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Despite trends towards greater LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) rights in industrialized democracies, the rights of sexual minorities have become increasingly politicized and restricted throughout Africa. Recognizing religion's central role in shaping attitudes toward gays and lesbians, we hypothesize that local religious diversity could expose individuals to alternative religious perspectives, engender tolerance toward marginalized communities, and therefore dislodge dogmatic beliefs about social issues. Employing cross-national Afrobarometer survey data from 33 countries with an index of district-level religious concentration, we find that respondents living in religiously pluralistic communities are 4–5 points more likely to express tolerance of homosexual neighbors (50% increase) compared to those in homogeneous locales. This effect is not driven by outlier countries, the existence of specific religious affiliations within diverse communities, respondents' religiosity, or other observable and latent factors at the country, sub-national, district, and individual level. Further robustness checks address potential threats to validity. We conclude that religious diversity can foster inclusion of sexual minorities in Africa.
CompStat emerged in the mid 1990s and quickly came to be seen as a major innovation in American policing. By the turn of the century it had received national awards from Harvard University and former Vice President Gore, and was featured prominently along with William Bratton (the police administrator who created the program) in the national news media. Its originators and proponents gave CompStat credit for impressive reductions in crime and improvements in neighborhood quality of life in a number of cities that had adopted the program (Silverman, 1996; Remnick, 1997; Gurwitt, 1998; Bratton, 1999). And while CompStat was first introduced only in 1994 in New York City, police departments around the country had begun to adopt it or variations of it by the first decade of the new century (Law Enforcement News, 1997; Maas, 1998; McDonald, 1998; Weisburd et al., 2003; Willis, Mastrofski & Kochel, 2010a). Indeed, in a Police Foundation survey conducted only six years after CompStat emerged on the scene in New York City, more than a third of American police agencies with 100 or more sworn officers claimed to have implemented a CompStat-like program (Weisburd et al., 2001). By 2006, Willis, Mastrofski, and Kochel (2010b) reported that about 60 percent of large police agencies had adopted CompStat, and a Police Executive Research Forum membership survey in 2011 reported that 85 percent of 166 responding member agencies reported having adopted or plans to adopt CompStat (Bureau of Justice Assistance & Police Executive Research Forum, 2013). Drawing on this survey and the comments of police leaders, researchers, and others attending a conference on CompStat in 2013, a report on the meeting offered a uniformly positive assessment of CompStat’s performance to date, as well as its future potential: “Regardless of how it develops in the future, it is clear that Compstat has become an integral part of policing in the United States by helping agencies become more productive, agile, and effective” (BJA & PERF, 2013: 30).
Provision of critical care and resuscitation was not practical during early missions into space. Given likely advancements in commercial spaceflight and increased human presence in low Earth orbit (LEO) in the coming decades, development of these capabilities should be considered as the likelihood of emergent medical evacuation increases.
PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Technical Server, and Defense Technical Information Center were searched from inception to December 2018. Articles specifically addressing critical care and resuscitation during emergency medical evacuation from LEO were selected. Evidence was graded using Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines.
The search resulted in 109 articles included in the review with a total of 2,177 subjects. There were two Level I systematic reviews, 33 Level II prospective studies with 647 subjects, seven Level III retrospective studies with 1,455 subjects, and two Level IV case series with four subjects. There were two Level V case reports and 63 pertinent review articles.
The development of a medical evacuation capability is an important consideration for future missions. This review revealed potential hurdles in the design of a dedicated LEO evacuation spacecraft. The ability to provide critical care and resuscitation during transport is likely to be limited by mass, volume, cost, and re-entry forces. Stabilization and treatment of the patient should be performed prior to departure, if possible, and emphasis should be on a rapid and safe return to Earth for definitive care.
