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Additional crystallographic data are given for the recently reported mineral middlebackite, which has been described for discoveries at Iron Knob in South Australia and Passo di San Lugano near Trento, Italy. The material examined in the present study was from a third finding of the mineral, viz. from a quartz outcrop at Mooloo Downs Station in Western Australia within which it was co-located with the chemically- and structurally-related mineral moolooite, CuIIC2O4·nH2O, reported by Clarke and Williams (1986). In this study, the crystal structure was elucidated independently of the other studies using a combination of the a priori charge flipping and simulated annealing methods with synchrotron radiation diffraction (SRD) powder data. The principal crystal data for the Mooloo Downs material are: space group P21/c with lattice parameters a = 7.2659(18) Å, b = 5.7460(11) Å, c = 5.6806(11) Å, β = 104.588(3)°; Vc = 229.46(18) Å3; empirical formula CuII2C2O4(OH)2 with 2 formula units per unit cell; and calculated density = 3.605 g cm−3. The lattice parameters agree approximately with values given for the other studies, but not within the reported error estimates. The atom coordinates, interatomic distances, and angles for the Mooloo Downs material are compared with those from the other studies using single crystal data, with the values from all three studies agreeing approximately, but again not within the reported uncertainties. The crystal chemistry found for middlebackite received strong confirmation through the synthesis for the first time of di-copper oxalate di-hydroxide. Laboratory X-ray diffraction powder data for the synthetic form of the mineral from this study agree closely with the SRD data for the natural mineral.
Over 300 cases of acute toxoplasmosis are confirmed by reference testing in England and Wales annually. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection to inform prevention strategies. Twenty-eight cases and 27 seronegative controls participated. We compared their food history and environmental exposures using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals in a model controlling for age and sex. Univariable analysis showed that the odds of eating beef (OR 10·7, P < 0·001), poultry (OR 6·4, P = 0·01) or lamb/mutton (OR 4·9, P = 0·01) was higher for cases than controls. After adjustment for potential confounders a strong association between beef and infection remained (OR 5·6, P = 0·01). The small sample size was a significant limitation and larger studies are needed to fully investigate potential risk factors. The study findings emphasize the need to ensure food is thoroughly cooked and handled hygienically, especially for those in vulnerable groups.
In agricultural production systems, nitrogen (N) losses to the environment can occur through nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3−) leaching. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate: (1) if urine excreted by non-lactating dairy cows pulse-dosed with dicyandiamide (DCD) and applied to lysimeters reduced N2O-N emissions and NO3−-N leaching on two soil types; and (2) if urine + DCD would increase herbage production over winter. Lysimeters were used to measure N2O emissions and NO3-N leaching. The soils used were a free-draining acid brown earth of sandy loam to loam texture (termed free-draining) and a poorly drained silt loam gley (termed poorly drained). Grass plots were established on the free-draining soil to measure herbage production. The N loading rate of the urine + DCD was 508 kg N/ha and the urine without DCD (urine only) was 451 kg N/ha. Total NO3−-N leaching losses from the free-draining and poorly draining soils were reduced from 100 and 81 kg NO3−-N/ha on the urine-only treatment, respectively, to 9 and 11·6 kg NO3−-N/ha on the urine + DCD treatment, respectively. Total N2O-N emissions from the free-draining and poorly drained soils were reduced significantly from 13·6 and 12·1 kg N2O-N/ha on the urine-only treatment, respectively, to 2·23 and 5·24 kg N2O-N/ha on the urine + DCD treatment, respectively. Applying urine with DCD to pastures inhibited the nitrification process for up to 56 days after treatment application. In the current experiment, there was no significant effect on spring herbage production when urine + DCD was applied to grass plots. Therefore, feeding DCD to dairy cows to apply DCD directly in urine patches was shown to be an effective mitigation strategy to reduce NO3−-N leaching and N2O-N emissions but did not appear to increase spring herbage production.
