The Greater Silicon Valley Implant Users' Group (GSVIUG) has conducted a round robin to determine the uniformity and repeatability available in wafers processed with modern RTP equipment. High-dose ion implantation (As, 5E15, 80keV) of 150mm wafers was used to monitor temperature distribution through sheet resistance. Sheet resistance maps were then used to compare the uniformity and repeatability of each vendor. As previously reported, the actual uniformity results varied significantly with RTP vendor and implant conditions, ranging from 0.77% (one sigma/mean) to 3.55%. In addition, some contour patterns were quite representative of specific vendors.
Subsequently, wafers from each participating vendor were evaluated by three techniques in order to determine what damage or defects might have resulted from the RTP process: laser flatness measurement, optical-imaging inspection, and thermal wave measurement. The flatness measurement system was used to measure the warpage of each sample. The reflective-optical inspection technique is a full-field, non-destructive technique that provides a real-time visual display, evidenced by light and dark field contrast over the entire wafer. The thermal wave measurement system uses two laser probes to measure a difference in modulated reflectance which results from damage or defects within the wafer.
This paper describes each of the three techniques and summarizes the measured results of wafer defects and damage due to the processing by various RTP vendors. Comparisons between the three measurement techniques are made.