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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are frequently prescribed for hypertension and associated cardiovascular and renal complications. In animal models, these drugs also reduce anxiety and depression. OBJECTIVE—to determine if Veteran Affairs (VA) clinical pharmacy data indicate a protective effect of ARBs and/or ACEIs for major depression. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Pharmacy records from nationwide VA electronic medical records (EMR) were extracted for patients prescribed ARBs, ACEIs, α-blockers, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or diuretics (n=4,081,359). Patients were excluded if: they had not received medications for 6 months with >70% coverage; were diagnosed with substance/alcohol abuse, dementia, psychosis, schizophrenia, or prescribed insulin. The study population was categorized as “ARB/ACEI” (A/A) or “Never ARB/ACEI” (NA/A). Using the Greedy Matching Algorithm, subjects were matched on a 1:1 ratio for sex and race over a 5 year age range resulting in 2 equal groups of n=1,350,236 each. Subjects were older (M=71.6, SD=12) and mostly men (97%). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In the A/A Versus NA/A, respectively, the incidence of anti-depressant use was greater during (9.9% vs. 8.9%) but was lower after (11.8% vs. 12.2%) the study period. PHQ-2 scores (Mean±SD) were statistically lower, albeit similar, during (0.79±1.56 vs. 0.85±1.63) and after (1.00±1.73 vs. 1.07±1.79) the study period. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These preliminary data suggest that inhibiting angiotensin II action does not provide a protective effect on major depression when compared with other classes of antihypertensive drugs. This study illustrates how “Big Data” may inform the design, or obviate the need, for large-scale randomized-controlled trials.
One in 5 PN are ejected from common envelope binary interactions but Kepler results are already showing this proportion to be larger. Their properties, such as abundances can be starkly different from those of the general population, so they should be considered separately when using PN as chemical or population probes. Unfortunately post-common envelope PN cannot be discerned using only their morphologies, but this will change once we couple our new common envelope simulations with PN formation models.
Experiments reporting magnetic-field generation by the ablative nonlinear Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instability are reviewed. The experiments show how large-scale magnetic fields can, under certain circumstances, emerge and persist in strongly driven laboratory and astrophysical flows at drive pressures exceeding one million times atmospheric pressure.
Currents were measured along two routes through Yell Sound to Sullom Voe in the Shetland Islands. Current meter moorings were deployed by the consulting engineers Peter Fraenkell and Partners for one month at 20 positions with three meters which measured the flow from near surface to a depth of 20 metres. The accuracy of these measurements is considered and the difficulty of making measurements in this region is illustrated.
The paper discusses the nature and variability of the currents that were measured and resolves the currents into a tidal and non-tidal component. An analysis procedure is developed for removing the tidal component and for producing tidal current vectors for each position. From this the general tidal circulation pattern is constructed and discussed. It is shown that tidal currents along the eastern route are too high at certain states of the tide for safe navigation.
Current surges of significant magnitude are shown to exist throughout the area. These are driven by the tidal motion and it is suggested that they are an effect of travelling gyres which are generated in the lee of islands and shallow banks when the tidal streams are largest.
We are presently using the Chandra X-ray Observatory to conduct the first systematic X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS) is a 570 ks Chandra Cycle 12 Large Program targeting 21 high-excitation PNe within ~1.5 kpc of Earth. When complete, this survey will provide a suite of new X-ray diagnostics that will inform the study of late stellar evolution, binary star astrophysics, and wind interactions. Among the early results of ChanPlaNS (when combined with archival Chandra data) is a surprisingly high detection rate of relatively hard X-ray emission from CSPNe. Specifically, X-ray point sources are clearly detected in roughly half of the ~30 high-excitation PNe observed thus far by Chandra, and all but one of these X-ray-emitting CSPNe display evidence for a hard (few MK) component in their Chandra spectra. Only the central star of the Dumbbell appears to display “pure” hot blackbody emission from a ~200 kK hot white dwarf photosphere in the X-ray band. Potential explanations for the“excess” hard X-ray emission detected from the other CSPNe include late-type companions (heretofore undetected, in most cases) whose coronae have been rejuvenated by recent interactions with the mass-losing WD progenitor, non-LTE effects in hot white dwarf photospheres, self-shocking variable winds from the central star, and slow (re-)accretion of previously ejected red giant envelope mass.
