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Despite extensive research, symptom structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly debated. The network approach to psychopathology offers a novel method for understanding and conceptualizing PTSD. However, extant studies have mainly used small samples and self-report measures among sub-clinical populations, while also overlooking co-morbid depressive symptoms.
PTSD symptom network topology was estimated in a sample of 1489 treatment-seeking veteran patients based on a clinician-rated PTSD measure. Next, clinician-rated depressive symptoms were incorporated into the network to assess their influence on PTSD network structure. The PTSD-symptom network was then contrasted with the network of 306 trauma-exposed (TE) treatment-seeking patients not meeting full criteria for PTSD to assess corresponding network differences. Finally, a directed acyclic graph (DAG) was computed to estimate potential directionality among symptoms, including depressive symptoms and daily functioning.
The PTSD symptom network evidenced robust reliability. Flashbacks and getting emotionally upset by trauma reminders emerged as the most central nodes in the PTSD network, regardless of the inclusion of depressive symptoms. Distinct clustering emerged for PTSD and depressive symptoms within the comorbidity network. DAG analysis suggested a key triggering role for re-experiencing symptoms. Network topology in the PTSD sample was significantly distinct from that of the TE sample.
Flashbacks and psychological reactions to trauma reminders, along with their strong connections to other re-experiencing symptoms, have a pivotal role in the clinical presentation of combat-related PTSD among veterans. Depressive and posttraumatic symptoms constitute two separate diagnostic entities, but with meaningful between-disorder connections, suggesting two mutually-influential systems.
Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is becoming a standard manufacturing practice for a variety of biomaterials and biomedical devices. This layer-by-layer methodology provides the ability to fabricate parts from computer-aided design files without the need for part-specific tooling. Three-dimensional printed medical components have transformed the field of medicine through on-demand patient care with specialized treatment such as local, strategically timed drug delivery, and replacement of once-functioning body parts. Not only can 3DP technology provide individualized components, it also allows for advanced medical care, including surgical planning models to aid in training and provide temporary guides during surgical procedures for reinforced clinical success. Despite the advancement in 3DP technology, many challenges remain for forward progress, including sterilization concerns, reliability, and reproducibility. This article offers an overview of biomaterials and biomedical devices derived from metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites that can be three-dimensionally printed, as well as other techniques related to 3DP in medicine, including surgical planning, bioprinting, and drug delivery.
Influence of boron nitride (BN) addition in commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) was characterized for their microstructural variation, hardness, and oxidation kinetics. Feedstock powders, Cp-Ti with 3 wt% BN (3BN) and 6 wt% BN (6BN), were prepared by roller mill followed by additive manufacturing using laser engineered net shaping (LENS™). Rate of oxidation was measured from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at 1000 °C for 50 h. Average instantaneous parabolic constants (kp) for Cp-Ti, 3BN, and 6BN were 41.2 ± 12.0, 28.6 ± 2.8, and 18.2 ± 9.2 mg2/(cm4 h), respectively. Cp-Ti displayed acicular α-Ti microstructure. After TGA, large equiaxed grains along with TiO2 formation at the grain boundaries were observed, which increased the hardness. With BN addition, plate-like TiN and needle-like TiB secondary phases were also observed. Hardness for Cp-Ti, 3BN, and 6BN were 256.9 ± 7.7, 424.0 ± 33.6, and 548.3 ± 49.7 HV0.2, respectively. Overall, a small addition of BN was effective in improving the oxidation resistance of Cp-Ti.
The mechanical properties of metallic glasses are often tuned by annealing, which influences these properties by adjusting the relaxation and/or crystallization status of the glasses. Here, we studied the hardness and modulus of Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 bulk metallic glass annealed at different temperatures by nanoindentation, where the annealing gives the material different fictive temperatures and fractions of crystallization. It is found that both reducing the fictive temperature of a fully amorphous sample and increasing the degree of crystallization in a partially crystallized sample increase hardness and modulus. Combining the two approaches, elevated hardness and modulus values are found for composite materials containing both crystalline and amorphous phases when they are compared to chemically identical alloys featuring similar percentages of crystalline and amorphous phases that have been prepared by annealing at higher temperatures. Our findings indicate that the mechanical properties of the platinum-based alloys can be customized by processing them with targeted heat treatments.
