To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
Spherical coordinate systems, which are ubiquitous in astronomy, cannot be shown without distortion on flat, two-dimensional surfaces. This poses challenges for the two complementary phases of visual exploration—making discoveries in data by looking for relationships, patterns, or anomalies—and publication—where the results of an exploration are made available for scientific scrutiny or communication. This is a long-standing problem, and many practical solutions have been developed. Our allskyVR approach provides a workflow for experimentation with commodity virtual reality head-mounted displays. Using the free, open source s2plot programming library, and the A-FrameWebVR browser-based framework, we provide a straightforward way to visualise all-sky catalogues on a user-centred, virtual celestial sphere. The allskyVR distribution contains both a quickstart option, complete with a gaze-based menu system, and a fully customisable mode for those who need more control of the immersive experience. The software is available for download from https://github.com/cfluke/allskyVR.
The large-amplitude δ Scuti star CY Aqr was observed from sites in the U.S.A., South Africa and Australia during August 1988. Coates et al. (1991) published 48 new times of maximum light derived from these observations and assembled, from the literature, previous times of maximum light. It is clear that the period of the star is changing with the balance of evidence favouring discrete changes in 1951 and 1966, rather than a continuous change.
It has been suggested by Fitch (1973) and Else (1972), from an analysis of the observations of Zissell (1968), that there is a secondary frequency present in CY Aqr. Coates et al. (1992) have analysed both the 1988 observations and those of Zissell. After subtracting the primary frequency and its harmonics, they find no stable secondary frequency above the noise level of two millimagnitudes.
Spring tillage is a component of an integrated weed management strategy for control of early emerging glyphosate-resistant weeds such as common ragweed; however, the effect of tillage on common ragweed emergence pattern is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether spring tillage during emergence would influence the emergence pattern or stimulate additional emergence of common ragweed and to characterize common ragweed emergence in southeast Nebraska. A field experiment was conducted for three years (2014 to 2016) in Gage County, Nebraska in a field naturally infested with glyphosate-resistant common ragweed. Treatments consisted of a no-tillage control and three spring tillage timings. The Soil Temperature and Moisture Model (STM2) software was used to estimate soil temperature and moisture at a 2-cm depth. The Weibull function was fit to total common ragweed emergence (%) with day of year (DOY), thermal time, and hydrothermal time as independent variables. Tillage treatments and year had no effect on total common ragweed emergence (P=0.88 and 0.35, respectively) and time to 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90% emergence (P=0.31). However, emergence pattern was affected by year (P=<0.001) with 50% total emergence reached on May 5 in 2014, April 20 in 2015, and April 2 in 2016 and 90% total emergence reached on May 12, 2014, May 8, 2015, and April 30, 2016. According to the corrected information-theoretic model comparison criterion (AICc), the Weibull function with thermal time and base temperature of 3 C best explained the emergence pattern over three years. This study concludes that spring tillage does not stimulate additional emergence; therefore, after the majority of the common ragweed has emerged and before the crop has been planted, tillage could be used as an effective component of an integrated glyphosate-resistant common ragweed management program in Nebraska.
Capturing service users’ perspectives can highlight additional and different concerns to those of clinicians, but there are no up to date, self-report psychometrically sound measures of side effects of antipsychotic medications.
To develop a psychometrically sound measure to identify antipsychotic side effects important to service users, the Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure.
An initial item bank was subjected to a Delphi exercise (n = 9) with psychiatrists and pharmacists, followed by service user focus groups and expert panels (n = 15) to determine item relevance and language. Feasibility and comprehensive psychometric properties were established in two samples (N43 and N50). We investigated whether we could predict the three most important side effects for individuals from their frequency, severity and life impact.
MSE is a 53-item measure with good reliability and validity. Poorer mental and physical health, but not psychotic symptoms, was related to side-effect burden. Seventy-nine percent of items were chosen as one of the three most important effects. Severity, impact and distress only predicted ‘putting on weight’ which was more distressing, more severe and had more life impact in those for whom it was most important.
MSE is a self-report questionnaire that identifies reliably the side-effect burden as experienced by patients. Identifying key side effects important to patients can act as a starting point for joint decision making on the type and the dose of medication.
