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Despite consistent public health efforts, the burden of viral disease in India remains high. The present study was undertaken to understand the aetiology, frequency and distribution of viral disease outbreaks in the state of Odisha between 2010 and 2019. This was a prospective study conducted at the Virology Research and Diagnostic Laboratory located at ICMR-Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, wherein all the outbreaks of viral aetiologies were investigated and analysed to provide a comprehensive picture of the state of viral disease outbreaks in the region. A total of 191 suspected viral outbreaks were investigated by the team from VRDL during September 2010 and September 2019 reported from all the 30 districts of Odisha. Annual number of suspected cases ranged from 185 to 1002. The most commonly suspected outbreaks were of viral hepatitis (55 outbreaks; 1223 cases) followed by dengue (45 outbreaks; 1185 cases), chickenpox (30 outbreaks; 421 cases), viral encephalitis (27 outbreaks; 930 cases), measles (23 outbreaks; 464 cases), chikungunya (10 outbreaks; 593 cases) and rubella (1 outbreak; 60). The outbreaks peaked in frequency and intensity during the months of July and September. The epidemiology of viral disease outbreaks in the region is presented in the study. Health system preparedness based on evidence is essential for early detection and adequate response to such viral outbreaks.
U–Th–Pbtotal age determinations in monazite in a noritic anorthosite at the margin of the Koraput anorthosite pluton constrain the time of emplacement and sub-solidus chemical modifications in the Grenvillian-age anorthosite pluton in the Eastern Ghats Province (EGP), India. The monazites hosted within dynamically recrystallized orthopyroxene and plagioclase grains are large (50–500 μm in diameter) and complexly zoned. Based on the textural–chemical heterogeneities, these monazites are classified into three groups. Group-I monazites exhibit a low-ThO2 core mantled by a high-ThO2 rim. By contrast, the group-II monazites exhibit high-ThO2 cores laced by ThO2-poor mantles, and outermost rims with still lower ThO2 contents. Skeletal group-III monazites at polygonized grain/phase boundaries exhibit patchy and concentric zones with decreasing ThO2 towards the margin. The U–Th–Pbtotal chemical ages obtained using electron probe microanalyses exhibit four age clusters. The oldest age population (mean 939 ± 4.5 Ma) obtained in cores in group-I, II and III monazites with patchy zones corresponds with the emplacement of the Koraput anorthosite, and this age population is consistent with 980–930 Ma emplacement ages reported in other EGP anorthosite massifs. Younger monazites mantling the cores in group-II monazites and in group-III monazites with mean ages of 877 ± 5 Ma and 749 ± 18 Ma possibly reflect episodic monazite growth by fluid-aided dissolution–precipitation culminating with the disintegration of Rodinia at ~750 Ma. The youngest age population (mean 574 ± 19 Ma) in the outermost monazite rims and monazite veins represents renewed monazite growth during the Pan African assembly of the Grenvillian-age EGP domain with the proto-Indian cratons.
Crab Pulsar (PSR B0531+21) is known to emit pulsed emission in all bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. It also emits giant radio pulses (GRPs) frequently, which are roughly a hundred to million times brighter than the normal pulses. We aim to study whether there is a significant X-ray enhancement correlated with the occurrence of GRPs, using simultaneous observations with the ASTROSAT, the Giant Meterwave Radio telescope (1300 MHz) and the Ooty Radio telescope (325 MHz). This required determination of fixed pipeline offsets between different instruments. We find the offset between ASTROSAT and GMRT to be −30.181 ± 0.095 ms and that between ASTROSAT and ORT to be −18.4 ± 0.2 ms. Our preliminary results with 1300 MHz data also show a break in pulse intensity distribution at ~ 33 Jy in the main pulse and ~ 28 Jy in the inter-pulse.
This study is a part of the surveillance study on childhood diarrhoea in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; here we report the drug resistance pattern of recent isolates of Shigella spp. (2006–2011) obtained as part of that study and compare it with that of Shigella isolates obtained earlier during 2000–2005. During 2006–2011, stool samples from paediatric diarrhoea patients were collected and processed for isolation and identification of Shigella spp. Susceptibility to 22 antimicrobial drugs was tested and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for third-generation cephalosporins, quinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combinations and gentamicin. A wide spectrum of antibiotic resistance was observed in the Shigella strains obtained during 2006–2011. The proportions of resistant strains showed an increase from 2000–2005 to 2006–2011 in 20/22 antibiotics tested. The number of drug resistance patterns increased from 13 in 2000–2005 to 43 in 2006–2011. Resistance to newer generation fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins and augmentin, which was not observed during 2000–2005, appeared during 2006–2011. The frequency of resistance in Shigella isolates has increased substantially between 2000–2006 and 2006–2011, with a wide spectrum of resistance. At present, the option for antimicrobial therapy in shigellosis in Andaman is limited to a small number of drugs.
