking curve measurements. The high quality of hydrothermally-grown ZnO is substantiated by the narrow rocking curve widths and sharp PL peaks obtained. A critical factor in obtaining these results was found to be surface preparation.
A new process for synthesis and bulk crystal growth of GaN is described. GaN single crystal c-plane platelets up to 9mm by 2mm by 100μm thick have been grown by the Chemical Vapor Reaction Process (CVRP). The reaction between gallium and a nitrogen precursor is produced by sublimation of solid ammonium chloride in a carrier gas, which passes over gallium at a temperature of approximately 900°C at near atmospheric pressures. Growth rates for the platelets were 25-100 μm/hr in the hexagonal plane. Seeded growth in the c-direction was also accomplished by re-growth on previously grown c-plane platelets. The crystals were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, inert gas fusion, and room temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements.
Brudnyi, et al., and Zwieback, et al., have shown that introducing damage by irradiation with MeV electrons can alter the electrical and optical properties of undoped p-type CdGeAs2(CGA) crystals. Brudnyi's studies of the electrical transport properties of isochronally annealed samples demonstrated type conversion and identified at least two new centers, one a stable donor. Zwieback used multi-MeV electrons to introduce compensating donors, thereby, significantly improving the optical transparency of CGA crystals. However, at the present little is known about these centers. Therefore, we have studied these centers by observing the properties of electron-irradiated specimens using Thermal Admittance Spectroscopy (TAS) and correlated the results of these measurements with capacitance-voltage measurements and Hall effect measurements. Measurements before an after irradiation are compared. The as-grown native acceptor concentrations in our samples varied from a low in the mid 1016 cm−3to nearly 1019 cm−3. Significant changes in the electrically active states in the band gap were seen as a result of a single irradiation with 2 MeV electrons to a total dose of 5 × 105cm−2. The samples appear to respond more strongly than Brudnyi's samples. The thermal activation energies have been determined using TAS and they will be reported.