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Submarine melting of tidewater glaciers is proposed as a trigger for their recent thinning, acceleration and retreat. We estimate spring submarine melt rates (SMRs) of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia in southwest Greenland, from 2012 to 2014, by examining changes in along-fjord freeboard and velocity of the seasonal floating ice tongue. Estimated SMRs vary spatially and temporally near the grounding line, with mean rates of 1.3 ± 0.6, 0.8 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.4 m d−1 across the tongue in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. Higher melt rates correspond with locations of emerging subglacial plumes and terminus calving activity observed during the melt season using time-lapse camera imagery. Modelling of subglacial flow paths suggests a dynamic system capable of rapid re-routing of subglacial discharge both within and between melt seasons. Our results provide an empirically-derived link between the presence of subglacial discharge plumes and areas of high spring submarine melting and calving along glacier termini.
Mental health problems are inseparable from the environment. With virtual reality (VR), computer-generated interactive environments, individuals can repeatedly experience their problematic situations and be taught, via evidence-based psychological treatments, how to overcome difficulties. VR is moving out of specialist laboratories. Our central aim was to describe the potential of VR in mental health, including a consideration of the first 20 years of applications. A systematic review of empirical studies was conducted. In all, 285 studies were identified, with 86 concerning assessment, 45 theory development, and 154 treatment. The main disorders researched were anxiety (n = 192), schizophrenia (n = 44), substance-related disorders (n = 22) and eating disorders (n = 18). There are pioneering early studies, but the methodological quality of studies was generally low. The gaps in meaningful applications to mental health are extensive. The most established finding is that VR exposure-based treatments can reduce anxiety disorders, but there are numerous research and treatment avenues of promise. VR was found to be a much-misused term, often applied to non-interactive and non-immersive technologies. We conclude that VR has the potential to transform the assessment, understanding and treatment of mental health problems. The treatment possibilities will only be realized if – with the user experience at the heart of design – the best immersive VR technology is combined with targeted translational interventions. The capability of VR to simulate reality could greatly increase access to psychological therapies, while treatment outcomes could be enhanced by the technology's ability to create new realities. VR may merit the level of attention given to neuroimaging.
The new generation of energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) detectors with higher count rates than ever before, paves the way for a new approach to quantitative elemental analysis in the scanning transmission electron microscope. Here we demonstrate a method of calculating partial cross sections for use in quantifying EDX data, beneficial especially because of the simplicity of its implementation. Applying this approach to acid-leached PtCo catalyst nanoparticles leads to quantitative determination of the Pt surface enrichment.
Being physically assaulted is known to increase the risk of the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms but it may also skew judgements about the intentions of other people. The objectives of the study were to assess paranoia and PTSD after an assault and to test whether theory-derived cognitive factors predicted the persistence of these problems.
At 4 weeks after hospital attendance due to an assault, 106 people were assessed on multiple symptom measures (including virtual reality) and cognitive factors from models of paranoia and PTSD. The symptom measures were repeated 3 and 6 months later.
Factor analysis indicated that paranoia and PTSD were distinct experiences, though positively correlated. At 4 weeks, 33% of participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD, falling to 16% at follow-up. Of the group at the first assessment, 80% reported that since the assault they were excessively fearful of other people, which over time fell to 66%. Almost all the cognitive factors (including information-processing style during the trauma, mental defeat, qualities of unwanted memories, self-blame, negative thoughts about self, worry, safety behaviours, anomalous internal experiences and cognitive inflexibility) predicted later paranoia and PTSD, but there was little evidence of differential prediction.
Paranoia after an assault may be common and distinguishable from PTSD but predicted by a strikingly similar range of factors.