Due to the high surface area and good bio-compatibility of nano structured ZnO, it finds good utility in biosensor applications. In this work we have fabricated highly dense ZnO nano bundles with the assistance of self assembled poly methylsilisesquoxane (PMSSQ) matrix which has been realized in a carpet like configuration with implanted ZnO nano-seeds. Such high aspect ratio structures (∼50) with carpet like layout have been realized for the first time using solution chemistry. Nanoparticles of PMMSQ are mixed with a nano-assembler Poly-propylene glycol (PPG) and Zinc Oxide nanoseeds (5-15 nm). The PPG acts by assembling the PMSSQ nanoparticles and evaporates from this film thus creating the highly porous nano-assembly of PMMSQ nanoparticles with implanted Zinc Oxide seeds. Nano-wire bundles with a high overall surface roughness are grown over this template by a daylong incubation of an aqueous solution of hexamethylene tetra amine and Zinc nitrate. Characterization of the fabricated structures has been extensively performed using FESEM, EDAX, and XRD. We envision these films to have potential of highly dense immobilization platforms for antibodies in immunosensors. The principle advantage in our case is a high aspect ratio of the nano-bundles and a high level of roughness in overall surface topology of the carpet outgrowing the zinc-oxide nanowire bundles. Antibody immobilization has been performed by modifying the surface with protein-G followed by Goat anti salmonella antibody. Antibody activity has been characterized by using 3D profiler, Bio-Rad Protein assay and UV-Visible spectrophotometer.
Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 (BST) thin films and Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3/ZrO2 heterostructured thin films have been successfully fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a sol-gel process. The dielectric properties of these films were measured as a function of temperature in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 1 MHz. It is clearly observed that the dielectric peaks exist and shift to high temperature with the increase of frequency indicating the presence of relaxor-type behavior in the films. Also it is seen that one dielectric peak is observed in single layer BST thin films whereas two dielectric peaks are observed in BST/ZrO2 heterostructured thin films due to the presence of two dielectric layers having different band gap energies. The variation of peak temperature Tm, corresponding to dielectric loss maximum, with frequency and fitting to Arrhenius law gives activation energy of 1.24 eV which is very close to the activation energy of oxygen vacancies in BaTiO3. Hence, oxygen vacancies are the active defects which are contributing to the relaxation process in these films.
Electrical transport and microstructure of interfaces between nm-thick films of various perovskite oxides grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on TiO2- terminated SrTiO3 (STO) substrates are compared. LaAlO3/STO and KTaO3/STO interfaces become quasi-2DEG after a critical film thickness of 4 unit cell layers. The conductivity survives long anneals in oxygen atmosphere. LaMnO3/STO interfaces remain insulating for all film thicknesses and NdGaO3/STO interfaces are conducting but the conductivity is eliminated after oxygen annealing. Medium-energy ion spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy detect cationic intermixing within several atomic layers from the interface in all studied interfaces. Our results indicate that the electrical reconstruction in the polar oxide interfaces is a complex combination of different mechanisms, and oxygen vacancies play an important role.
Prior to 2009 dengue fever had not been reported in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. In 2009, a few patients with dengue fever-like illness were reported, some of whom tested positive for dengue antibodies. In 2010, 516 suspected cases were reported, including some with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS); 80 (15·5%) were positive for dengue antibodies. DENV RNA was detected in five patients and PCR-based typing showed that three of these belonged to serotype 1 and two to serotype 2. This was confirmed by sequence typing. Two clones of dengue virus, one belonging to serotype 1 and the other to serotype 2 appeared to be circulating in Andaman. Emergence of severe diseases such as DHF and DSS might be due to recent introduction of a more virulent strain or because of the enhancing effect of sub-neutralizing levels of antibodies developed due to prior infections. There is a need to revise the vector-borne disease surveillance system in the islands.