About three decades ago, a few American police leaders caught the wave of community policing reform, and now just about everybody has gone surfing. If recent nationwide polls of police are indicative, many lower-ranking officers are catching the community policing wave (Mastrofski, 2017). Early interest in this reform can be attributed to police anxieties in the 1960s and 70s about skyrocketing crime and urban violence, unmet rising expectations from the civil rights movement, and middle-class alienation from government authority (Fogelson, 1977: ch. 11). Like a “perfect storm” these forces converged, stimulating criticism from blue ribbon commissions and a daily drumbeat of negative press for police. Calls for change were issued, some radical: community control of policing, deprofessionalization, and reassignment of some core police tasks to other government agencies and the private sector. Alarmed and intent on ending this crisis of legitimacy (LaFree, 1998), progressive police and scholars began to explore ways to make American police both more effective and more democratic without losing many of the advances made in policing in the previous half century (Goldstein, 1977; 1990; Trojanowicz & Bucqueroux, 1990; Wilson & Kelling, 1982). The resulting community policing reforms were influenced by fashions in organization development intended to make agencies less bureaucratic, more responsive to the “customer,” and more results oriented (Mastrofski, 1998; Mastrofski and Ritti, 2000). Although early twenty-first-century concerns about the threat of terrorism may have dissipated federal financial support for community policing, highly publicized events featuring violence between police and the community have stoked alarm about the state of police–community relations, resulting in a national blue-ribbon commission document that once again advances community policing as a key to American policing that is more effective and legitimate (President’s Task Force, 2015: 43): “Recommendation: Community policing should be infused throughout the culture and organizational structure of law enforcement agencies.”
Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (red oak borer; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a native wood borer that colonises and develops in oaks (Quercus Linnaeus; Fagaceae) across southeastern Canada and the eastern United States of America. It is rarely considered a pest because it normally occurs at low population density levels in stressed or dying oak trees. In the late 1990s and early 2000s there was a large, historically unique outbreak of E. rufulus in the Ozark mountains of Arkansas and Missouri, United States of America. This outbreak provided an opportunity to investigate within-tree spatial distribution of attacks during unusually high insect population levels. Fifty trees from northern Arkansas were felled and destructively sampled. The locations of attack sites by female E. rufulus were standardised across varying heights and diameters for comparison across trees. Attack sites showed a significant clustered pattern within trees. Attack sites were aggregated towards the lower and middle bole, and on the south-facing side of trees. This pattern has been seen in other insects, including wood borers, and is potentially related to differences in temperature. These patterns of ovipositional behaviour in outbreak situations have implications for E. rufulus resource partitioning and facultative intraguild predation among larvae.
Historic period Plains biographic art provides narratives of the deeds and actions of Indigenous peoples of the region. The Crow (Apsáalooke) are one such people with a rich record of biographic drawings in rock art and portable works. However, chronological and stylistic links between these two media have long been thought out of reach, even though such links are essential if the abundant Historic period rock art is to be fully incorporated into discussions of Apsáalooke history and their connection better ascertained to documented historical and ethnohistorical events and trends. Indeed, the lack of such a framework locks away a vast wealth of history in these hundreds of rock art pictures. In this article we present a statistical framework for comparing better-dated Crow portable artworks with their rock art equivalents. We are able to place rock art imagery from five sites into a relatively fine-grained chronological order, which permits a better understanding of changing patterns in Crow stylistic imagery. This permits a direct association with changing historical circumstances and facilitates a better understanding of the link between social history and the changing patterns seen in these artworks. Moreover, in one case, our analysis provides archaeological confirmation of Crow ethnohistory.
As more debates in American politics become constitutional questions, effective citizens must engage in constitutional interpretation. While most Americans venerate the Constitution as a part of a national, civil religion, levels of constitutional knowledge are also very low. In this paper, we analyze how ordinary Americans approach the task of constitutional interpretation. An analysis of two cross-sectional surveys indicates constitutional hermeneutics are a product of political factors, religious affiliation, and biblical interpretive preferences. We also present the results of a survey experiment where the manipulation of a clergy's interpretation of a biblical passage affects how respondents interpret both scripture and the Constitution, providing a potential causal mechanism for learning how to engage in hermeneutics.
Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Clinton, NC, to determine the interspecific and intraspecific interference of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) or large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] in ‘Covington’ sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]. Amaranthus palmeri and D. sanguinalis were established 1 d after sweetpotato transplanting and maintained season-long at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 0, 1, 2, 4, 16 plants m−1 of row in the presence and absence of sweetpotato, respectively. Predicted yield loss for sweetpotato was 35% to 76% for D. sanguinalis at 1 to 16 plants m−1 of row and 50% to 79% for A. palmeri at 1 to 8 plants m−1 of row. Weed dry biomass per meter of row increased linearly with increasing weed density. Individual dry biomass of A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis was not affected by weed density when grown in the presence of sweetpotato. When grown without sweetpotato, individual weed dry biomass decreased 71% and 62% from 1 to 4 plants m−1 row for A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis, respectively. Individual weed dry biomass was not affected above 4 plants m−1 row to the highest densities of 8 and 16 plants m−1 row for A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis, respectively.