Spring tillage is a component of an integrated weed management strategy for control of early emerging glyphosate-resistant weeds such as common ragweed; however, the effect of tillage on common ragweed emergence pattern is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether spring tillage during emergence would influence the emergence pattern or stimulate additional emergence of common ragweed and to characterize common ragweed emergence in southeast Nebraska. A field experiment was conducted for three years (2014 to 2016) in Gage County, Nebraska in a field naturally infested with glyphosate-resistant common ragweed. Treatments consisted of a no-tillage control and three spring tillage timings. The Soil Temperature and Moisture Model (STM2) software was used to estimate soil temperature and moisture at a 2-cm depth. The Weibull function was fit to total common ragweed emergence (%) with day of year (DOY), thermal time, and hydrothermal time as independent variables. Tillage treatments and year had no effect on total common ragweed emergence (P=0.88 and 0.35, respectively) and time to 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90% emergence (P=0.31). However, emergence pattern was affected by year (P=<0.001) with 50% total emergence reached on May 5 in 2014, April 20 in 2015, and April 2 in 2016 and 90% total emergence reached on May 12, 2014, May 8, 2015, and April 30, 2016. According to the corrected information-theoretic model comparison criterion (AICc), the Weibull function with thermal time and base temperature of 3 C best explained the emergence pattern over three years. This study concludes that spring tillage does not stimulate additional emergence; therefore, after the majority of the common ragweed has emerged and before the crop has been planted, tillage could be used as an effective component of an integrated glyphosate-resistant common ragweed management program in Nebraska.
To evaluate interventions to reduce avoidable antibiotic use on pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) services.
Interrupted time series.
Academic pediatric hospital with separate oncology and HSCT services.
Children admitted to the services during baseline (October 2011–August 2013) and 2 intervention periods, September 2013–June 2015 and July 2015–June 2016, including 1,525 oncology hospitalizations and 301 HSCT hospitalizations.
In phase 1, we completed an update of the institutional febrile neutropenia (FN) guideline for the pediatric oncology service, recommending first-line β-lactam monotherapy rather than routine use of 2 gram-negative agents. Phase 2 included updating the HSCT service FN guideline and engagement with a new pediatric antimicrobial stewardship program. The use of target antibiotics (tobramycin and ciprofloxacin) was measured in days of therapy per 1,000 patient days collected from administrative data. Intervention effects were evaluated using interrupted time series with segmented regression.
Phase 1 had mixed effects–long-term reduction in tobramycin use (97% below projected at 18 months) but rebound with increasing slope in ciprofloxacin use (+18% per month). Following phase 2, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin use on the oncology service were both 99% below projected levels at 12 months. On the HSCT service, tobramycin use was 99% below the projected level and ciprofloxacin use was 96% below the projected level at 12 months.
Locally adapted guidelines can facilitate practice changes in oncology and HSCT settings. More comprehensive and ongoing interventions, including follow-up education, feedback, and engagement of companion services may be needed to sustain changes.