Women earn 40% of new PhDs in political science; however, once they enter the profession, they have strikingly different experiences than their male counterparts—particularly in the small but influential field of political methodology. For several years, the Society for Political Methodology, with support from the National Science Foundation, has attempted to address this gender gap through the Visions in Methodology (VIM) program. VIM features an annual conference that brings women together to present and discuss their research and to participate in professional-development sessions. Do programs like VIM have the desired impact? Using an original survey of political scientists, this study provides insights into the ways that bringing women together in small-group settings like VIM might facilitate networking and enhance productivity. In particular, the study finds that women who attend the VIM conference are better networked and more productive in terms of publication.
Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness. We report the collaborative investigative efforts of US and Canadian public health officials during the 2013–2014 international outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder. The investigation included open-ended interviews of ill persons, traceback, product testing, facility inspections, and trace forward. Ninety-four persons infected with outbreak strains from 16 states and four provinces were identified; 21% were hospitalized and none died. Fifty-four (96%) of 56 persons who consumed chia seed powder, reported 13 different brands that traced back to a single Canadian firm, distributed by four US and eight Canadian companies. Laboratory testing yielded outbreak strains from leftover and intact product. Contaminated product was recalled. Although chia seed powder is a novel outbreak vehicle, sprouted seeds are recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness; firms should follow available guidance to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination during sprouting.
Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to public health. Resistance is largely driven by antibiotic usage, which in many cases is unnecessary and can be improved. The impact of decreasing overall antibiotic usage on resistance is unknown and difficult to assess using standard study designs. The objective of this study was to explore the potential impact of reducing antibiotic usage on the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs).
We used agent-based modeling to simulate interactions between patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) using model inputs informed by the literature. We modeled the effect of antibiotic usage as (1) a microbiome effect, for which antibiotic usage decreases competing bacteria and increases the MDRO transmission probability between patients and HCWs and (2) a mutation effect that designates a proportion of patients who receive antibiotics to subsequently develop a MDRO via genetic mutation.
Intensive care unit
Absolute reduction in overall antibiotic usage by experimental values of 10% and 25%
Reducing antibiotic usage absolutely by 10% (from 75% to 65%) and 25% (from 75% to 50%) reduced acquisition rates of high-prevalence MDROs by 11.2% (P<.001) and 28.3% (P<.001), respectively. We observed similar effect sizes for low-prevalence MDROs.
In a critical care setting, where up to 50% of antibiotic courses may be inappropriate, even a moderate reduction in antibiotic usage can reduce MDRO transmission.
The western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a hotspot of rapid recent regional ‘climate change’. This has resulted in a 0.4°C rise in sea temperature in the last 50 years, five days of sea ice lost per decade and increased ice scouring in the shallows. The WAP shallows are ideal for studying the biological response to physical change because most known Antarctic species are benthic, physical change occurs mainly in the shallows and most research stations are coastal. Studies at Rothera Station have found increased benthic disturbance with losses of winter sea ice and assemblage-level changes coincident with this ice scouring. Such studies are difficult to scale up as they depend on SCUBA diving – a very spatially limited technique. Here we report attempts to broaden the understanding of benthic ecosystem responses to physical change by replicating the Rothera experimental grids at Carlini Station through collaboration between the UK, Argentina and Germany across Signy, Rothera and Carlini stations. We argue that such collaborations are the way forward towards understanding the big picture of biota responses to physical climate changes at a regional scale.
We compare the results of using a Random Forest Classifier with the results of using Nonparametric Discriminant Analysis to classify whether a filament channel (in the case of a filament eruption) or an active region (in the case of a flare) is about to produce an event. A large number of descriptors are considered in each case, but it is found that only a small number are needed in order to get most of the improvement in performance over always predicting the majority class. There is little difference in performance between the two classifiers, and neither results in substantial improvements over simply predicting the majority class.
“We tried to bring everyone together so that each person would give their opinion about the project and to address solutions for the improvement.”