Children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders are at elevated risk for a range of behavioral and emotional problems. However, as the usual reporter of psychopathology in children is the parent, reports of early problems in children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders may be biased by the parents' own experience of mental illness and their mental state.
Independent observers rated psychopathology using the Test Observation Form in 378 children and youth between the ages of 4 and 24 (mean = 11.01, s.d. = 4.40) who had a parent with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or no history of mood and psychotic disorders.
Observed attentional problems were elevated in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia (effect sizes ranging between 0.31 and 0.56). Oppositional behavior and language/thought problems showed variable degrees of elevation (effect sizes 0.17 to 0.57) across the three high-risk groups, with the greatest difficulties observed in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Observed anxiety was increased in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (effect sizes 0.19 and 0.25 respectively) but not in offspring of parents with schizophrenia.
Our results suggest that externalizing problems and cognitive and language difficulties may represent a general manifestation of familial risk for mood and psychotic disorders, while anxiety may be a specific marker of liability for mood disorders. Observer assessment may improve early identification of risk and selection of youth who may benefit from targeted prevention.
Intermediation in private equity involves illiquid investments, professional investors, and high information asymmetry. We use this unique setting to empirically evaluate theoretical predictions regarding intermediation. Using placement agents has become nearly ubiquitous, but agents are associated with significantly lower abnormal returns in venture and real estate funds, consistent with investor capture and influence peddling. However, returns are higher for buyout funds employing a top-tier agent and for first-time real estate and venture funds employing an agent, and are less volatile for agent-affiliated funds, consistent with a certification role. Our results suggest heterogeneous motives for intermediation in the private equity industry.
To investigate the extent of suspected hybridization between the brolga Antigone rubicunda and the Australian sarus crane Antigone antigone gillae, first noted in the 1970s, we analysed the genetic diversity of 389 feathers collected from breeding and flocking areas in north Queensland, Australia. We compared these with 15 samples from birds of known identity, or that were phenotypically typical. Bayesian clustering based on 10 microsatellite loci identified nine admixed birds, confirming that Australian cranes hybridize in the wild. Four of these were backcrosses, also confirming that wild Australian crane hybrids are fertile. Genetic analyses identified 10 times more hybrids than our accompanying visual field observations. Our analyses also provide the first definitive evidence that both brolgas and sarus cranes migrate between the Gulf Plains, the principal breeding area for sarus cranes, and major non-breeding locations on the Atherton Tablelands. We suggest that genetic analysis of shed feathers could potentially offer a cost-effective means to provide ongoing monitoring of this migration. The first observations of hybrids coincided with significantly increased opportunities for interaction between the two species when foraging on agricultural crops, which have developed significantly in the Atherton Tablelands flocking area since the 1960s. As the sarus crane is declining in much of its Asian range, challenges to the genetic integrity of the Australian sarus crane populations have international conservation significance.
Background: As with other specialties, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) trainees in Neurosurgery have anecdotally had challenges securing full-time employment. This study presents the employment status, research pursuits, and fellowship choices of neurosurgery trainees in Canadian programs. Methods: RCPSC neurosurgery trainees (n = 143) who began their residency training between 1998 and 2008 were included in this study. Associations between year of residency completion, research pursuits, and fellowship choice with career outcomes were determined by Fisher’s exact test (p < 0.05, statistical significance). Results: In 2015, 60% and 26% of neurosurgery trainees had permanent positions in Canada and the USA, respectively. Underemployment, defined as locum and clinical associate positions, pursuit of multiple unrelated fellowships, unemployment, and career change to non-surgical career, was 12% in 2015. The proportion of neurosurgery trainees who had been underemployed at some point within 5 years since residency completion was 20%. Pursuit of in-folded research (MSc, PhD, or non-degree research greater than 1 year) was significantly associated with obtaining full employment (94% vs. 73%, p = 0.011). However, fellowship training was not significantly associated with obtaining full employment (78% vs. 75%, p = 1.000). Conclusions: Underemployment in neurosurgery has become a significant issue in Canada for various reasons. Pursuit of in-folded research, but not fellowship training, was associated with obtaining full employment.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.