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Acid-alkali-acid (AAA) pretreatment is widely used to clean terrestrial plant macrofossil samples for radiocarbon (14C) dating. There is wide variation amongst laboratories in the AAA method details and less rigorous AAA pretreatment is often used on fragile or small samples. Yet there is little evidence as to the efficacy of the different methods and whether the use of less rigorous methods is justified. We investigated four variations of AAA pretreatment: acid only (no alkali wash); room temperature AAA; “standard” AAA at 85°C; and “aggressive” AAA at 85°C with alkali washes repeated until no discoloration was detected. We tested six different terrestrial macrofossils from four different locations and ranging in age from mid-Holocene to the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results demonstrate that while acid only is not always sufficient to remove young material, there is no difference in 14C age of samples pretreated by any of the AAA variants. We also observed mass loss of 85–90% in the standard and aggressive AAA pretreatments, and much more modest mass loss in the room temperature AAA pretreatment. Therefore, we conclude that room temperature AAA pretreatment is optimal to remove contaminating material from fragile terrestrial macrofossils while retaining the majority of the authentic sample material.
On 29 April 2015, four beacons were deployed onto an ice island in the Strait of Belle Isle to record positional data. The ice island later broke up into many fragments, four of which were tracked by the beacons. The relative influences of wind drag, current drag, Coriolis force, sea surface height gradient and sea-ice force on the drift of the tracked ice island fragments were analyzed. Using atmospheric and oceanic model outputs, the sea-ice force was calculated as the residual of the fragments' net forces and the sum of all other forces. This was compared against the force obtained through ice concentration-dependent relationships when sea ice was present. The sea-ice forces calculated from the residual approach and concentration-dependent relationships were significant only when sea ice was present at medium-high concentrations in the vicinity of the ice island fragments. The forces from ocean currents and sea surface tilt contributed the most to the drift of the ice island fragments. Wind, however, played a minimal role in the total force governing the drift of the four ice island fragments, and Coriolis force was significant when the fragments were drifting at higher speeds.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer globally. CRC risk is increased by obesity, and by its lifestyle determinants notably physical inactivity and poor nutrition. Obesity results in increased inflammation and oxidative stress which cause genomic damage and contribute to mitochondrial dysregulation and CRC risk. The mitochondrial dysfunction associated with obesity includes abnormal mitochondrial size, morphology and reduced autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of key mitochondrial regulators. Although there is strong evidence that increased adiposity increases CRC risk, evidence for the effects of intentional weight loss on CRC risk is much more limited. In model systems, energy depletion leads to enhanced mitochondrial integrity, capacity, function and biogenesis but the effects of obesity and weight loss on mitochondria in the human colon are not known. We are using weight loss following bariatric surgery to investigate the effects of altered adiposity on mitochondrial structure and function in human colonocytes. In summary, there is strong and consistent evidence in model systems and more limited evidence in human subjects that over-feeding and/or obesity result in mitochondrial dysfunction and that weight loss might mitigate or reverse some of these effects.
We present a study of the energy levels in a FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/Spiro solar cell device. The measurements are performed using a novel ambient pressure photoemission (APS) technique alongside Contact Potential Difference data from a Kelvin Probe. The Perovskite Solar Cell energy band diagram is demonstrated for the device in dark conditions and under illumination from a 150W Quartz Tungsten Halogen lamp. This approach provides useful information on the interaction between the different materials in this solar cell device. Additionally, non-destructive macroscopic DC and AC Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy (SPS) studies are demonstrated of different MAPBI3 device structures to give an indication of overall device performance. AC-SPS measurements, previously used on traditional semiconductors to study the mobility, are used in this case to characterise the ability of a perovskite solar cell device to respond rapidly to chopped light. Two different device structures studied showed very different characteristics: Sample A (without TiO2): (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polyTPD/CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM) had ∼4 times the magnitude of AC-SPS response compared to Sample B (including TiO2): (ITO/TiO2/ CH3NH3PbI3/Spiro). This demonstrates that the carrier speed characteristics of device architecture A is superior to device architecture B. The TiO2 layer has been associated with carrier trapping which is illustrated in this example. However, the DC-SPV performance of sample B is ∼5 times greater than that of sample A. The band gap of the MAPBI3 layer was determined through DC-SPS (1.57 ± 0.07 eV), Voc of the devices measured and qualitative observations made of interface trapping by DC light pulsing. The combination of these (APS, KP, AC/DC-SPV/SPS) techniques offers a more general method for measuring the energy level alignments and performance of Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Devices.
