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To investigate if cardiac/pulmonary functional tests and variables obtained from clinical practice (body mass index, dyspnea, functional class, clinical judgment of disability to perform an exercise test and previous hospitalization rate) are related to mortality in patients with overlap chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (CHF).
Although the coexistence of COPD and CHF has been growingly reported, description of survival predictors considering the presence of both conditions is still scarce.
Using a cohort design, outpatients with the previous diagnosis of COPD and/or CHF that performed both spirometry and echocardiography in the same year were followed-up during a mean of 20.9±8.5 months.
Of the 550 patients initially evaluated, 301 had both spirometry and echocardiography: 160 (53%) with COPD on isolation; 100 (33%) with CHF on isolation; and 41 (14%) with overlap. All groups presented similar mortality: COPD 17/160 (11%); CHF 12/100 (12%); and overlap 7/41 (17%) (P=0.73). In the overlap group (n=41), inability to exercise and hospitalization rate were the unique parameters associated with higher mortality (seven events) in univariate analyses. In conclusion, inability to exercise and hospitalization rate emerged as the unique parameters associated with mortality in our sample.
Supersonic civil aircraft present a unique noise certification challenge. High specific thrust required for supersonic cruise results in high engine exhaust velocity and high levels of jet noise during take-off. Aerodynamics of thin, low-aspect-ratio wings equipped with relatively simple flap systems deepen the challenge. Advanced noise reduction procedures have been proposed for supersonic aircraft. These procedures promise to reduce certification noise levels, but they may require departures from normal reference procedures defined in noise regulations. The subject of this article is a take-off performance and noise assessment of a notional supersonic business jet. Analytical models of an airframe and a supersonic engine derived from a contemporary subsonic turbofan core are developed. These models are used to predict take-off trajectories and certification noise levels. Results indicate advanced take-off procedures are helpful in reducing noise along lateral sidelines.
We present a new semi–analytic treatment of the evolution of galactic winds within high resolution, large scale cosmological N–body simulations of a $\Lambda$CDM Universe. We focus our analysis on the impact of winds on the diffuse intergalactic medium at $z=3$ and we make predictions for the volume filling factor of winds as a function of our model parameters. We then verify this prediction by extracting a set of synthetic spectra along random lines of sight through our simulated box and by calculating the probability distribution function (PDF) of the spectral flux. We find that galactic winds do not significantly modify the PDF. We finally argue that the increased flux transmissivity found by Adelberger et al. (2003) around a small sample of Lyman break galaxies may be explained by the presence of hot ionised bubbles due to pressure–driven winds outflowing from the galaxies. However, this effect cannot be explained by cooled, momentum–driven winds. We conclude that the result of Adelberger et al. (2003) may be the outcome of a selection effect.
Low temperature monochromatic cathodoluminescence (CL) spectral analyses and imaging were used to determine the widths of resistive regions (due to Fe diffusion) in multi-quantum-well (MQW) InP-based laser devices and to detect the different amount of damage induced by alternative In-situ Etching (ISE) and Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) techniques. The widths of the resistive regions were estimated by comparing the 5 K CL emission width from the MQW and the actual width as obtained by SEM investigations. Monochromatic CL also did not reveal any emission from the InP:Sn layer between semi-insulating material (Fe-doped lnp) and p-type layer (Zn-doped InP), indicating interdiffusion of Fe and Zn laterally the MQW, and the presence of substantial Sn diffusion (up to 2500 nanometers) into the substrate.
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