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The flow of an electrified liquid film down an inclined plane wall is investigated with the focus on coherent structures in the form of travelling waves on the film surface, in particular, single-hump solitary pulses and their interactions. The flow structures are analysed first using a long-wave model, which is valid in the presence of weak inertia, and second using the Stokes equations. For obtuse angles, gravity is destabilising and solitary pulses exist even in the absence of an electric field. For acute angles, spatially non-uniform solutions exist only beyond a critical value of the electric field strength; moreover, solitary-pulse solutions are present only at sufficiently high supercritical electric-field strengths. The electric field increases the amplitude of the pulses, can generate recirculation zones in the humps and alters the far-field decay of the pulse tails from exponential to algebraic with a significant impact on pulse interactions. A weak-interaction theory predicts an infinite sequence of bound-state solutions for non-electrified flow, and a finite set for electrified flow. The existence of single-hump pulse solutions and two-pulse bound states is confirmed for the Stokes equations via boundary-element computations. In addition, the electric field is shown to trigger a switch from absolute to convective instability, thereby regularising the dynamics, and this is confirmed by time-dependent simulations of the long-wave model.
Changes in respiratory pathogen testing can affect disease burden estimates. Using linked data, we describe changes in respiratory virus testing among children born in Western Australia in 1996–2012. We extracted data on respiratory specimens from these children from birth to age 9 years. We estimated testing rates by age, year, Aboriginal status and geographical location. Predictors of testing among children hospitalised at least once before their 10th birthday were identified using logistic regression. We compared detection methods for respiratory viruses from nasal/nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens by age and year. Of 83 199 virology testing records in 2000–2012, 80% were nasal/NP specimens. Infants aged <1 month had the highest testing rates. Testing rates in all children increased over the study period with considerable yearly fluctuations. Among hospitalised children, premature children <32 weeks gestation had over three times the odds of being tested (95% CI 3·47–4·13) than those born at term. Testing using molecular methods increased from 5% to 87% over the study period. Proportion of positive samples increased from 36·3% to 44·4% (P < 0·01); this change was greatest in children aged 2–9 years. These findings will assist in interpreting results from future epidemiology studies assessing the pathogen-specific burden of disease.
This study examined the effect of including different dietary proportions of starch, protein and lipid, in diets balanced for digestible energy, on the utilisation efficiencies of dietary energy by barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Each diet was fed at one of three ration levels (satiety, 80 % of initial satiety and 60 % of initial satiety) for a 42-d period. Fish performance measures (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were all affected by dietary energy source. The efficiency of energy utilisation was significantly reduced in fish fed the starch diet relative to the other diets, but there were no significant effects between the other macronutrients. This reduction in efficiency of utilisation was derived from a multifactorial change in both protein and lipid utilisation. The rate of protein utilisation deteriorated as the amount of starch included in the diet increased. Lipid utilisation was most dramatically affected by inclusion levels of lipid in the diet, with diets low in lipid producing component lipid utilisation rates well above 1·3, which indicates substantial lipid synthesis from other energy sources. However, the energetic cost of lipid gain was as low as 0·65 kJ per kJ of lipid deposited, indicating that barramundi very efficiently store energy in the form of lipid, particularly from dietary starch energy. This study defines how the utilisation efficiency of dietary digestible energy by barramundi is influenced by the macronutrient source providing that energy, and that the inclusion of starch causes problems with protein utilisation in this species.
We assessed the impact of a reflex urine culture protocol, an intervention aimed to reduce unnecessary urine culturing, in intensive care units at a tertiary care hospital. Significant decreases in urine culturing rates and reported rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection followed implementation of the protocol.
