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U–Th–Pbtotal age determinations in monazite in a noritic anorthosite at the margin of the Koraput anorthosite pluton constrain the time of emplacement and sub-solidus chemical modifications in the Grenvillian-age anorthosite pluton in the Eastern Ghats Province (EGP), India. The monazites hosted within dynamically recrystallized orthopyroxene and plagioclase grains are large (50–500 μm in diameter) and complexly zoned. Based on the textural–chemical heterogeneities, these monazites are classified into three groups. Group-I monazites exhibit a low-ThO2 core mantled by a high-ThO2 rim. By contrast, the group-II monazites exhibit high-ThO2 cores laced by ThO2-poor mantles, and outermost rims with still lower ThO2 contents. Skeletal group-III monazites at polygonized grain/phase boundaries exhibit patchy and concentric zones with decreasing ThO2 towards the margin. The U–Th–Pbtotal chemical ages obtained using electron probe microanalyses exhibit four age clusters. The oldest age population (mean 939 ± 4.5 Ma) obtained in cores in group-I, II and III monazites with patchy zones corresponds with the emplacement of the Koraput anorthosite, and this age population is consistent with 980–930 Ma emplacement ages reported in other EGP anorthosite massifs. Younger monazites mantling the cores in group-II monazites and in group-III monazites with mean ages of 877 ± 5 Ma and 749 ± 18 Ma possibly reflect episodic monazite growth by fluid-aided dissolution–precipitation culminating with the disintegration of Rodinia at ~750 Ma. The youngest age population (mean 574 ± 19 Ma) in the outermost monazite rims and monazite veins represents renewed monazite growth during the Pan African assembly of the Grenvillian-age EGP domain with the proto-Indian cratons.
Crab Pulsar (PSR B0531+21) is known to emit pulsed emission in all bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. It also emits giant radio pulses (GRPs) frequently, which are roughly a hundred to million times brighter than the normal pulses. We aim to study whether there is a significant X-ray enhancement correlated with the occurrence of GRPs, using simultaneous observations with the ASTROSAT, the Giant Meterwave Radio telescope (1300 MHz) and the Ooty Radio telescope (325 MHz). This required determination of fixed pipeline offsets between different instruments. We find the offset between ASTROSAT and GMRT to be −30.181 ± 0.095 ms and that between ASTROSAT and ORT to be −18.4 ± 0.2 ms. Our preliminary results with 1300 MHz data also show a break in pulse intensity distribution at ~ 33 Jy in the main pulse and ~ 28 Jy in the inter-pulse.
The Gor Garung group of glaciers constitute an ice cover of over 4 km2 in a basin of 27 km2 area, lying in the Sutlej River catchment of the north–western Himalaya. This paper, the first record of these glaciers, their moraines and lakes observed in this area, is the result of mapping the glaciers and the pro–glacial field.
An attempt has been made to utilize lichenometry for establishing relative antiquity of various terminal moraine ridges generated by these glaciers, and six groups have been determined.
Direct solar flare neutrons are a valuable diagnostic of high-energy ion acceleration in these events, and COMPTEL improves over all previous cosmic neutron detectors in its capacity for neutron energy measurement. Previous studies of COMPTEL neutron data have worked with an incomplete model of the instrumental response, applying energy-by-energy detection efficiencies. Here we employ statistical regularisation techniques with the full (Monte Carlo simulation derived) response matrix to produce improved estimates of neutron numbers and energy distribution. These techniques are applied to data from the well-observed 15 June 1991 flare. Our improved treatment of the instrumental response results in a reduction of 73% in total neutron numbers, compared with previously deduced values. Implications for the picture of primary ion acceleration in this flare are briefly discussed.
We perform radio pulsar population synthesis to study the evolution of the pulsar population. In doing this, we continue our earlier work on this subject (Bhattacharya et al. 1992). We have extended our work by 1) calculating orbits in the whole galaxy (the simulation of the observations however is still limited to the solar neighborhood), 2) using the high birth velocities of radio pulsars from Lyne & Lorimer (1994) and 3) implementing the new model by Taylor & Cordes (1993) of the distribution of free electrons in the galaxy. A full report of this work will be given in Hartman et al. (1996).
The evolution of the multipolar structure of the magnetic field of isolated neutron stars is studied assuming the currents to be confined to the crust. Lower orders (≤ 25) of multipole are seen to evolve in a manner similar to the dipole suggesting little or no evolution of the expected pulse shape. We also study the multifrequency polarization position angle traverse of PSR B0329+54 and find a significant frequency dependence above 2.7 GHz. We interpret this as an evidence of strong multipolar magnetic field present in the radio emission region.
