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Hodostates Foerster is revised, representing the first comprehensive comparison of Nearctic and European species. Three species are recognized as valid, and the Nearctic Hodostates rotundatus (Davis) is recorded from Canada for the first time. Hodostates schaffneri Hinz is transferred to Lethades Davis, based largely on ovipositor morphology, and is redescribed. Placement in the tribe Pionini is discussed, given the presence of a deep subapical notch in the ovipositor of both New and Old World species of Hodostates. Host records for Hodostates are reviewed.
The temperature dependent band structure of the pentatelluride ZrTe5 has been examined using the technique of high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission in conjunction with synchrotron radiation. Specifically, the band dispersion along the X-Γ-X high symmetry axis was mapped at 20K (T<Tc) and 170K (T>Tc), where Tc≃160K. One electron band and two hole bands within 0.5eV of the Fermi level have been identified. The dispersion of the bands indicates that they have extremely small electron and hole effective masses. The hole bands were observed to distort and shift in energy upon raising the sample temperature above Tc, indicative of a surface distortion.
Morphometric studies of five allopatric parasitoid populations (genus Psyttalia Walker) from coffee plantations in Cameroon (Nkolbisson), Ghana (Tafo) and Kenya (Rurima, Ruiru and Shimba Hills) and one non-coffee population (from Muhaka, Kenya) were compared with individuals of Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti), a species released in several biological control programmes in the Mediterranean Region since the 20th Century. Analyses of wing vein measurements showed the second submarginal cell of the fore wing and its adjoining veins had the heaviest principal component weights and served as the main contributing variables in the diagnostic differentiation of the populations. Two populations (Rurima and Ruiru) were found to be the closest to each other and with the strongest phenetic affinity toward P. concolor (and forming one cluster). Populations from Shimba Hills (of unknown identity), Nkolbisson (P. perproximus (Silvestri)) and Tafo formed a second cluster and were separated from P. concolor. Comparison using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) also showed the Shimba, Nkolbisson and Tafo populations forming a cluster in a dendrogram generated from their genetic distances, with the Shimba and Tafo populations placed as the most closely related species. Based on consistent morphological similarities, morphometric and ecological data coupled with the genetic evidence from AFLP data, the Shimba population is suggested as belonging to the P. perproximus group and, thus, represents a new occurrence record in Kenya. Our results also support earlier conclusion from cross mating data that populations from Rurima and Ruiru belong to the Psyttalia concolor species-group.
The predominantly Afrotropical fruit fly genus Ceratitis contains many species of agricultural importance. Consequently, quarantine of Ceratitis species is a major concern for governmental regulatory agencies. Although diagnostic keys exist for identification of all described Ceratitis species, these tools are based on adult characters. Flies intercepted at ports of entry are usually immatures, and Ceratitis species cannot be diagnosed based on larval morphology. To facilitate identification of Ceratitis pests at ports of entry, this study explores the utility of DNA-based diagnostic tools for a select group of Ceratitis species and related tephritids, some of which infest agriculturally important crops in Africa. The application of the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) method to analyse three mitochondrial genes (12S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, and NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 6) is sufficient to diagnose 25 species and two species clusters. PCR analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS-1) is able to distinguish three of the five species left unresolved by mitochondrial DNA analysis.
This review describes the features of glomus jugulare tumours with metastases. There were 100 sites of metastasis in the 53 cases previously reported. The sites of metastasis may be summarized as bone (33), lungs (23), lymph nodes (19), liver (nine) and other (16). Metastases presented up to 30 years after the initial treatment. The mean age of patients was 45 years and the sex ratio was approximately two females to one male, with no significant difference compared to non-metastatic tumours. There was a significantly higher incidence of pain and a significantly lower incidence of hearing loss at presentation compared to non-metastatic tumours. The commonest treatment was a combination of surgery and radiotherapy. The duration of symptoms before diagnosis was significantly shorter and the rates of persistent or recurrent local disease and death were significantly higher than for non-metastatic tumours. This review highlights the fact that glomus jugulare tumours are not always benign.