The evolution of glyphosate and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor-resistant common waterhemp in the Midwestern United States has reduced the number of effective POST herbicide options for management of this problem weed in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Moreover, common waterhemp emerges throughout the crop growing season, justifying the need to evaluate herbicide programs that provide season-long control. The objectives of this study were to compare POST-only and PRE followed by (fb) POST herbicide programs for control of glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Dodge County, NE, in a field infested with glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp. Programs containing PRE herbicides resulted in ≥83% control of common waterhemp and densities of ≤35 plantsm–2 at 21 d after PRE (DAPRE). Post-only herbicide programs resulted in <70% control and densities of 107 to 215 plants m–2 at 14 d after early-POST (DAEPOST) treatment. PRE fb POST herbicide programs, including saflufenacil plus imazethapyr plus dimethenamid-P, sulfentrazone plus cloransulam, or S-metolachlor plus metribuzin, fb fomesafen plus glyphosate; S-metolachlor plus fomesafen fb acifluorfen plus glyphosate resulted in >90% control of glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp throughout the growing season, reduced density to ≤7plantsm–2, ≥92% biomass reduction, and soybean yield >2,200kg ha–1. Averaged across herbicide programs, common waterhemp control was 84%, and density was 15 plants m–2 with PRE fb POST herbicide programs compared with 42% control, and density of 101 plants m–2 with POST-only herbicide programs at harvest. Results of this study indicated that PRE fb POST herbicide programs with effective modes of action exist for season-long control of glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp in glyphosate-resistant soybean.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) common waterhemp has become a significant problem weed in Nebraska and several Midwestern states. Several populations of GR common waterhemp are also resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides, making them difficult to control with POST herbicides in GR soybean. Glufosinate-resistant (GFR) soybean is an alternate system for controlling GR common waterhemp, justifying the need for evaluating glufosinate-based herbicide programs. The objectives of this study were to compare POST-only herbicide programs (including one-pass and two-pass POST programs) with PRE followed by (fb) POST herbicide programs for control of GR common waterhemp in GFR soybean and their effect on common waterhemp density, biomass, and soybean yield. Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 near Fremont, NE in a grower’s field infested with GR common waterhemp. Glufosinate applied early- and late-POST provided 76% control of GR common waterhemp at 14 d after late-POST (DALPOST) compared with 93% control with a PRE fb POST program when averaged across treatments. The PRE application of chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron plus flumioxazin, S-metolachlor plus fomesafen or metribuzin, saflufenacil plus dimethenamid-P fb glufosinate provided ≥95% control of common waterhemp throughout the growing season, reduced common waterhemp density to ≤2.0 plants m─2, caused ≥94% biomass reduction, and led to 1,984 to 2,210 kg ha─1 soybean yield. Averaged across treatments, the PRE fb POST program provided 82% common waterhemp control at soybean harvest, reduced density to 23 plants m─2 at 14 DALPOST, and caused 86% biomass reduction and 1,803 kg ha─1 soybean yield compared with 77% control, 99 plants m─2, 53% biomass reduction, and 1,190 kg ha─1 yield with POST-only program. It is concluded that PRE fb POST programs with multiple effective modes of action are available for control of GR common waterhemp in GFR soybean.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease involving multiple organs, including the central nervous system. Evidence of immune dysfunction exists also in schizophrenia, a psychiatric illness involving chronic or recurrent psychosis. The aim of our study was to investigate if there is an epidemiological association between SLE and schizophrenia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted comparing patients with SLE with age and gender-matched controls regarding the proportion of patients with comorbid schizophrenia. χ2- and t-tests were used for univariate analysis, and interaction of schizophrenia with SLE across strata of covariates was checked. A logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The study was performed utilising the medical database of Clalit Health Services in Israel.
The study included 5018 patients with SLE and 25 090 controls. SLE patients had a female predominance, and a higher proportion of smoking compared with age and sex-matched controls. In multivariate analysis, SLE was found to be independently associated with schizophrenia while controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking (OR 1.33, p = 0.042).
We found a positive association between SLE and schizophrenia across patients of different age, gender and SES. This association can contribute to understanding the pathophysiology of the two disorders and may also have clinical implications for earlier as well as better diagnosis and treatment.