– Female Deputy, Mendoza, 2013
In 2012, a group of eight female deputies from across the political spectrum in Mendoza worked together to develop legislation that would create a Special Prosecution Unit for Crimes of Gender. The unit would exist within the Ministry of Public Prosecutions and be staffed with personnel trained to assist female victims of violence against women. Although there is a strong national law addressing violence against women, many provinces are not equipped to enforce the law because they lack the resources and infrastructure to provide victims with assistance. To address this challenge, one deputy explained, legislators needed to learn more about the “kind of problems public officials encountered when they wanted to assist the women.” To this end, the deputy spearheading the project in Mendoza brought together a number of experts from different branches of government, including specialists from the provincial courts, the provincial executive branch, the municipalities, and nongovernmental organizations such as the National Institute Against Discrimination and Xenophobia. Female deputies interested in addressing violence against women met with these experts on multiple occasions to identify the challenges the experts faced when implementing the national legislation, to develop solutions, and to fine-tune the proposed legislation.
The project, cosponsored by eight female deputies, was officially proposed in May 2012 and is making its way through the legislative process. The deputy leading the project explained: “This project has been going for one year and I am fighting to sanction it. We have a bicameral system. So it is necessary for it to be approved by both chambers. I have been fighting for the house's approval.” In May 2014, the project finally advanced from the General Legislation and Constitutional Issues Committee but did not go to a vote on the house floor. In the meantime, female deputies collaborated with female senators in the Bicameral Committee for Gender and Diversity in the Mendoza Legislature, and arranged for a female Senator to introduce the same bill in the Mendoza Senate. The legislation was approved in the Senate on May 27, 2015 along with three other bills designed to address violence against women.
“There is an impressive party discipline that dominates individual members who are part of that political party.”
– Female Deputy, Jujuy, 2009
Party discipline is key to understanding legislative dynamics. In Chapter 2, I argued that women have incentives to collaborate more frequently than men with female colleagues to exert their influence on the legislative process. Nonetheless, not all women have the same opportunities to collaborate. In particular, some institutional contexts – such as the extreme party discipline described in the quote above – permit party leaders to constrain legislative behavior and disincentivize legislators from behaving independently of their political parties.
In the case of Jujuy, a deputy describes one such environment in which political parties exercise absolute control over legislative behavior. “In the majority party, there are four or five who lead and direct the issues. The rest have to support them. They can present projects, but [party leaders] don't encourage it.” Given that women are typically absent from leadership, they likely wield very little influence in the chamber. Women may even be discouraged from introducing new issues to the legislative agenda or collaborating with female legislators in their own political parties. Instead, they are expected to toe the party line and provide unwavering support for party leaders. As the deputy from Jujuy sees it, “[Party leaders] end up eliminating the possibility for debates that enrich and cultivate different views – even debates within [their own parties].” Moreover, when political institutions give party leaders substantial control over legislators’ behavior, party leaders have very little tolerance for behavior that may be viewed as disloyal. In such environments, party leaders do not allow any disagreement from rank-and-file members. “Legislators can be very angry or even opposed to their part[ies], but the party discipline is very strong. There are legislators who are part of the majority party who have not opened their mouth[s]; they don't speak.” She indicates that legislators do not openly challenge party leaders. When legislators disagree with party leaders, their only option is to abstain from the discussion. In Chapter 2, I explained that strong party constraints of this nature limit women's legislative collaboration. Nonetheless, such uncompromising party discipline is not constant across all Argentine settings; rather, there is considerable variation both between and within legislative chambers.
In 2009, Linda Suarez became the first woman to be elected vice president of the legislature. This powerful leadership position is the highest legislative appointment and the third-ranking position in the province – below only the positions of governor and vice-governor. In recent years, a few talented, well-connected women have risen to the top ranks of politics in Argentina. Ask most male politicians in Argentina and they will tell you that, without a doubt, women now have equal opportunities in politics; after all, Argentina has elected a female president. Similarly, many politicians from Vice President Suarez's province boast that a woman holds the top position in the legislature, frequently citing her as proof that women are on even footing politically in the province.
One would expect that Vice President Suarez would be very proud to serve as the first female vice president in her province and that she likely views it as an accomplishment and a testament to her hard work. Yet, when asked if she was the first woman to hold such a prestigious appointment in the legislature, Vice President Suarez had a surprising response:
“Yes, the first one. It is embarrassing, huh? It is the twenty-first century and the truth is it is not pretty to say that I am the first woman: there should have been a lot more.”