Using an in situ load frame within a scanning electron microscope, a microstructural section on the surface of an annealed tantalum (Ta) polycrystalline specimen was mapped at successive tensile strain intervals, up to ~20% strain, using electron backscatter diffraction. A grain identification and correlation technique was developed for characterizing the evolving microstructure during loading. Presenting the correlated results builds on the reference orientation deviation (ROD) map concept where individual orientation measurements within a grain are compared with a reference orientation associated with that grain. In this case, individual orientation measurements in a deformed grain are measured relative to a reference orientation derived from the undeformed (initial) configuration rather than the current deformed configuration as has been done for previous ROD schemes. Using this technique helps reveal the evolution of crystallographic orientation gradients and development of deformation-induced substructure within grains. Although overall crystallographic texture evolved slowly during deformation, orientation spread within grains developed quickly. In some locations, misorientation relative to the original orientation of a grain exceeded 20° by 15% strain. The largest orientation changes often appeared near grain boundaries suggesting that these regions were preferred locations for the initial development of subgrains.
The stability of a viscous liquid film flowing under gravity down an inclined wall with periodic corrugations is investigated. A long-wave model equation valid at near-critical Reynolds numbers is used to study the film dynamics, and calculations are performed for either sinusoidal or rectangular wall corrugations assuming either a fixed flow rate in the film or a fixed volume of fluid within each wall period. Under the two different flow assumptions, steady solution branches are delineated including subharmonic branches, for which the period of the free surface is an integer multiple of the wall period, and the existence of quasi-periodic branches is demonstrated. Floquet–Bloch theory is used to determine the linear stability of steady, periodic solutions and the nature of any instability is analysed using the method of exponentially weighted spaces. Under certain conditions, and depending on the wall period, the flow may be convectively unstable for small wall amplitudes but undergo transition to absolute instability as the wall amplitude increases, a novel theoretical finding for this class of flows; in other cases, the flow may be convectively unstable for small wall amplitudes but stable for larger wall amplitudes. Solutions with the same spatial period as the wall become unstable at a critical Reynolds number, which is strongly dependent on the period size. For sufficiently small wall periods, the corrugations have a destabilizing effect by lowering the critical Reynolds number above which instability occurs. For slightly larger wall periods, small-amplitude corrugations are destabilizing but sufficiently large-amplitude corrugations are stabilizing. For even larger wall periods, the opposite behaviour is found. For sufficiently large wall periods, the corrugations are destabilizing irrespective of their amplitude. The predictions of the linear theory are corroborated by time-dependent simulations of the model equation, and the presence of absolute instability under certain conditions is confirmed. Boundary element simulations on an inverted substrate reveal that wall corrugations can have a stabilizing effect at zero Reynolds number.
To determine the prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii, an important healthcare-associated pathogen, among mechanically ventilated patients in Maryland.
The Maryland MDRO Prevention Collaborative performed a statewide cross-sectional active surveillance survey of mechanically ventilated patients residing in acute care and long-term care (LTC) facilities. Surveillance cultures (sputum and perianal) were obtained from all mechanically ventilated inpatients at participating facilities during a 2-week period.
All healthcare facilities in Maryland that provide care for mechanically ventilated patients were invited to participate.
Mechanically ventilated patients, known to be at high risk for colonization and infection with A. baumannii, were included.
Seventy percent (40/57) of all eligible healthcare facilities participated in the survey, representing both acute care (n = 30) and LTC (n = 10) facilities in all geographic regions of Maryland. Surveillance cultures were obtained from 92% (358/390) of eligible Patients. A. baumannii was identified in 34% of all mechanically ventilated patients in Maryland; multidrug-resistant A. baumannii was found in 27% of all Patients. A. baumannii was detected in at least 1 patient in 49% of participating facilities; 100% of LTC facilities had at least 1 patient with A. baumannii, compared with 31% of acute care facilities. A. baumannii was identified from all facilities in which 10 or more patients were sampled.
A. baumannii is common among mechanically ventilated patients in both acute care and LTC facilities throughout Maryland, with a high proportion of isolates demonstrating multidrug resistance.