Giant ragweed is one of the most competitive annual broadleaf weeds in soybean production fields in the midwestern United States and eastern Canada because of its early emergence, rapid growth rate, high plasticity, and resistance to glyphosate and acetolactate synthase inhibitors. Therefore, early-season management of giant ragweed is critical to avoid yield loss. The objectives of this study were to evaluate control of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed through the integration of preplant tillage or 2,4-D; PRE or early POST (EPOST) followed by (fb) late POST (LPOST) herbicide programs with or without preplant tillage or 2,4-D; and their effect on soybean injury and yield. A field study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 in David City, NE in a field infested with glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed. Preplant tillage or 2,4-D application provided > 90% control of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed 14 d after preplant treatment. Giant ragweed control and biomass reduction were consistently > 90% with preplant tillage or 2,4-D fb sulfentrazone plus cloransulam PRE or glyphosate plus cloransulam EPOST fb glyphosate plus fomesafen or lactofen LPOST compared with ≤ 86% control with same treatments without preplant tillage or 2,4-D. PRE or EPOST fb LPOST herbicide programs preceded by preplant treatments resulted in giant ragweed density < 2 plants m−2 and soybean yield > 2,400 kg ha−1 compared with the density of ≥ 2 plants m−2 and soybean yield < 1,800 kg ha−1 under PRE or EPOST fb LPOST herbicide programs. The contrast analysis also indicated that preplant tillage or 2,4-D fb a PRE or POST program was more effective for giant ragweed management compared with PRE fb POST herbicide programs. Integration of preplant tillage would provide an alternative method for early-season control of giant ragweed; however, a follow up application of herbicides is needed for season-long control in soybean.
In the present work, a new type of coupled compact difference scheme has been proposed for the solution of computational acoustics and flow problems. The proposed scheme evaluates the first, the second and the fourth derivative terms simultaneously. Derived compact difference scheme has a significant spectral resolution and a physical dispersion relation preserving (DRP) ability over a considerable wavenumber range when a fourth order four stage Runge-Kutta scheme is used for the time integration. Central stencil has been used for the present numerical scheme to evaluate spatial derivative terms. Derived scheme has the capability of adding numerical diffusion adaptively to attenuate spurious high wavenumber oscillations responsible for numerical instabilities. The DRP nature of the proposed scheme across a wider wavenumber range provides accurate results for the model wave equations as well as computational acoustic problems. In addition to the attractive feature of adaptive diffusion, present scheme also helps to control spurious reflections from the domain boundaries and is projected as an alternative to the perfectly matched layer (PML) technique.
Glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp is a difficult-to-control annual broadleaf weed that has become a serious management challenge for growers in Nebraska and other states in the United States. The objectives of this study were to confirm glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp in Nebraska by quantifying level of resistance in a dose-response study, and to determine the sensitivity and efficacy of POST soybean herbicides for controlling suspected glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp biotypes. Seeds of suspected glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp biotypes were collected from seven eastern Nebraska counties. Greenhouse dose-response experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of common waterhemp biotypes to nine rates of glyphosate (0 to 16×). Common waterhemp biotypes were 3- to 39-fold resistant to glyphosate depending on the biotype being investigated and the susceptible biotype used for comparison. Results of the POST soybean herbicides efficacy experiment suggested that glyphosate-resistant biotypes, except a biotype from Pawnee County, had reduced sensitivity to acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides (chlorimuron-ethyl, imazamox, imazaquin, imazethapyr, and thifensulfuron-methyl). Glufosinate and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)–inhibiting herbicides (acifluorfen, fluthiacet-methyl, fomesafen, and lactofen) provided ≥ 80% control of glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp at 21 d after treatment (DAT). This study confirmed the first occurrence of glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp in Nebraska, and also revealed reduced sensitivity to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in most of the biotypes tested in this study.
Glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed is one of the most competitive weeds of agronomic crops in the United States. Early emergence and rapid growth rate makes giant ragweed a competitive weed early in the season and reduces crop yields. Therefore, early spring control of giant ragweed using a preplant herbicide is critical. Glufosinate is an alternative POST herbicide for weed control in glufosinate-resistant soybean. Field experiments were conducted at David City, NE, in 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the efficacy of preplant herbicides followed by glufosinate applied alone or in tank mixes for control of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed in glufosinate-resistant soybean. Preplant treatments containing 2,4-D, flumioxazin, glufosinate, paraquat, saflufenacil, and sulfentrazone provided 79 to 99% control of giant ragweed 21 d after treatment (DAT), and subsequent application of glufosinate alone or in tank mixes resulted in 90 to 99% control at 21 DAT. Preplant application of S-metolachlor plus metribuzin or chlorimuron, flumioxazin plus thifensulfuron followed by glufosinate resulted in < 40% control of giant ragweed, and soybean yields were < 870 kg ha−1. Although statistically comparable to several other treatments, preplant application of 2,4-D or saflufenacil tank mixes followed by glufosinate resulted in the highest level of control (> 97%) and soybean yield (2,624 to 3,378 kg ha−1). This study confirms that preplant herbicide options are available for control of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed, and a follow-up application of glufosinate will provide season-long control in glufosinate-resistant soybean.