Where many people use her position to illustrate their opinion that women have equal access to power, Vice President Suarez views her experience as exceptional and not representative of women's status in politics. Instead, she suggests that female legislators face a number of obstacles and disadvantages. In this chapter, I empirically evaluate women's marginalization in the Argentine provincial legislatures. I compare women's and men's access to leadership posts and powerful committee appointments in the legislatures to evaluate whether women and men have equitable political power.
It is important to assess women's access to political power in order to answer one of the central questions in this book: Why do women collaborate? Recall, my theory contends that women collaborate more than men because women face structural barriers that restrict their ability to exert influence in the policy-making process.
Evidence from Argentina shows that women entering male-dominated legislatures face structural barriers and have limited ability to exert influence on the policy-making process. As a result, women have strong incentives to collaborate in order to overcome such barriers, exert influence in the chamber, and gain a voice in the policy-making process. Despite the many benefits of collaboration, its prevalence varies between legislative contexts because not all women have the same opportunities to collaborate. In Argentina, women facing weak party constraints are more likely to collaborate than their male colleagues, and their propensity to do so increases as women's numeric representation increases. By contrast, women facing strong party constraints have limited opportunities to collaborate with other women. Instead, these women behave more like their male colleagues and collaborate less frequently. The effects of strong party constraints are mitigated by other factors; notably affiliation with the executive's party, seniority, and women's issues legislation motivate collaboration among women.
In this chapter, I draw on a series of case studies from across the world in order to expand my analysis and to demonstrate the generalizability of my theory beyond Argentina. I evaluate data from four national parliaments: the Rwandan Chamber of Deputies, the U.S. Senate, the Uruguayan Congress, and the South African Parliament. In doing so, I examine countries that have different legislative contexts than the ones found in Argentina, thus providing broader tests of how other legislative contexts constrain or facilitate women's collaboration.
I present this set of case studies to facilitate the exploration of how institutional arrangements structure women's collaboration outside of the Argentine provinces. As I explain in Chapter 2, electoral institutions that concentrate power in the hands of party leaders and foster strong party loyalty constrain women's collaboration. By contrast, electoral institutions that allow legislators to act independently of political parties impose fewer constraints on women's collaboration. Whereas the Argentine provinces enabled me to test these expectations for both women facing strong party constraints and women facing comparably weaker party constraints (i.e., closed-list PR systems with large district magnitudes and closed-list PR systems with small district magnitudes), these four additional cases allow me to examine collaboration in legislatures across the full range of party constraints.
“And that's where women in the Senate make a real difference. Women tend to be more collaborative, less concerned about scoring partisan political points and more focused on getting a solution.”
– Republican Senator Susan Collins, Maine, 2013
Five days into the U.S. government shutdown in 2013, Republican Senator Susan Collins took the Senate floor and challenged her colleagues to work together to put an end to the impasse. In the midst of a fierce partisan standoff, she pieced together a bipartisan coalition – disproportionately comprised of women – that would lay the foundation for the federal fiscal plan later signed into law. Although the large role female senators played in forging a compromise attracted considerable media attention, the senators themselves suggested this was par for the course. Senator Collins explained: “I don't think it's a coincidence that women were so heavily involved in trying to end this stalemate. Although we span the ideological spectrum, we are used to working together in a collaborative way.”
Female senators in the United States are certainly not in lockstep politically, but their custom of monthly meetings and their history of collaborating across party lines on other projects set the tone for constructive bargaining to end partisan gridlock. Indeed, women in the U.S. Senate have a track record of crossing party lines to develop legislation that promotes their shared interests. The Airline Passenger Bill of Rights Act (Barbara Boxer, D-CA and Olympia Snowe, R-ME), legislation to provide health care to the first responders to the attacks of September 11, 2001 (Lisa Murkowski, R-AK and Kristen Gillibrand, D-NY), and legislation amending the tax code to meet the needs of stay-at-home moms (Barbara Mikulski, D-MD and Kay Bailey Hutchison, R-TX) are just a few of many examples. Senator Mikulski describes these bipartisan feats and others as “the power of two women building a coalition to accomplish a mutual goal.”
This kind of collaborative behavior is not unique to the United States. As women gain access to parliaments worldwide in record numbers, legislative collaboration appears to be on the rise. Stories of women working together to accomplish bipartisan goals appear in popular media and academic discourse across the globe.