Glomus jugulare tumours are classically described as benign tumours with a long time course often measured in decades. Although these tumours may be locally invasive, most cases are histologically benign and metastases are rare. The case of a malignant glomus jugulare tumour with a particularly aggressive pattern of spread is presented. At the time of surgery, which was within 12 months of the development of symptoms, intracranial spread and metastasis to cervical lymph nodes had already occurred, demonstrating that glomus jugulare tumours are not always benign.
Low temperatures affect the rate of growth, development and metabolism of parasites and when temperatures fall below 0°C may expose the parasite to the potentially lethal risk of freezing. Some parasites have mechanisms, such as diapause, which synchronise their life cycle with favourable seasons and the availability of hosts. Parasites of endothermic hosts are protected from low temperatures by the thermoregulatory abilities of their host. Free-living and off-host stages, however, may be exposed to subzero temperatures and both freezing-tolerant and freeze-avoiding strategies of cold hardiness are found. Parasites of ectothermic hosts may be exposed to subzero temperatures within their hosts. They can rely on the cold tolerance adaptations of their host or they may develop their own mechanisms. Exposure to low temperatures may occur within the carcass of the host and this may be of epidemiological significance if the parasite can be transmitted via the consumption of the carcass.
The fast ignitor concept for inertial confinement fusion relies on the generation of hot electrons, produced by a short-pulse ultrahigh intensity laser, which propagate through high-density plasma to deposit their energy in the compressed fuel core and heat it to ignition. In preliminary experiments designed to investigate deep heating of high-density matter, we used a 20 joule, 0.5–30 ps laser to heat solid targets, and used emission spectroscopy to measure plasma temperatures and densities achieved at large depths (2–20 microns) away from the initial target surface. The targets consisted of an Al tracer layer buried within a massive CH slab; H-like and He-like line emission was then used to diagnose plasma conditions. We observe spectra from tracer layers buried up to 20 microns deep, measure emission durations of up to 200 ps, measure plasma temperatures up to Te=650 eV, and measure electron densities above 1023 cm−3. Analysis is in progress, but the data are in reasonable agreement with heating simulations when space-charge induced inhibition is included in hot-electron transport, and this supports the conclusion that the deep heating is initiated by hot electrons.
The bresiliid shrimp Alvinocaris markensis is a predator that inhabits the base of sulphide mounds built by the black smoker chimneys of active hydrothermal vents at the Snake Pit site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Casual examination of animals collected with theDSV ‘Alvin’ suggests that, like other biesiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents, the eyes of this species are adapted for vision in very dim light. However, examination of the structure and ultrastructure of eyes of animals collected and immediately fixed shows that the expected massive array of photoreceptors is partially or completely missing. The eye is enlarged, its dioptric apparatus has disappeared, its screening pigment is essentially gone, and its reflecting pigment cells have formed an enlarged mass of white diffusing cells behind the expected layer of photoreceptors. In half of the animals examined, there were no recognizable photoreceptors in the retina, and in the remaining animals there were only scattered photoreceptors with poorly organized microvillar arrays of photosensitive membrane. We conclude that this species is blind despite some retinal adaptations for vision in very dim light. Apparently, the ambient light of this animal's environment is below the quit point (the minimum level that can be exploited) so that the retina has begun to degenerate by losing its photoreceptors.
A case of chrondrosarcoma of the petrous temporal bone is presented. Chondrosarcomas rarely occur intracranially and typically present as a petrous apex mass. The dilemmas faced in the diagnosis and treatment of petrous apex chondrosarcomas are discussed. This case also gives interesting insight into the natural history of this tumour.