Due to the high surface area and good bio-compatibility of nano structured ZnO, it finds good utility in biosensor applications. In this work we have fabricated highly dense ZnO nano bundles with the assistance of self assembled poly methylsilisesquoxane (PMSSQ) matrix which has been realized in a carpet like configuration with implanted ZnO nano-seeds. Such high aspect ratio structures (∼50) with carpet like layout have been realized for the first time using solution chemistry. Nanoparticles of PMMSQ are mixed with a nano-assembler Poly-propylene glycol (PPG) and Zinc Oxide nanoseeds (5-15 nm). The PPG acts by assembling the PMSSQ nanoparticles and evaporates from this film thus creating the highly porous nano-assembly of PMMSQ nanoparticles with implanted Zinc Oxide seeds. Nano-wire bundles with a high overall surface roughness are grown over this template by a daylong incubation of an aqueous solution of hexamethylene tetra amine and Zinc nitrate. Characterization of the fabricated structures has been extensively performed using FESEM, EDAX, and XRD. We envision these films to have potential of highly dense immobilization platforms for antibodies in immunosensors. The principle advantage in our case is a high aspect ratio of the nano-bundles and a high level of roughness in overall surface topology of the carpet outgrowing the zinc-oxide nanowire bundles. Antibody immobilization has been performed by modifying the surface with protein-G followed by Goat anti salmonella antibody. Antibody activity has been characterized by using 3D profiler, Bio-Rad Protein assay and UV-Visible spectrophotometer.
This study is a part of the surveillance study on childhood diarrhoea in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; here we report the drug resistance pattern of recent isolates of Shigella spp. (2006–2011) obtained as part of that study and compare it with that of Shigella isolates obtained earlier during 2000–2005. During 2006–2011, stool samples from paediatric diarrhoea patients were collected and processed for isolation and identification of Shigella spp. Susceptibility to 22 antimicrobial drugs was tested and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for third-generation cephalosporins, quinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combinations and gentamicin. A wide spectrum of antibiotic resistance was observed in the Shigella strains obtained during 2006–2011. The proportions of resistant strains showed an increase from 2000–2005 to 2006–2011 in 20/22 antibiotics tested. The number of drug resistance patterns increased from 13 in 2000–2005 to 43 in 2006–2011. Resistance to newer generation fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins and augmentin, which was not observed during 2000–2005, appeared during 2006–2011. The frequency of resistance in Shigella isolates has increased substantially between 2000–2006 and 2006–2011, with a wide spectrum of resistance. At present, the option for antimicrobial therapy in shigellosis in Andaman is limited to a small number of drugs.
Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 (BST) thin films and Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3/ZrO2 heterostructured thin films have been successfully fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a sol-gel process. The dielectric properties of these films were measured as a function of temperature in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 1 MHz. It is clearly observed that the dielectric peaks exist and shift to high temperature with the increase of frequency indicating the presence of relaxor-type behavior in the films. Also it is seen that one dielectric peak is observed in single layer BST thin films whereas two dielectric peaks are observed in BST/ZrO2 heterostructured thin films due to the presence of two dielectric layers having different band gap energies. The variation of peak temperature Tm, corresponding to dielectric loss maximum, with frequency and fitting to Arrhenius law gives activation energy of 1.24 eV which is very close to the activation energy of oxygen vacancies in BaTiO3. Hence, oxygen vacancies are the active defects which are contributing to the relaxation process in these films.
Electrical transport and microstructure of interfaces between nm-thick films of various perovskite oxides grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on TiO2- terminated SrTiO3 (STO) substrates are compared. LaAlO3/STO and KTaO3/STO interfaces become quasi-2DEG after a critical film thickness of 4 unit cell layers. The conductivity survives long anneals in oxygen atmosphere. LaMnO3/STO interfaces remain insulating for all film thicknesses and NdGaO3/STO interfaces are conducting but the conductivity is eliminated after oxygen annealing. Medium-energy ion spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy detect cationic intermixing within several atomic layers from the interface in all studied interfaces. Our results indicate that the electrical reconstruction in the polar oxide interfaces is a complex combination of different mechanisms, and oxygen vacancies play an important role.