Analysis of eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century earthenware sherds found on the site of the Heyward-Washington House in Charleston, South Carolina has provided important clues concerning the manufacture, trade and use of a poorly understood tradition of African American pottery. These hand built, low-fired earthenwares, which archaeologists call colono wares, are abundant on archaeological sites, but they are virtually unknown in the historical record. Analyses included neutron activation analysis, xeroradiography, and petrographic analysis in addition to visual inspection. These data suggested that colono wares were transported to Charleston from rural plantations, where their manufacture was part of a widespread, informal cottage industry. The manufacture and use of this pottery appears to reflect the development of African American culture as a creole culture which drew upon a wide variety of traditions, reinventing and recombining these elements in ways designed to cope with the rigors of slavery.
A recent study of Early Formative Mesoamerican pottery by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) yielded surprising results that prompted two critiques in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The INAA study indicated that the Olmec center of San Lorenzo was a major exporter of carved-incised and white pottery and that little if any pottery made elsewhere was consumed at San Lorenzo. The critiques purport to "overturn" the INAA study and demonstrate a more balanced exchange of pottery among Early Formative centers. However, the critiques rely on a series of mistaken claims and misunderstandings that are addressed here. New petrographic data on a small sample of Early Formative pottery (Stoltman et al. 2005) are potentially useful, but they do not overturn INAA of nearly 1000 pottery samples and hundreds of raw material samples.
We are glad that Sharer et al. (this issue) have dropped their original claim that the INAA data demonstrate multidirectional movement of Early Formative pottery. Beyond this, however, they offer nothing that might enhance understanding of Early Formative ceramic circulation or inspire new insights into Early Formative cultural evolution in Mesoamerica. Instead, their response contains fresh distortions, replications of mistakes made in their PNAS articles, and lengthy passages that are irrelevant to the issues raised by Neff et al. (this issue). We correct and recorrect their latest distortions and misunderstandings here. Besides showing why their discussion of ceramic sourcing repeatedly misses the mark, we also correct a number of erroneous assertions about the archaeology of Olmec San Lorenzo. New evidence deepens understanding of Early Formative Mesoamerica but requires that some researchers discard cherished beliefs.
We criticize the acid-extraction approach to chemical characterization of ceramics previously advocated in this journal by Burton and Simon (1993). The instrumental technique used by Burton and Simon (inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy [ICP]) is a highly precise chemical characterization technique, but noise introduced by characterizing acid extracts from sherds nullifies the usefulness of the resulting elemental concentration data for archaeological sourcing.
The characteristics of two samples of people with learning disabilities and severely challenging behaviour were examined. The experimental sample comprised subjects who had been referred to two specialist challenging behaviour services in separate counties. The comparison sample comprised subjects from the same counties who were not referred or accepted for specialist intervention. No significant differences were found between the samples in terms of age, gender, social impairment, dependency characteristics, ability levels and mental health. Significant differences between them were found in the nature and severity of aberrant behaviour presented, as assessed by their carers. The implications of these findings are discussed with regard to how the term ‘severely challenging behaviour’ is defined in practice.
Compositional and stylistic analyses of decorated ceramics have provided information about the regional organization of economic systems in the Aztec empire’s core zone, the Basin of Mexico. Late Aztec Black-on-orange ceramics (A. D. 1350–1520) are found at nearly all archaeological sites in the Basin of Mexico, but prior to this study their sources were not verified. This study has investigated whether Black-on-orange ceramics were produced in one or many areas in order to define in greater detail dependent communities’ economic relations with the Aztec empire’s capital. To identify production areas, paste compositions of 85 Late Aztec Black-on-orange ceramic samples were compared using neutron-activation analysis. The analysis distinguished three different production areas in the eastern and southern parts of the Basin of Mexico, indicating that Late Aztec Black-on-orange ceramics represent a style adopted by regional manufacturing centers, and are not products of a single center. Because a number of decorative motifs are exclusive to particular paste groups, the sources of some Black-on-orange vessels can now be identified visually.
Holocyclic populations of aphids of the Chaetosiphon (Pentatrichopus) fragaefolii (Cockerell) group from Fragaria in British Columbia were found to have a homozygous 2n = 12 female karyotype, whereas samples from predominantly anholocyclic populations in Oregon, California, England and New Zealand have 13, 14, 15 or 17 chromosomes showing various degrees of structural heterozygosity. The 17-chromosome form is a morphologically recognizable taxon, C. jacobi Hille Ris Lambers. The other karyotypes apparently represent a series of parthenogenetic lineages derived from the 2n = 12 holocyclic form and carrying one, two or three autosome dissociations. The North American populations showed no correlation between karyotype and the number of submarginal setae, a character previously used in attempts to differentiate taxa within this species complex in western North America. Submarginal setal number varied greatly within and between clones and tended to increase in successive generations from the fundatrix, confirming that this character varies both genetically and seasonally and has little taxonomic value. Populations of the fragaefolii group from Rosa spp. in North America have a shorter rostrum than those from Fragaria. The name C. thomasi Hille Ris Lambers is assigned to this rose-feeding species, which is holocyclic on R. rugosa in British Columbia and colonizes Potentilla spp. (but apparently not P. anserina) as alternative hosts. Old World populations on Fragaria, presumably originating from North America, have longer siphunculi than North American populations of fragaefolii and few or no submarginal setae; these differences are probably due to founder effects. Both Old and New World populations of fragaefolii use P. anserina as an alternative host-plant.