The stability of a core–annular fluid arrangement consisting of two concentric fluid layers surrounding a solid cylindrical rod on the axis of a circular pipe is examined when the interface between the two fluid layers is covered with an insoluble surfactant. The motion is driven either by an imposed axial pressure gradient or by the movement of the rod at a prescribed constant velocity. In the basic state the fluid motion is unidirectional and the interface between the two fluids is cylindrical. A linear stability analysis is performed for arbitrary layer thicknesses and arbitrary Reynolds number. The results show that the flow can be fully stabilized, even at zero Reynolds number, if the base flow shear rate at the interface is set appropriately. This result is confirmed by an asymptotic analysis valid when either of the two fluid layers is thin in comparison to the gap between the pipe wall and the rod. It is found that for a thin inner layer the flow can be stabilized if the inner fluid is more viscous than the outer fluid, and the opposite holds true for a thin outer layer. It is also demonstrated that traditional core–annular flow, for which the rod is absent, may be stabilized at zero Reynolds number if the annular layer is sufficiently thin. Finally, weakly nonlinear simulations of a coupled set of partial differential evolution equations for the interface position and surfactant concentration are conducted with the rod present in the limit of a thin inner layer or a thin outer layer. The ensuing dynamics are found to be sensitive to the size of the curvature of the undisturbed interface.
The gravity-driven flow of a liquid film down an inclined wall with periodic indentations in the presence of a normal electric field is investigated. The film is assumed to be a perfect conductor, and the bounding region of air above the film is taken to be a perfect dielectric. In particular, the interaction between the electric field and the topography is examined by predicting the shape of the film surface under steady conditions. A nonlinear, non-local evolution equation for the thickness of the liquid film is derived using a long-wave asymptotic analysis. Steady solutions are computed for flow into a rectangular trench and over a rectangular mound, whose shapes are approximated with smooth functions. The limiting behaviour of the film profile as the steepness of the wall geometry is increased is discussed. Using substantial numerical evidence, it is established that as the topography steepness increases towards rectangular steps, trenches, or mounds, the interfacial slope remains bounded, and the film does not touch the wall. In the absence of an electric field, the film develops a capillary ridge above a downward step and a slight depression in front of an upward step. It is demonstrated how an electric field may be used to completely eliminate the capillary ridge at a downward step. In contrast, imposing an electric field leads to the creation of a free-surface ridge at an upward step. The effect of the electric field on film flow into relatively narrow trenches, over relatively narrow mounds, and down slightly inclined substrates is also considered.
Legionnaires' disease (LD) is caused by Legionella species, most of which live in water. The Mid-Atlantic region experienced a sharp rise in LD in 2003 coinciding with a period of record-breaking rainfall. To investigate a possible relationship, we analysed the association between monthly legionellosis incidence and monthly rainfall totals from January 1990 to December 2003 in five Mid-Atlantic states. Using negative binomial model a 1-cm increase in rainfall was associated with a 2·6% (RR 1·026, 95% CI 1·012–1·040) increase in legionellosis incidence. The average monthly rainfall from May to September 1990–2002 was 10·4 cm compared to 15·7 cm from May to September 2003. This change in rainfall corresponds to an increased risk for legionellosis of approximately 14·6% (RR 1·146, 95% CI 1·067–1·231). Legionellosis incidence increased during periods of increased rainfall; identification of mechanisms that increase exposure and transmission of Legionella during rainfall might lead to opportunities for prevention.
Jay N. Giedd, Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, USA,
Michael A. Rosenthal, Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, USA,
A. Blythe Rose, Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, USA,
Jonathan D. Blumenthal, Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, USA,
Elizabeth Molloy, Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, USA,
Richard R. Dopp, Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, USA,
Liv S. Clasen, Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, USA,
Daniel J. Fridberg, Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, USA,
Nitin Gogtay, Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, USA
Using Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the team at the Child Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health has been collecting brain MRI scans on healthy children and adolescents since 1989. As of 2003, over 300 scans from 150 healthy subjects are acquired. The data presented in this chapter is largely drawn from this cohort unless otherwise stated. MRI is adept at discerning gray matter, white matter, and fluid on brain images. These boundaries are used to define the size and shape of brain structures or regions. Characterization of normal brain development is imperative to assess the hypothesis that many of the most severe neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood onset are manifestations of deviations from that normative path. Sexual dimorphism in healthy brain development may lead to differential vulnerability, which would account for some of the clinical differences in childhood neuropsychiatric disorders.