Effect of Gd substitution at Y-site on the structural and magnetic properties of Y1-xGdxMnO3 (x=0, 0.05) nanoparticles prepared by conventional solid state reaction method has been studied. The structural study using X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the hexagonal structure with P63cm space group for all the samples. The average particle size for all the samples lies in the range of 30-40 nm as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The change in a and c lattice parameters confirm the substitution of Gd at Y-site. Magnetization versus temperature measurements show enhanced magnetic moment and an increase in Neel temperature with Gd-doping. Spin glass behavior is observed at low temperature in all the samples. Exchange bias effect has been observed at 5 K after field cooling the samples which is ascribed to the formation of antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) core-shell structure of the nanoparticles. A significant improvement in the dielectric properties of Gd-doped samples has also been observed.
Palmer amaranth is a difficult-to-control broadleaf weed that infests corn and soybean fields in south-central and southwestern Nebraska and several other states in the United States. The objectives of this research were to confirm triazine and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth in Nebraska and to determine sensitivity and efficacy of POST-applied corn herbicides for control of resistant and susceptible Palmer amaranth biotypes. Seeds from a putative HPPD-resistant Palmer amaranth biotype from Fillmore County, NE were collected from a seed corn production field in fall 2010. The response of Palmer amaranth biotypes to 12 rates (0 to 12×) of mesotrione, tembotrione, topramezone, and atrazine was evaluated in a dose–response bioassay in a greenhouse. On the basis of the values at the 90% effective dose (ED90) level, the analysis showed a 4- to 23-fold resistance depending upon the type of HPPD-inhibiting herbicide being investigated and susceptible biotype used for comparison. This biotype also had a 9- to 14-fold level of resistance to atrazine applied POST. Results of a POST-applied herbicide efficacy study suggested a synergistic interaction between atrazine and HPPD-inhibiting herbicides that resulted in > 90% control of all Palmer amaranth biotypes. The resistant biotype had a reduced sensitivity to acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides (halosulfuron and primisulfuron), a photosystem-II inhibitor (bromoxynil), and a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor (fluthiacet-methyl). Palmer amaranth biotypes were effectively controlled (≥ 90%) with glyphosate, glufosinate, and dicamba, whereas 2,4-D ester provided 81 to 83% control of the resistant biotype and > 90% control of both susceptible biotypes.
The effects of particle size and rigidity on segregation behaviour in confined simple shear flow of binary suspensions of fluid-filled elastic capsules are investigated in a model system that resembles blood. We study this problem with direct simulations as well as with a master equation model that incorporates two key sources of wall-normal particle transport: wall-induced migration and hydrodynamic pair collisions. The simulation results indicate that, in a mixture of large and small particles with equal capillary numbers, the small particles marginate, while the large particles antimarginate in their respective dilute suspensions. Here margination refers to localization of particles near walls, while antimargination refers to the opposite. In a mixture of particles with equal size and unequal capillary number, the stiffer particles marginate while the flexible particles antimarginate. The master equation model traces the origins of the segregation behaviour to the size and rigidity dependence of the wall-induced migration velocity and of the cross-stream particle displacements in various types of collisions. In particular, segregation by rigidity, especially at low volume fractions, is driven in large part by heterogeneous collisions, in which the stiff particle undergoes larger displacement. In contrast, segregation by size is driven mostly by the larger wall-induced migration velocity of larger particles. Additionally, a non-local drift-diffusion equation is derived from the master equation model, which provides further insights into the segregation behaviour.