This report is concerned with the excavation of an Early Minoan tholos tomb just south of Ayia Kyriaki in the Ayiofarango, one of the river systems which gives out on to the Libyan Sea, just west of Kaloi Limenes (fig. i). Details of the site location (plate ia) can be found in the report on the Ayiofarango survey, which, together with this report and one other already published, make up the complete report of work undertaken by the authors in the vicinity of Kaloi Limenes in the summers of 1971 and 1972. The excavation of the tholos, which was undertaken because there were surface indications that looting was incomplete but possibly to be resumed, took place in September 1972 in collaboration with Dr. C. Davaras of the Greek Archaeological Service. The excavation lasted for a period of three weeks, and was undertaken by a staff of three supervisors and ten workmen, directed by the authors.
This report describes twelve archaeological sites discovered and briefly surveyed in September 1971 by a team from the University of Bristol, led by the writers. The work was completed in three days, following a more extended and intensive survey of the Ayiofarango catchment area. Our attention was concentrated on the two harbour sites just east of the mouth of the Ayiofarango valley, at Kaloi Limenes and Lasaia, and on the evidence that they had attracted human occupation throughout antiquity (Plate 5a). Nevertheless, the whole of the coastal strip from the mouth of the Ayiofarango valley to the ruined church at Chrisostomos was examined (Fig. 1), and the areas between the gorge and the sites just west of Kaloi Limenes (SC1–5) and between Kaloi Limenes and the tholoi and Roman farmstead overlooking Lasaia (SC8–9) do seem to be empty of evidence for occupation at any period before the present.
Six hybrids, either pure dent or flint x dent crosses, together with two open-pollinated flint varieties of early maturity, were grown at Oxford, England, and the yield of grain determined over a range of 15 densities (5.30.8 plants/m2). The relationship of yield to density was studied by fitting mathematical functions to the observed yields. Only two functions, (1) the inverse quadratic on yield per unit area, and (2) the linear regression between density and the logarithm of grain yield per plant, were satisfactory fits. The linear regression was preferred because of its ease of calculation and interpretation. Between genotypes the largest differences in grain yield per unit area were found at densities either above or below those which are employed in normal practice.
The ranking of the genotypes for grain production depended upon the density. Whereas at the lowest density a very short, early-maturing flint genotype, GaspéFlint, yielded least, and a tall, full season dent hybrid, 0X324, yielded most, this position was reversed at the higher densities. Maximal levels of yields of the open-pollinated flint varieties were low, and it is apparent that the incorporation of this source of germplasm in hybrids is limited if commercially acceptable yields are to be attained. Maximal yields of 600 g/m2 were produced by three hybrids, but the optimal densities were markedly divergent. They ranged from 6.2 plants/m2 for 0X324 to 9.7 and 10.8 plants/m2 for INRA 270 and INRA 200. Possible reasons for such differences are discussed in terms of the interactions of density and genotype on the components of yield.
The interacting effects of genotype and density on the yield of dry matter by mature shoots were examined at Oxford, England. There were six hybrids, either pure dent or flint × dent crosses, together with two open-pollinated flint varieties of very early maturity. Over a range of 15 densities (5·0–30·8 plants/m2) for all the genotypes the relationship between the yield of the shoot and density can be adequately described by the reciprocal equation 1/w = A + Bp, where w = weight per plant, p = number of plants per unit area and A and B are constants for any particular set of conditions. Values of both 1/B (asymptotic yields) and 1/A (weight per plant at very low densities) were dependent upon the genotype. In a regression analysis between 1/w and p, the variance of 1/w was over 40 times as great at high as at low densities and a weighted analysis was necessary. Some hybrids approached maximal yields at 5 plants/m2, whereas others required a density of 10–15 plants/m2. The possible reasons for these interactions are discussed and improvements in experimental design suggested.