An explanation is provided for the disruptive instability in diverted tokamaks when the safety factor
at the 95 % poloidal flux surface,
, is driven below 2.0. The instability is a resistive kink counterpart to the current-driven ideal mode that traditionally explained the corresponding disruption in limited cross-sections (Shafranov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys., vol. 15, 1970, p. 175) when
, the safety factor at the outermost closed flux surface, lies just below a rational value
. Experimentally, external kink modes are observed in limiter configurations as the current in a tokamak is ramped up and
decreases through successive rational surfaces. For
, the instability is always encountered and is highly disruptive. However, diverted plasmas, in which
is formally infinite in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, have presented a longstanding difficulty since the theory would predict stability, yet, the disruptive limit occurs in practice when
, reaches 2. It is shown from numerical calculations that a resistive kink mode is linearly destabilized by the rapidly increasing resistivity at the plasma edge when
. The resistive kink behaves much like the ideal kink with predominantly kink or interchange parity and no real sign of a tearing component. However, the growth rates scale with a fractional power of the resistivity near the
surface. The results have a direct bearing on the conventional edge cutoff procedures used in most ideal MHD codes, as well as implications for ITER and for future reactor options.
Substantial healthcare resources are devoted to panic disorder (PD) and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the association between these conditions remains controversial. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of studies assessing the association between PD, related syndromes, and incident CHD.
Relevant studies were retrieved from Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS and PsycINFO without restrictions from inception to January 2015 supplemented with hand-searching. We included studies that reported hazard ratios (HR) or sufficient data to calculate the risk ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) which were pooled using a random-effects model. Studies utilizing self-reported CHD were ineligible. Twelve studies were included comprising 1 131 612 persons and 58 111 incident CHD cases.
PD was associated with the primary incident CHD endpoint [adjusted HR (aHR) 1.47, 95% CI 1.24–1.74, p < 0.00001] even after excluding angina (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.22–1.81, p < 0.00001). High to moderate quality evidence suggested an association with incident major adverse cardiac events (MACE; aHR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16–1.69, p = 0.0004) and myocardial infarction (aHR 1.36, 95% CI 1.12–1.66, p = 0.002). The risk for CHD was significant after excluding depression (aHR 1.64, 95% CI 1.45–1.85) and after depression adjustment (aHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.03–1.87). Age, sex, length of follow-up, socioeconomic status and diabetes were sources of heterogeneity in the primary endpoint.
Meta-analysis showed that PD was independently associated with incident CHD, myocardial infarction and MACE; however, reverse causality cannot be ruled out and there was evidence of heterogeneity.
We evaluated 222 hospitalized patients whose clinical isolates were tested using standard methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). MALDI-TOF could have reduced time to appropriate therapy for 28.8% and 44.6% patients based on the treating physician's choices and stewardship team recommendations, respectively. Clinicians should be aware of scenarios in which MALDI-TOF can optimize antibiotic therapy.
Experiments demonstrate the ~77× amplification of 0.5 to 3.5-ps pulses of seed light by interaction with Langmuir waves in a low density (1.2 × 1019 cm−3) plasma produced by a 1-ns, 230-J, 1054-nm pump beam with 1.2 × 1014 W/cm2 intensity. The waves are strongly damped (kλD = 0.38, Te = 244 eV) and grow over a ~ 1 mm length, similar to what is experienced by scattered light when it interacts with crossing beams as it exits an ignition target. The amplification reduces when the seed intensity increases above ~1 × 1011 W/cm2, indicating that saturation of the plasma waves on the electron kinetic time scale (<0.5 ps) limits the scatter to ~1% of the available pump energy. The observations are in agreement with 2D PIC simulations in this case.
While ocean current and winds certainly play a major role in guiding the trajectories of free-floating icebergs, the direct effect of atmospheric surface pressure gradients can also have an important influence on the trajectories of large icebergs whose horizontal dimensions are sufficiently great to span synoptic systems. This effect is examined as a way of understanding why icebergs B15A, B15J, B15K, and C16 became “trapped” in a limited region immediately north of Ross Island for a period of several years, without being grounded. This limited region is otherwise flushed annually by summer surface winds and currents; thus the delay of the northward drift of the large icebergs (particularly B15A and B15J) defied expectation. The best explanation for this unexpected iceberg behaviour is that the large volcanic massifs on Ross Island create a quasi-permanent surface pressure anomaly patterned as a dipole, with high pressure in the area upwind of the island (an area appropriately called Windless Bight), and low pressure in the downwind area of the iceberg parking lot. The surface pressure regime experienced by two icebergs B15A and B15K is estimated using Automatic Weather Station observations and Global Positioning System receivers deployed on their surfaces to explain why they remained trapped. Breakdown of the atmospheric pressure gradients allowed them to eventually escape from the region to the north-west.