In October 2012, an outbreak of gentamicin-resistant, ciprofloxacin non-susceptible extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae occurred in a neonatal intensive care unit in Ireland. In order to determine whether the outbreak strain was more widely dispersed in the country, 137 isolates of K. pneumoniae with this resistance phenotype collected from 17 hospitals throughout Ireland between January 2011 and July 2013 were examined. ESBL production was confirmed phenotypically and all isolates were screened for susceptibility to 19 antimicrobial agents and for the presence of genes encoding blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, and blaCTX-M; 22 isolates were also screened for blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaOXA-48 genes. All isolates harboured blaSHV and blaCTX-M and were resistant to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefpodoxime; 15 were resistant to ertapenem, seven to meropenem and five isolates were confirmed as carbapenemase producers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all isolates identified 16 major clusters, with two clusters comprising 61% of the entire collection. Multilocus sequence typing of a subset of these isolates identified a novel type, ST1236, a single locus variant of ST48. Data suggest that two major clonal groups, ST1236/ST48 (CG43) and ST15/ST14 (CG15) have been circulating in Ireland since at least January 2011.
Social context has a major influence on the detection and treatment of youth mental and substance use disorders in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas, particularly where gang culture, community violence, normalisation of drug use and repetitive maladaptive family structures prevail. This paper aims to examine how social context influences the development, identification and treatment of youth mental and substance use disorders in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas from the perspectives of health care workers.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care workers (n=37) from clinical settings including: primary care, secondary care and community agencies and analysed thematically using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory to guide analysis.
Health care workers’ engagement with young people was influenced by the multilevel ecological systems within the individual’s social context which included: the young person’s immediate environment/‘microsystem’ (e.g., family relationships), personal relationships in the ‘mesosystem’ (e.g., peer and school relationships), external factors in the young person’s local area context/‘exosystem’ (e.g., drug culture and criminality) and wider societal aspects in the ‘macrosystem’ (e.g., mental health policy, health care inequalities and stigma).
In socioeconomically disadvantaged urban areas, social context, specifically the micro-, meso-, exo-, and macro-system impact both on the young person’s experience of mental health or substance use problems and services, which endeavour to address these problems. Interventions that effectively identify and treat these problems should reflect the additional challenges posed by such settings.
A long cropmark enclosure at Springfield, Essex, interpreted as a Neolithic cursus, was investigated betwee 1979–85 to confirm its date and establish a site sequence. The enclosure was c. 690 m long and 37–49 m wide the ditch being uninterrupted in all areas examined, features within the interior at the eastern end included a incomplete ring of substantial post-pits which it is suggested originally formed a complete circle. Peterborou pottery, predominately Mortlake style, Grooved Ware, a small amount of Beaker pottery, earlier Bronze Age urn sherds, and flint artefacts of the late 3rd-early 2nd millennium were recovered from the cursus ditch an other features. Collectively the evidence indicates a prolonged period of use. The results of the excavations a described, the site is discussed in its local and regional context and the implications of the excavation for our understanding of cursus monuments are considered.
A Joule heating based self-alignment method for solution-processable insulator structures has been modeled for the passivation of metal grid lines, for example for organic light emitting diodes or photovoltaic cells. To minimize overhang of the passivation layer from line edges, we have studied the Joule heating approach using solution-processable, cross-linkable polymer insulator films. Finite element simulations were performed to investigate the heating of the sample using glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The sample was at room temperature and the current was selected to induce a temperature of 410 K at the conductor. It was found that the selection of substrate material is crucial for the localization of cross-linking. For a PET substrate, the temperature gradient at the edge of the conductor is approximately twice the gradient for glass. As a result, using a glass substrate demands high selectivity from the polymer cross-linking, thus making PET a more suitable substrate material for our application. A flexible PET substrate is, in addition, compatible with roll-to-roll mass-manufacturing processes.
Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome with considerable heterogeneity in clinical profile. Identification of clinical subtypes can allow for more targeted clinical and research efforts. We sought to develop a brief method for clinical subtyping in clinical and research settings.
A multi-site database, including motor symptom assessments conducted in 487 patients from palliative care, adult and old age consultation-liaison psychiatry services was used to document motor activity disturbances as per the Delirium Motor Checklist (DMC). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify the class structure underpinning DMC data and also items for a brief subtyping scale. The concordance of the abbreviated scale was then compared with the original Delirium Motor Subtype Scale (DMSS) in 375 patients having delirium as per the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th edition) criteria.
Latent class analysis identified four classes that corresponded closely with the four recognized motor subtypes of delirium. Further, LCA of items (n = 15) that loaded >60% to the model identified four features that reliably identified the classes/subtypes, and these were combined as a brief motor subtyping scale (DMSS-4). There was good concordance for subtype attribution between the original DMSS and the DMSS-4 (κ = 0.63).