Independent outbreaks of dengue virus (DENV) infection and sporadic cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have been recorded in the metropolitan city of Delhi on several occasions in the past. However, during a recent 2010 arboviral outbreak in Delhi many cases turned negative for DENV. This prompted us to use duplex reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (D-RT–PCR) to establish the aetiology of dengue/chikungunya through sequencing of CprM and E1 genes of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Interestingly, for the first time, both DENV and CHIKV co-circulated simultaneously and in equally dominant proportion during the post-monsoon period of 2010. DENV-1 genotype III and the East Central South African genotype of CHIKV were associated with post-monsoon spread of these viruses.
The present study describes the activity of a nanomaterial on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus, which exhibited morphological changes and apoptosis. Apoptotic changes were deduced on the basis of effector caspase activation and nucleosomal laddering. Invaginated protoscoleces maintained in vitro became evaginated and had hooks, presumptive suckers and stalks. Degenerative changes of protoscoleces were evidenced after treatment with praziquantel and nano-combination. Protoscoleces treated with praziquantel had distinct attestation of necrosis and nano-combination-treated protoscoleces had signatures of apoptosis.
In this paper, we report on the growth and fabrication of thin film Si photovoltaic devices on photonic structures which were fabricated on steel and PEN and Kapton substrates. Both amorphous Si and thin film nanocrystalline Si devices were fabricated. The 2 dimensional photonic reflector structures were designed using a scattering matrix theory and consisted of appropriately designed holes/pillars which were imprinted into a polymer layer coated onto PEN, Kapton and stainless steel substrates. The photonic structures were coated with a thin layer of Ag and ZnO. Both single junction and tandem junction (amorphous/amorphous and amorphous/nanocrystalline) cells were fabricated on the photonic layers. It was observed that the greatest increase in short circuit current and efficiency in these cells due to the use of photonic reflectors was in nanocrystalline Si cells, where an increase in current approaching 30% (compared to devices fabricated on flat substrates) was obtained for thin (∼ 1 micrometer thick i layers) films of nano Si deposited on steel structures. The photonic structures (which were nanoimprinted into a polymer) were shown to stand up to temperatures as large as 300 C, thereby making such structures practical when a steel (or glass) of kapton substrate is used. Detailed measurements and discussion of quantum efficiency and device performance for various photonic back reflector structures on steel, kapton and PEN substrates will be presented in the paper.
This study evaluated the existence of different genotypes of Haemonchus contortus prevailing among goats in West Bengal, India. These parasites were isolated from the abomasum of goat intestine and the molecular characterization was performed by comparing variation of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene region. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of ITS-1 amplified product showed the presence of three distinct conformations both in male and female parasites. The sequence analysis of conformations showed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in male parasites at nucleotide positions 106 and 107 and one SNP was detected in female parasites at nucleotide position 157. These nucleotide variations in different isolates did not alter the interior loop structure of the predicted secondary RNA, therefore we believe these variations may not be responsible for any evolutionary changes among conformations.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus is a disease that affects both humans and animals. In humans the disease is treated by surgery with a supplementary option of chemotherapy with a benzimidazole compound. During the present study heat-shock protein 60 (HSP 60) was identified as one of the most frequently expressed biomolecules by E. granulosus after albendazole treatment. Data were correlated with 14-3-3 protein signature, and overexpression of this molecule after albendazole induction was an indicator of cell survival and signal transduction during in vitro maintenance of E. granulosus for up to 72 h. This observation was further correlated with a uniform expression pattern of a housekeeping gene (actin II). Out of three β-tubulin gene isoforms of E. granulosus, β-tubulin gene isoform 2 showed a conserved point mutation indicative of benzimidazole resistance.
Acute diarrhoea remains a major public health challenge in developing countries. We examined the role of a probiotic in the prevention of acute diarrhoea to discover if there was an effect directed towards a specific aetiology. A double-blind, randomized, controlled field trial involving 3758 children aged 1–5 years was conducted in an urban slum community in Kolkata, India. Participants were given either a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota or a nutrient drink daily for 12 weeks. They were followed up for another 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was the occurrence of first episodes of diarrhoea. We assessed this during 12 weeks of intake of study agent and also for 12 weeks of follow-up. There were 608 subjects with diarrhoea in the probiotic group and 674 subjects in the nutrient group during the study period of 24 weeks. The level of protective efficacy for the probiotic was 14% (95% confidence interval 4–23, P<0·01 in adjusted model). The reduced occurrence of acute diarrhoea in the probiotic group compared to nutrient group was not associated with any specific aetiology. No adverse event was observed in children of either probiotic or nutrient groups. The study suggests that daily intake of a probiotic drink can play a role in prevention of acute diarrhoea in young children in a community setting of a developing country.