Prior to 2009 dengue fever had not been reported in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. In 2009, a few patients with dengue fever-like illness were reported, some of whom tested positive for dengue antibodies. In 2010, 516 suspected cases were reported, including some with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS); 80 (15·5%) were positive for dengue antibodies. DENV RNA was detected in five patients and PCR-based typing showed that three of these belonged to serotype 1 and two to serotype 2. This was confirmed by sequence typing. Two clones of dengue virus, one belonging to serotype 1 and the other to serotype 2 appeared to be circulating in Andaman. Emergence of severe diseases such as DHF and DSS might be due to recent introduction of a more virulent strain or because of the enhancing effect of sub-neutralizing levels of antibodies developed due to prior infections. There is a need to revise the vector-borne disease surveillance system in the islands.
We consider the following question: given a set of matrices with no rank-one connections, does it support a nontrivial Young measure limit of gradients? Our main results are these: (a) a Young measure can be supported on four incompatible matrices; (b) in two space dimensions, a Young measure cannot be supported on finitely many incompatible elastic wells; (c) in three or more space dimensions, a Young measure can be supported on three incompatible elastic wells; and (d) if supports a nontrivial Young measure with mean value 0, then the linear span of must contain a matrix of rank one.
Independent outbreaks of dengue virus (DENV) infection and sporadic cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have been recorded in the metropolitan city of Delhi on several occasions in the past. However, during a recent 2010 arboviral outbreak in Delhi many cases turned negative for DENV. This prompted us to use duplex reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (D-RT–PCR) to establish the aetiology of dengue/chikungunya through sequencing of CprM and E1 genes of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Interestingly, for the first time, both DENV and CHIKV co-circulated simultaneously and in equally dominant proportion during the post-monsoon period of 2010. DENV-1 genotype III and the East Central South African genotype of CHIKV were associated with post-monsoon spread of these viruses.
The effect of anthanum substitution (0-20%) on phase formation, structural evolution and electrical properties of SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that phase pure SBT bulk samples can be synthesized with lanthanum doping without any phase segregation. Raman spectroscopy was used to understand the lattice vibrational characteristics of La substituted SBT compound. The ferroelectric soft mode at 27 cm−1 was shifted towards the lower frequencies at room temperature with increase in La concentrations. The octahedral stretching mode (O-Ta-O) did not influenced by La substitution in SBT. The x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements showed the decrease of binding energy of Bi 4f core levels (5/2 and 7/2) upon La substitution in SBT. The dielectric constant was increased from 120 to 190 up to 10% La doping and decreased with further increase in La concentration.
In this paper, we report on the growth and fabrication of thin film Si photovoltaic devices on photonic structures which were fabricated on steel and PEN and Kapton substrates. Both amorphous Si and thin film nanocrystalline Si devices were fabricated. The 2 dimensional photonic reflector structures were designed using a scattering matrix theory and consisted of appropriately designed holes/pillars which were imprinted into a polymer layer coated onto PEN, Kapton and stainless steel substrates. The photonic structures were coated with a thin layer of Ag and ZnO. Both single junction and tandem junction (amorphous/amorphous and amorphous/nanocrystalline) cells were fabricated on the photonic layers. It was observed that the greatest increase in short circuit current and efficiency in these cells due to the use of photonic reflectors was in nanocrystalline Si cells, where an increase in current approaching 30% (compared to devices fabricated on flat substrates) was obtained for thin (∼ 1 micrometer thick i layers) films of nano Si deposited on steel structures. The photonic structures (which were nanoimprinted into a polymer) were shown to stand up to temperatures as large as 300 C, thereby making such structures practical when a steel (or glass) of kapton substrate is used. Detailed measurements and discussion of quantum efficiency and device performance for various photonic back reflector structures on steel, kapton and PEN substrates will be presented in the paper.
We have developed an electrodeposition bath based on a buffer solution so that the stability of the electrodeposition process is enhanced and no metal oxides or hydroxides precipitate out of solution. The buffer-solution-based bath also deposits more gallium in the precursor films. Asdeposited precursors are stoichiometric or slightly Cu-rich CuIn1−XGaXSe2 (CIGS). Only a minimal amount of indium was added to the electrodeposited precursor films by physical vapor deposition to obtain a 9.4%-efficient device.
Graded-band-gap CuIn1−xGaxSe2 (CIGS) absorbers with Ga/Ga+In value in the 20%-30% range have a demonstrated efficiency of 18.8%. For CdS-containing devices, the shortcircuit current density (Jsc) has almost reached its expected maximum. However, the open-circuit voltage of CIGS solar cells is limited by the surface microstructure and chemistry. In this work, we examine the microstructural properties and chemistry of CIGS. We also attempted to correlate the above observations and device performance.