The DMSS-4 allows for rapid assessment of clinical subtypes in delirium and has high concordance with the longer and well-validated DMSS. More consistent clinical subtyping in delirium can facilitate better delirium management and more focused research effort.
A report on Toxoplasma gondii by the UK Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food recommended that more accurate figures on the burden of disease in the UK are needed. We present the first 5 years of data from an enhanced surveillance scheme for toxoplasmosis in England and Wales. Between 2008 and 2012, 1824 cases were reported, with an average of 365 each year. There were 1109 immunocompetent cases, the majority presenting with lymphadenopathy, and 364 immunosuppressed cases, with central nervous system and systemic symptoms most frequently reported. There were also 190 pregnant and 33 congenital cases. Of the pregnant cases, 148 were asymptomatic (probably detected during screening), while 28 suffered a fetal loss or stillbirth. The enhanced surveillance system has led to an improvement in the detection of toxoplasmosis in England and Wales. However, numbers are still likely to be an underestimate, biasing towards the more severe infections.
Fatigue is common and disabling in multiple sclerosis, yet its physiologic substrates remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between fatigue and an objective measure of alertness in MS patients.
This study enrolled 49 consecutive MS clinic patients at two academic hospitals in Toronto. Alertness was assessed with the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT), a ten-minute reaction-time test that measures attention and is sensitive to sleep loss. Patients with visual impairment or arm weakness were excluded. Validated tools were used to assess fatigue, disability, mood, and pain.
The average age was 43; 65% were women. Median EDSS was 2.0 (range 0-7.5). Fifty-five percent reported a high impact of fatigue on their lives. Psychomotor vigilance test performance was worse than in an age- and sex-matched population, with a mean reaction time of 315 msecs and 3.98 lapses >500 msec (p<0.001). In a multiple regression analysis, fatigue was the most significantly correlated factor with mean PVT reaction time (p<0.05), and disability was also significantly correlated (p<0.01). Mood and pain did not correlate with the PVT. Eighteen (37%) reported often experiencing restlessness in their legs at night.
Subjective fatigue and disability were associated with poor performance on alertness testing in MS patients. This research highlights a potential role for psychomotor vigilance testing in providing a standardized assessment tool for an important aspect of MS-related fatigue.
Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtype N2 genes of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) detected in Ireland between 2003 and 2007. Nucleotide sequences were compared to previously published sequences from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information. Sequences from viruses of the same subtype isolated in different years were compared to examine the possibility that LPAIVs may have been maintained in Ireland from year to year. All viruses had closest identity with published sequences of European lineage, supporting the conclusion that LPAIVs had been introduced to Ireland by dabbling ducks that had migrated from Europe. The data suggested that different subtypes of virus had been introduced each year. However, there was evidence that some LPAIVs may have been maintained in the sedentary waterfowl population for consecutive seasons. Furthermore, almost identical H6 and H10 sequences with different N types were found in isolates from the same season, suggesting that reassortment had occurred.
Background: Suicide rates are higher in the over 65s than in younger adults and there is a strong link between deliberate self harm (DSH) and suicide in older people. The association between personality disorder (PD) and DSH in older adults remains uncertain. Our objective was to describe this association.
Methods: A case control study was conducted in which participants were: (i) those who had undertaken an act of DSH and (ii) a hospital-based control group drawn from a geographical contiguous population. PD was assessed using the Standardised Assessment of Personality (SAP)
Results: Seventy-seven cases of DSH were identified; 61 (79.2%) of these participants were interviewed. There were 171 potential controls identified of whom 140 (81.9%) were included. An SAP was completed in 45/61 (73.8%) of cases and 100/140 (71.4%) of controls. The mean age was 79.8 years (SD = 9, range 65–103). The crude odds ratio for the association between PD and DSH was 5.91 [(95% CI 2.3, 14.9) p<0.0001]. There was a strong interaction with age stratified at 80 years. There was no association between PD and DSH after age 80. The adjusted odds ratio for PD in the group <80 years was 20.5 [(95% CI 3, 141) p = 0.002]. Borderline and impulsive PD traits tended to be associated with an episode of DSH more than other personality types.
Conclusions: PD appears to be a strong and independent risk for an act of DSH in people aged between 65 and 80 years and should be looked for as part of any risk assessment in this population. Access to specialist services may be required to optimally manage this problem and reduce the subsequent risk of suicide.