Wetanema sp. is a nematode parasite of the hind gut of the freezing-tolerant orthopteran Hemideina maori (a New Zealand alpine weta). The prevalence and intensity of infection remains high throughout the winter, suggesting that the parasite can survive despite the regular freezing of the host. In the laboratory, Wetanema has survived freezing within its host to temperatures as low as −61 °C, much lower than the supercooling point or lower lethal temperature of the weta. The freezing tolerance of the parasite is therefore much greater than that of its host. Female worms survived lower temperatures better than males and juveniles. Parasites might assist the freezing tolerance of their host if they acted as endogenous ice nucleators. However, there was no relationship between the size of the worm burden and the supercooling point of the host and no significant difference between the supercooling points of infected and uninfected hosts. The freezing and subsequent survival of isolated Wetanema was observed directly on a microscope cold stage. This parasite of a freezing- tolerant host is thus also freezing tolerant. There are few other reports of a parasite surviving freezing within a living host.
Ultrastructural changes associated with exsheathment of the infective juveniles of Haemonchus contortus are described. Hyaline ring formation occurs associated with annulations 10 and 20 and consists of the dissolution of the basal zone and the inner electron-dense layer resulting in the rupture of the sheath. These changes are consistent with the action of a protease-exsheathing enzyme. There is a significant reduction associated with exsheathment in the size of the excretory cells and the number of excretory granules contained within them. No changes in the oesophagus were observed associated with exsheathment. These, and the observations of earlier workers, suggest that it is the excretory cells and not the oesophagus which are the source of exsheathing fluid during exsheathment.
The energies and configurations of interstitials and vacancies in the ordered compounds CuTi and CuTi2 were determined using atomistic simulation with realistic embedded-atom potentials. The formation energy of an antisite pair was found to be 0.385 and 0.460 eV in CuTi and CuTi2, respectively. In both compounds, the creation of a vacancy by the removal of either a Cu or Ti atom resulted in a vacant Cu site, with an adjacent antisite defect in the case of the Ti vacancy. The vacant Cu site in CuTi was found to be very mobile within two adjacent (001) Cu planes, with a migration energy of 0.19 eV, giving rise to two-dimensional migration. The vacancy migration energy across (001) Ti planes, however, was 1.32 eV, which could be lowered to 0.75 or 0.60 eV if one or two Cu antisite defects were initially present in these planes. In CuTi2, the vacancy migration energy of 0.92 eV along the (001) Cu plane was significantly higher than in CuTi. The effective vacancy formation energies were calculated to be 1.09 eV and 0.90 eV in CuTi and CuTi2, respectively. Interstitials created by inserting either a Cu or Ti atom had complicated configurations in which a Cu 〈111〉 split interstitial was surrounded by two or three Ti antisite defects. The interstitial formation energy was estimated to be 1.7 eV in CuTi and 1.9 eV in CuTi2.
Removal of the sheath of the ensheathed infective juvenile of Trichostrongylus colubriformis prevents capture by the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. Exposure of the trap hyphae to a variety of saccharides, which may block a recognition system based on lectin/carbohydrate binding, failed to prevent capture but some saccharides did inhibit penetration and invasion by the fungus. Capture and penetration thus appear to be two distinct processes with capture being less specific than penetration. Carbohydrate residues were absent from the outer surface of the cuticle and the sheath but were present on the inner surface of the sheath. The limited accessibility of these lectin-binding sites may explain the slow process of infection of the infective juvenile by the fungus. The sheath does not protect the infective juvenile against attack by this nematophagous fungus.
The nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora traps and invades all the free-living juvenile stages of the tri-chostrongyle nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The processes of capture and invasion of the 1st-stage juveniles are described using differential interference contrast optics and 3-D reconstruction techniques. The adhesive responsible for capture is well preserved using a freeze-substitution technique for scanning electron microscopy. The invasion process of the ensheathed 3rd-stage juvenile of T. colubriformis takes much longer than in the 1st- or 2nd-stage juvenile and involves the formation of secondary infection pegs between the sheath and the cuticle which appear to penetrate the cuticle by physical pressure.
Digonogastra kimballi sp. n. and D. solitaria Wharton & Quicke sp. n. are described from Texas and Mexico. They attack stalk-boring pyralids in a variety of gramineous plants, including maize, sorghum and sugarcane. Known hosts are Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and five species of Diatraea.