In this paper we compute the non-abelian tensor square for the free 2-Engel group of rank $n>3$. The non-abelian tensor square for this group is a direct product of a free abelian group and a nilpotent group of class 2 whose derived subgroup has exponent 3. We also compute the non-abelian tensor square for one of the group’s finite homomorphic images, namely, the Burnside group of rank $n$ and exponent 3.
The establishment of protected areas for wildlife conservation in Africa was motivated by a number of different reasons (including hunting, recreation and wildlife conservation). The current reserve network provides good coverage of the distributions of the 194 species of larger mammals (>3 kg) and 51 species of threatened larger mammals. However, it is less effective in covering the distribution of all 197 of Africa's threatened mammal species, which includes >140 smaller bodied species (<3 kg) often restricted to habitat patches. A fully comprehensive network of areas for the conservation of African mammals, especially those facing extinction, is not yet in place, and further reserves may be needed in the Horn of Africa (Somalia in particular), the Cameroon Highlands, parts of the eastern African coastal forests and Eastern Arc Mountains, and parts of the Albertine Rift Mountains. More and larger reserve areas are also required to adequately cover all the species of South Africa. Parts of these gaps are already covered by government forest reserves, and the importance of this reserve category for the conservation of African mammals, especially threatened species, needs to be better recognized. As many of the gaps in reserve coverage are in areas of high human population and good agricultural potential, conservation goals may be difficult to achieve unless we supplement traditional reserves with novel approaches to maintain natural habitats and wildlife outside reserves.
Let n be an integer greater than 1. The group G has the property Q„, or is n-rewritable, if for each «-element subset ﹛x1 x 2… ,x n﹜ of G, there exist permutations such that If one of ᓂ,τ can always be chosen to be the identity, then G has Pn, or is totally n-rewritable. We also use Pn and Qn to denote the classes of groups having these properties. Making use of the obvious inclusions, we define
We have built a Shectman-type photon-counting spectrometer based on the Latham-Geary “Z-Machine” design. The system is innovative in that the entire system rides on the telescope and communicates to the outside world via standard serial lines. Microprocessor architecture, memory controllers and new interconnect and packaging technologies have been employed. The system is portable and can be easily connected to almost any computer. It is suitable for calibrated spectrophotometry on a smaller telescope as well as for conventional spectroscopy.
Some recent work on the existence of vibrational de-excitation shocks (δ-shocks) in expanding non-equilibrium nozzle flows is extended to include situations in which an adiabatic shock (δ-shocks) may be embedded within the de-excitation shock. A discussion of some further properties of the shock solution is given and some examples are worked out. Numerical solutions of the full equations are also presented. These solutions confirm the existence of the δ-shocks but bring to light certain anomalies in the simple approximate solution. The modifications necessary to remove these discrepancies are outlined, and the implications of the numerical results are briefly discussed. Finally, some comments on the nature of the asymptotic solution for an arbitrary rate process are made.
The purpose of this article is to describe the new tables, with the above title, which are shortly to be published by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office as H.O. Pub. No. 229.
Historical Survey. The most comprehensive tables designed for the application of the intercept method of plotting position lines in the practice of astronomical navigation at sea are the well-known Tables of Computed Altitude and Azimuth, originally published in the years 1936–1945 as H.O. Pub. No. 214 by the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office (as it was then called). These are by no means the earliest of such tables in concept and objective, for Lord Kelvin, generally considered the father of modern navigation methods, expressed interest in tables from which solutions could be extracted direct; he recognized, however, that the tabulation of 903 × 603 or 157,464,000,000 solutions, which would be required to avoid interpolation, was quite impracticable.