Faecal specimens of diarrhoea cases (n=2495, collected between November 2007 and October 2009) from Infectious Diseases and Beliaghata General (ID&BG) Hospital, Kolkata, India, were screened by RT–PCR using specific primers targeting region C of the capsid gene of noroviruses (NoVs) to determine the seasonal distribution and clinical characteristics of NoVs associated with diarrhoea. NoV infection was detected in 78 cases, mostly in children aged <2 years. In 22/78 positive cases, the virus was detected as the sole agent; others were as mixed infections with other enteric pathogens. Sequencing of NVGII strains showed clustering with GII.4 NoVs followed by GII.13 and GII.6 NoVs. Clinical characteristics of the diarrhoeic children and adults in Kolkata indicated that NoV infections were detected throughout the year and were associated with a mild degree of dehydration.
The metacestode stage of Echinococcus granulosus is of zoonotic importance. In general, the 14-3-3 protein is involved in multiplication and survival of eukaryotes. Therefore, this communication presents succinct information on relative expression of the 14-3-3 protein in six different morphotypes of cysts of E. granulosus. All isolated E. granulosus belonged to the common sheep strain (G1). Relative expression of the 14-3-3 protein was higher in fertile cysts when compared to sterile cysts. The predicted amino acid sequence of the 14-3-3 protein was closely clustered with zeta-type isoforms 1 and 2 of the 14-3-3 protein. In addition, the present study demonstrates the presence of the 14-3-3 protein which until now had not been detected in the germinal layer. Our findings indicate that the expression of this biomolecule in the germinal layer of sterile organisms may contribute to the development and survival of the parasite in the host. The uniform expression of actin II conclusively proves the survivability of the harvested organisms.
This article communicates the relative quantification of five isoforms of antigen B (AgB) of Echinococcus granulosus. Relative expression of the AgB was quantified in active and inactive cysts. Cysts with germinal membrane, clear cyst fluid and protoscoleces showed uniform expression of the five isoforms and were utilized as control. Relative expression of AgB1 was the highest in cysts, where calcification has initiated. AgB2 and AgB4 were expressed more in fertile cysts irrespective of the condition of germinal membrane. The lowest expression of AgB3 was seen in calcified cysts. The relative expression of AgB5 could not be correlated with respect to the condition of the cyst because AgB5 is typically expressed by the adult stage of the parasite.
The present communication evaluates the antigen B (AgB) family of bubaline isolates of Echinococcus granulosus with respect to their conformational propensity and also discusses the stretches of agretope. AgB, which is abundantly present in hydatid cyst fluid, is encoded by a gene family, AgB1–AgB5. Hydatidosis is of zoonotic and economic importance in India. Buffaloes serve as the intermediate host. However, to date the AgB family has not been fully analysed. During the present study two different primers used for amplification of AgB1 revealed homology to Echinococcus canadensis (G8) as well as E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1/G2). The sequence of AgB3 is homologous to that of the well-defined species, Echinococcus ortleppi (G5), and the predicted amino acid sequence of AgB4 is homologous to bovine isolates identified earlier. α- and β-amphipathic structures were recorded in all the antigens designated as T-cell receptor sites. The antigenic index of different stretches correlated with hydrophilicity because the hydrophobic residues are not accessible to the cells. In this study, we investigated the binding propensity of AgB to MHC II in order to determine stretches of agretope. Agretopes began with four hydrophilic residues. Two to three additional hydrophilic residues were present in the internal motif. This comparison of AgB and its family of bubaline isolates, with respect to their sequence information, α- and β- amphipathic regions, antigenic index and stretches of agretope is the first such report from India.
In the present study viable protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus were exposed to in vitro anthelmintic treatment to observe efficacy against Indian buffalo isolates. Evaluation criteria included morphological changes, viability scores and expression of peptides as a product of prestressed protoscoleces. Protoscolex changes included presence of bladder-like structure and morphological distortion. Two peptides of relative molecular weight (Mr) 40 and 70 kDa were visualized when proteins were separated by discontinuous gel electrophoresis. These two peptides seemed to be products of prestressed protoscoleces.