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Muons produced by the Bethe–Heitler process from laser wakefield accelerated electrons interacting with high
materials have velocities close to the laser wakefield. It is possible to accelerate those muons with laser wakefield directly. Therefore for the first time we propose an all-optical ‘Generator and Booster’ scheme to accelerate the produced muons by another laser wakefield to supply a prompt, compact, low cost and controllable muon source in laser laboratories. The trapping and acceleration of muons are analyzed by one-dimensional analytic model and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is shown that muons can be trapped in a broad energy range and accelerated to higher energy than that of electrons for longer dephasing length. We further extrapolate the dependence of the maximum acceleration energy of muons with the laser wakefield relativistic factor
and the relevant initial energy
. It is shown that a maximum energy up to 15.2 GeV is promising with
on the existing short pulse laser facilities.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), located in Western Australia, is one of the low-frequency precursors of the international Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project. In addition to pursuing its own ambitious science programme, it is also a testbed for wide range of future SKA activities ranging from hardware, software to data analysis. The key science programmes for the MWA and SKA require very high dynamic ranges, which challenges calibration and imaging systems. Correct calibration of the instrument and accurate measurements of source flux densities and polarisations require precise characterisation of the telescope’s primary beam. Recent results from the MWA GaLactic Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey show that the previously implemented Average Embedded Element (AEE) model still leaves residual polarisations errors of up to 10–20% in Stokes Q. We present a new simulation-based Full Embedded Element (FEE) model which is the most rigorous realisation yet of the MWA’s primary beam model. It enables efficient calculation of the MWA beam response in arbitrary directions without necessity of spatial interpolation. In the new model, every dipole in the MWA tile (4 × 4 bow-tie dipoles) is simulated separately, taking into account all mutual coupling, ground screen, and soil effects, and therefore accounts for the different properties of the individual dipoles within a tile. We have applied the FEE beam model to GLEAM observations at 200–231 MHz and used false Stokes parameter leakage as a metric to compare the models. We have determined that the FEE model reduced the magnitude and declination-dependent behaviour of false polarisation in Stokes Q and V while retaining low levels of false polarisation in Stokes U.
The current generation of experiments aiming to detect the neutral hydrogen signal from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) is likely to be limited by systematic effects associated with removing foreground sources from target fields. In this paper, we develop a model for the compact foreground sources in one of the target fields of the MWA’s EoR key science experiment: the ‘EoR1’ field. The model is based on both the MWA’s GLEAM survey and GMRT 150 MHz data from the TGSS survey, the latter providing higher angular resolution and better astrometric accuracy for compact sources than is available from the MWA alone. The model contains 5 049 sources, some of which have complicated morphology in MWA data, Fornax A being the most complex. The higher resolution data show that 13% of sources that appear point-like to the MWA have complicated morphology such as double and quad structure, with a typical separation of 33 arcsec. We derive an analytic expression for the error introduced into the EoR two-dimensional power spectrum due to peeling close double sources as single point sources and show that for the measured source properties, the error in the power spectrum is confined to high k⊥ modes that do not affect the overall result for the large-scale cosmological signal of interest. The brightest 10 mis-modelled sources in the field contribute 90% of the power bias in the data, suggesting that it is most critical to improve the models of the brightest sources. With this hybrid model, we reprocess data from the EoR1 field and show a maximum of 8% improved calibration accuracy and a factor of two reduction in residual power in k-space from peeling these sources. Implications for future EoR experiments including the SKA are discussed in relation to the improvements obtained.
Accurate knowledge of intra-specific diversity of underutilized crop species is a prerequisite for their genetic improvement and utilization. The diversity of 77 accessions of African yam bean (AYB, Sphenostylis stenocarpa) was assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of EcoRI/MseI primer pairs were selected and 227 AFLP bands were generated, of which 59(26%) were found to be polymorphic in the 77 accessions of AYB. The most efficient primer combination for polymorphic detection was E-ACT/M-CAG with a polymorphic efficiency of 85.5%, while the least efficient was E-AGC/M-CAG with a polymorphic efficiency of 80.6%. The Jaccard genetic distance among the accessions of AYB ranged between 0.048 and 0.842 with a mean of 0.444. TSs98 and TSs104B were found to be the most similar accessions with a genetic similarity of 0.952. The neighbour-joining dendrogram grouped the 77 accessions of AYB into four distinct clusters comprising 8, 20, 21 and 28 accessions. The major clustering of the accessions was not related to their geographical origin. Cluster I was found to be the most diverse. The mean fixation index (0.203) and the mean expected heterozygosity (0.284) revealed a broad genetic base of the AYB accessions. The same germplasm set was previously evaluated for several agro-morphological traits. As the collection of additional AYB germplasm continues, the phenotypic profile, the clustering of the accessions and the AFLP primer combinations from this study can be used to augment breeding programmes.
“Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waves” are large-scale wavelike transients often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this Letter, we present a possible detection of a fast-mode EUV wave associated with a mini-CME observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. On 2010 December 1, a small-scale EUV wave erupted near the disk center associated with a mini-CME, which showed all the low corona manifestations of a typical CME. The CME was triggered by the eruption of a mini-filament, with a typical length of about 30′′. Although the eruption was tiny, the wave had the appearance of an almost semicircular front and propagated at a uniform velocity of 220−250km s-1 with very little angular dependence. The CME lateral expansion was asymmetric with an inclination toward north, and the southern footprints of the CME loops hardly shifted. The lateral expansion resulted in deep long-duration dimmings, showing the CME extent. Our analysis confirms that the small-scale EUV wave is a true wave, interpreted as the fast-mode wave.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
An AlxGa1-xN/GaN-based metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure is developed by depositing a Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 film on a modulation-doped Al0.22Ga0.78N/GaN heterostructure. In high-frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements, the sheet concentration of the two-dimensional electron gas at the Al0.22Ga0.78N/GaN interface in the MFS structure decreases from 1.56 × 1013cm-2to 5.6 × 1012cm-2under the –10 V applied bias. A ferroelectric C-V window of 0.2 V in width near –10V bias is observed, indicating that the AlxGa1-xN/GaN MFS structure can achieve memory performance without the reversal of the ferroelectric polarization. The results indicate that AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures are promising semiconductor channel candidates for MFS field effect transistors.
The thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of a material is a measure the usefulness of the material in a thermoelectric device. Presently, the materials with the highest ZT are Bi2Te3 alloys, with ZT ≃ 1. There has been little improvement in ZT for over 30 years. So far, all the materials used in thermoelectric applications have been in bulk form. Recently, however, calculations have shown that it may be possible to increase ZT of some materials through the use of quantum-well superlattices. We have made preliminary measurements on the Bi/PbTe superlattice system using transport and optical techniques to determine whether it is possible to achieve such an increase in ZT.
The modification of the mechanical properties of polypyrrole(PPy) by electrochemical preparation of conductive composite film from pyrrole(Py) and two kinds of liquid crystalline copolyamide of poly(p-phenylene-terephthal- amide)(PPTA) poly(p-phenyleneterephthalamide/diphenyl ether terephthal- amide) (PPTA) and poly(p-phenyleneterephthalamide/diphenyl methane tere-phthalamide) (PPTA[C]) are presented.
The electrical conductivity of the PPTA/PPy and PPTA[C]/PPy composites are the same order of magnitude as PPy or PPTA/PPy. The mechanical properties of the composite films are better than that of pure PPy. and the composite films have good electroactivlty and thermalstability.
The fabrication and optical properties of an erbium-doped gallium phosphide microdisk resonator pumped by a Ti-sapphire laser at 980 nm were investigated. Enhanced Er3+ intra-4f-shell photoluminescence was observed in the microdisk resonator compared to a thin film, and is attributed to a microcavity effect. At low pumping power intensity, the photoluminescence from erbium-doped gallium phosphide microdisks is an order of magnitude more intense than that from a thin film sample.
Using a CO2 laser to drive the pyrolysis of W(CO)6 and O2, we have synthesized nanocrystalline WO3-x particles. These nanopowders are found to exhibit a narrow size distribution with an average particle size produced in the range 5 to 10 nm, depending on the experimental conditions. Typical production rates are ∼ 2 g/h. Results from a Raman scattering study on WO3 nanopowder samples annealed in O2 indicate that a smaller particle size appears to stabilize the low-T ferroelectric phase ( < -40 °C) at room temperature.
Molecular beam epitaxial growth of Ge on Si(110) surfaces reveals interesting aspects of the heterogeneous nucleation of coherent Ge islands. Cleaning of the Si substrate by desorption of a passivating oxide layer at high temperature creates surface pits. Two sets of experiments, including deposition of Ge on as-cleaned substrates, and surfaces with a thin Si buffer layer are compared to illustrate the nucleation behavior of Ge. Typical Ge deposition temperatures range from 600°C to 725°C.