Feeding pregnant rats a protein-restricted (PR) diet induces altered expression of candidate genes in the liver of the adult offspring, which can be prevented by supplementation of the PR diet with folic acid (PRF). We investigated the effect of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on the liver transcriptome in their adult male offspring. Pregnant rats were fed control, PR or PRF diets. Male offspring were killed on day 84. The liver transcriptome was analysed by microarray (six livers per maternal dietary group) followed by post hoc analysis of relative mRNA levels and gene ontology. These results were confirmed for selected genes by real-time RT-PCR. There were 311 genes that differed significantly ( ≥ 1·5-fold change; P < 0·05) between PR offspring (222 increased) and control offspring, while 191 genes differed significantly between PRF offspring (forty-five increased) compared with offspring of control dams. There were sixteen genes that were significantly altered in both PR and PRF offspring compared with controls. Ion transport, developmental process, and response to reactive oxygen species (RROS) and steroid hormone response (SHR) ontologies were altered in PR offspring. Folic acid supplementation prevented changes within RROS and SHR response pathways, but not in ion transport or developmental process. There was no effect of maternal PR on mRNA expression of imprinted genes. Insulin 1 and Pleckstrin homology-like domain family A member 2 were increased significantly in PRF compared with PR offspring. The present findings show that the pattern of induced changes in the adult liver transcriptome were dependent on maternal protein and folic acid intakes during pregnancy.
In recent years a close association between anxiety and persecutory ideation has been established, contrary to the traditional division of neurosis and psychosis. Nonetheless, the two experiences are distinct. The aim of this study was to identify factors that distinguish the occurrence of social anxiety and paranoid thoughts in an experimental situation.
Two hundred non-clinical individuals broadly representative of the UK general population were assessed on a range of psychological factors, experienced a neutral virtual reality social environment, and then completed state measures of paranoia and social anxiety. Clustered bivariate logistic regressions were carried out, testing interactions between potential predictors and the type of reaction in virtual reality.
The strongest finding was that the presence of perceptual anomalies increased the risk of paranoid reactions but decreased the risk of social anxiety. Anxiety, depression, worry and interpersonal sensitivity all had similar associations with paranoia and social anxiety.
The study shows that social anxiety and persecutory ideation share many of the same predictive factors. Non-clinical paranoia may be a type of anxious fear. However, perceptual anomalies are a distinct predictor of paranoia. In the context of an individual feeling anxious, the occurrence of odd internal feelings in social situations may lead to delusional ideas through a sense of ‘things not seeming right’. The study illustrates the approach of focusing on experiences such as paranoid thinking rather than diagnoses such as schizophrenia.
Computational modeling techniques have been used to investigate the interaction of arsenate with the dolomite (211) surface. The suitability of a variety of techniques has been assessed in the context of their applicability to the problem, in order to determine the least computationally expensive method of modeling the mineral-solution interface. To this end, various methods of solvating arsenate have been investigated, and a reliable solvation energy has been determined for the molecule. The adsorption geometry of the primary arsenate ion at the dolomite surface has been determined under vacuum conditions. Additionally, solvation of the dolomite surface has studied using molecular dynamics, and results show that there is some layering 2Å above the surface, and that dissociation of the water molecules occurs in this layer.
Surveying the topography of towns before 1300 inevitably draws heavily on the disciplines of archaeology and plan analysis, rather than on documents and standing buildings, which are predominantly late medieval. Fortunately, the proliferation of urban excavations since the 1970s has produced a huge volume of topographical material, telling us much more about the siting, phases and layout of many towns than could be learnt from documents alone. This does not mean that we should neglect the value of early documents, however brief and laconic: the expert excavator of medieval Paris, Michel Fleury, demonstrates from personal experience ‘la nécessité d'allier constamment les données des sources écrites à celles que fournissent les fouilles archéologiques’. Nevertheless, there is much detail that we could never have gleaned of early medieval topography without excavation, and for the very earliest periods for the most crucial facts – whether a town site remained inhabited, or whether it was relocated – such evidence is all we have. It is therefore important that major discoveries of the past few years be built into general syntheses as soon as possible, and that is one of the purposes of this volume.
Most Roman town sites were also urban in the middle ages, and in most cases the Roman core lies beneath the modern town centre. However, to move from those premises to the conclusion of ‘continuity of site if not of urbanism’ is to go beyond the evidence. It is now clear that, of the four most important towns of the earliest post-Roman period, Ipswich was without a Roman past, while London and York developed on open sites outside the Roman walls before shifting back into the fortified area in the ninth and tenth centuries.