The equine passport legislation is a comparatively new scheme that requires all horses to have a passport by 28th February 2005 (Defra, 2004). The equine passport is thought to have had a major impact on the industry in the United Kingdom, however the extent of this is, as yet, unknown due to the lack of current research. The UK Government hopes that the passport scheme will monitor horses that have been treated with medication and guarantee that they are not slaughtered for human consumption (Frank, 2003, Defra, 2004). Whilst the scheme originated from European food safety legislation (Ellis, 2003), the UK Government believes that there are other benefits attached to the equine passport, such as gaining comprehensive records about the equine population in the UK, which is crucial information required for epidemiological reasons (Mellor et al., 1999). The information will provide a denominator for the assessment of disease rates, and which areas of the country may be under threat.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects are responsible for symptom complexes that are characteristically heterogeneous but are typically represented by muscle weakness and neurological deficits. One common feature of mitochondrial disease is deafness. This report details the assessment and outcome of a patient with a previously undescribed mtDNA rearrangement who underwent cochlear implantation. The patient shows a marked improvement in sentence recognition tests and recognition of environmental sounds. Patients with profound sensorineural hearing loss due to mtDNA defects should be considered as candidates for cochlear implantation when they no longer benefit from conventional hearing aids.
We present broad band photometry (B and R) of the classic shell galaxy NGC 474. Preliminary results indicate that the shells have a similar colour to and follow the same trend of colour with radius as the underlying galaxy.
Site-selective photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy have been carried out at 6K on the ∼1540 nm 4I15/2 → 4I15/2 emissions of Er3+ in Er-implanted GaN. The PLE spectra exhibit several broad, below-gap, defect- or impurity-related absorption bands which excite three distinct site-selective Er + PL spectra. The near-band edge spectral position and lineshape of the PLE spectrum of one of the site-selective PL bands suggest that this Er site forms a trap level within the band gap and an exciton bound at this trap is involved in the excitation mechanism. In addition, high resolution PLE spectra obtained with a tunable laser in the 810 nm spectral range reveal a set of sharp PLE peaks due to the 4I15/2 → 4I9/2 internal Er+ ƒ-band absorption superimposed on the broad defect PLE band. The site-selective PL spectrum excited by the sharp line ∼810 nm Er+ intra-ƒ shell PLE bands is characteristic of a fourth distinct Er+ site. The simple structure of the site-selective PL and PLE spectra associated with direct intra-ƒ shell absorption suggests that the optically active Er site responsible for these spectra is of high symmetry in wurtzite GaN and that it could be attributed to a single Er atom on a Ga site.
We summarize and add to the biostratigraphy and magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Washakie Formation, Washakie Basin, Wyoming. Previously the Washakie Formation (divided into the lower Kinney Rim Member and the upper Adobe Town Member) was thought to contain rocks of early Bridgerian through late Uintan age. Continuing collection efforts in the Washakie Basin by the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) allow us to revise the biochronologically determined age of the Washakie Formation to late Bridgerian through early Uintan age.
A late Bridgerian age for the poorly fossiliferous Kinney Rim Member of the Washakie Formation is indicated by the presence of Hyrachyus eximius (a taxon with a late Bridgerian first occurrence elsewhere). In addition, the following taxa are also known from the Kinney Rim Member: Peratherium cf. P. knighti, cf. Apatemys bellus, Hyopsodus sp., Orohippus sp., Mesatirhinus sp., Helaletes nanus, and Hyrachyus modestus (all known from the Bridgerian elsewhere, but none restricted to the late Bridgerian, except possibly Mesatirhinus). In addition, taxa restricted to the early Bridgerian of the Bridger Basin (e.g., Smilodectes) have not been recovered from the Washakie Formation, except for a possible new species of tillodont from the Kinney Rim Member.
An early Uintan age for the upper unit of the Adobe Town Member, the uppermost unit in the Washakie Formation, is indicated by the occurrence of Pareumys grangeri (restricted to the early Uintan elsewhere). In addition, Paramys compressidens and Epihippus gracilis (both known from the Uintan elsewhere, but neither restricted to the early Uintan) are also known from the upper unit.
AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with multiple quantum wells were grown by plasmaassisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). Structural and optical properties of the heterostructures were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, cathodoldminescence, and photoluminescence. Interband transitions were clearly observed in the GaN quantum wells at both room- and liquid-helium temperatures. The efficiency of the interband recombination due to the confinement effect was greatly enhanced in the thinner quantum wells. The functional dependence of the interband peaks on the well thickness is shown to be in good agreement with the calculated positions of the quantized levels in the wells.