For Ge deposition on as-cleaned surfaces, the faceted edges of pits serve as preferential sites for the heterogeneous nucleation of coherent Ge islands. Experiments were also performed on surfaces with thin (˜20nm) Si buffer layers grown on the as-cleaned surface. Though the faceted pits have not been completely covered by the Si buffer layer, they have decreased in lateral size. In addition, the Si(110) surface shows ledges that are formed along specific crystallographic directions. Ge deposited on the Si buffer nucleates first at the corners of the pits, in an interesting dipole orientation, as well as along the ledges on the surface.
Transparent conducting thin films of approximately 1000-2000 Å were deposited on glass, quartz and silicon substrates using standard pulsed laser deposition techniques with two different targets (Sn and SnO2) and with three different laser wavelengths (1.06, 0.532 and 0.266 urn) from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Composite films of SnO2 and Sn with high optical transmission were obtained using a Sn target and a background oxygen pressure of 20 Pa with optical transmission over most of the visible spectrum exceeding 80%. Electrical resistivities of approximately 10-2 Ω-cm were obtained. Using SnO2 targets, predominantly amorphous phase SnO2 films were deposited on Si substrates and then transformed into polycrystalline Sn3O4 by laser induced crystallization (λ = 1.06 μm). The electrical resistivity of these films was also permanently reduced by a factor greater than 1000.
We report on the differences in the epitaxial growth mechanisms between Ge1−xCx (O<x<0.1) and Ge1−x−ySixCy (x=0.2, 0<y<0.05) alloys grown on Si(100) using low temperature( 200°C) molecular beam epitaxy. Thin films (50˜65nm) were characterized in situ by RHEED and ex situ by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. With increasing C concentration, the microstructure of both Ge and GeSi alloys changes from 2D layer growth to 3D islanding. The d400 spacing of the relaxed alloys decreases marginally, with a maximum of 1at.% C being substitutionally incorporated. Ge-C films with higher C content have a high density of planar defects, typically twins and stacking faults. The addition of 20% Si does not appear to increase the amount of substitutional C in the films. Rather, the additions of 20% Si to Ge-C alloys somehow seems to enhance the tendency for the formation of planar defects.
We report a study of N incorporation in GaAs and InP by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using a N radical beam source. For GaNAs grown at high temperatures, phase separation was observed, as evidenced from the formation of cubic GaN aside from GaNAs. By lowering the growth temperature, however, GaNAs alloys with N as high as 14.8% have been obtained without showing any phase separation. For InNP, no phase separation was observed in the temperature range studied (310 – 420 °C). Contrary to GaNAs, incorporating N in InP is very difficult, with only less than 1% N being achieved. Optical absorption measurement reveals strong red shift of bandgap energy with direct-bandgap absorption. However, no semimetallic region seems to exist for GaNAs and a composition-dependent bowing parameter has been observed.
To assess rubella and measles susceptibility among women of childbearing age we conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in four cities and one rural area in Argentina. A convenience sample of women aged 15–49 years seeking care in public health-care institutions was selected (n=2804). Serum specimens were tested for rubella and measles IgG antibody titres. The overall susceptibility to rubella and measles was 8·8 and 12·5% respectively. Seroprevalence differences were found for both rubella (P<0·001) and measles (P=0·002) across sites. Rubella seroprevalence was higher in women aged [ges ]40 years than in younger women (P=0·04). Measles seroprevalence tended to increase with age (P<0·001). Approximately 15% of women aged 15–29 years were not immune to measles. No risk factors were associated with rubella seronegativity; however, age (P<0·001) and having less than four pregnancies (P<0·001) were factors associated with measles seronegativity. Our findings support the introduction of supplemental immunization activities targeting adolescents and young adults to prevent congenital rubella syndrome and measles outbreaks over time.
We prepared Ce3+-doped silica by the sol-gel method and studied the effect of annealing on fluorescence of these samples. Different fluorescence was observed for samples annealed at different temperatures, changing gradually from solution like fluorescence to fluorescence similar to that observed in the Ce3+-doped silica prepared by chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the emission intensity first decreased with increasing annealing temperature until 500 °C, and then increased with the temperature ranging from 500 to 950 °C. Meanwhile, the emission peak showed a large red shift and an obvious broadening. These changes were attributed to the annealing-induced structural evolution in silica: Ce3+ ions changed from coordinating with water and terminal OH-groups to embedding in silica network.
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