Perceived difficulty in obtaining hospital admission for acute psychiatric patients was investigated in one health region using a self-reporting method. Over 17 months both inner city and rural districts reported a total of 327 episodes of difficulty in finding a bed. One hundred and six (32%) of reported cases could not be admitted, the remainder being admitted to a ‘leave’ bed, a bed booked for another patient, or elsewhere, solutions likely to compromise care. Attempts to locate a vacant bed required numerous telephone calls and led to considerable delays. Thirty-nine (12%) of the patients were described as particularly ill, but five of them absconded during the prolonged search for a bed, and a further 17 had to remain in the community, pending a vacant bed, including two aggressive and eight suicidal patients. Considerable under-reporting was confirmed. Possible consequences of the situation are discussed.
Reinfection with hookworm (Necator americanus) following chemotherapy was studied over 2 years in a rural village in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. The prevalence of hookworm infection had returned to pre-treatment levels after 2 years, and the geometric mean hookworm burden had returned to 58 % of the pre-treatment value. The rate of acquisition of adult worms was independent of host age, and was estimated as a geometric mean of 2·9–3·3 worms/host/year (arithmetic mean 7·9–8·9 worms/host/year). There was significant predisposition to hookworm infection; the strength of this predisposition did not vary significantly between age or sex classes.
Baseline data from an immuno-epidemiological study of hookworm infection in a rural village in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea are reported. Necator americanus was found to be the commonest helminth infection, with a prevalence of near 100% and intensity of 40 worms per host in adults. Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were also present, at prevalences of 53, 10 and 3% respectively; Ancylostoma duodenale was absent. The frequency distribution of N. americanus was highly over-dispersed, and was well described by a negative binomial distribution with aggregation parameter, k, of 0·370. Intensity of infection was significantly related to host age, but did not differ between the sexes. Haemoglobin levels and haematocrit values were indicative of anaemia in the community, but were unrelated to hookworm infection. Levels of antibodies (IgG, IgA and 1gM combined) against adult Necator cuticular collagen and excretory-secretory (ES) products were determined.
Growth and survival rates for larvae and pupae of Aedes vexans (Meigen) were measured in the laboratory at constant temperatures of 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°, and 30 °C. Growth rates in all stages increased with temperature except for 1st stage larvae which developed marginally faster at 25°C than at 30°C. The shortest stage at all temperatures was the 2nd, followed in most cases by the 3rd, 1st, and 4th larval stages, and then pupae; pupae and 4th stage larvae took markedly longer to develop at low temperatures. Average survival rate was about 99% every 3 h for larvae and 98% for pupae. At 10° and 15°C, 1st and 2nd stage larvae survived no better than later stages, but at the higher temperatures survival to the 3rd stage larva was better than 90% but decreased markedly in the 3rd and 4th stages. Overall survival was highest at 25°C. Mosquitoes reared at 10°C did not pupate, while those reared at 30 °C pupated but adults did not emerge.
These laboratory data were used in a computer program whose output under field temperature regimes was compared with events in the field. The program works in 3 h time-steps. Rate of development varies with temperature and utilizes a modification of the algorithm of Stinner et al. (1975); the modification removes time as the independent variable in the development equation. Mortality rates are constant at 1% every 3 h for larvae and 2% for pupae. The program’s predictions for graduation from one stage to the next in the field population were all within about 13 h of the observed times and at the start of the pupal stage after 400 h, the output was running 13 h slow. The program appears to run slow at median temperatures below 10 °C and fast at median temperatures above 14°C. Events in the laboratory rearings are offered as possible explanations for these discrepancies. Predicted population size was close to that observed until the late 4th stage larva, from which point it deviated markedly. Pupal mortality in the field was much higher than in the laboratory.
1. A pilot survey was designed to provide information on the mechanical conditions and fuel consumptions of vaporizing oil tractors, on their operation in the field and on the technique required to obtain such data.
2. Two areas were chosen offering a contrast in soil and farming types. A sampling frame was prepared for each area in which the farms were grouped according to the number of tractors.