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To quantitatively test the hypothesis that older patients have increased thyroarytenoid muscle atrophy by comparing thyroarytenoid muscle volumes across different age groups.
A retrospective chart review was conducted. The study included 111 patients with no history of laryngeal pathology. Two investigators reviewed magnetic resonance imaging studies of these patients and manually traced the thyroarytenoid muscles on multiple slices bilaterally. Thyroarytenoid muscle volumes were then computed using imaging analysis software. Patients were stratified into three age groups (18–50 years, 51–64 years, and 65 years or older) for comparison.
Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were excellent for all measurements (intraclass correlation co-efficient > 0.90). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean volumes of left and right thyroarytenoid muscles in all age and gender groups.
Given the lack of statistically significant difference in thyroarytenoid muscle volume between age groups on magnetic resonance imaging, the prevailing assumption that age-related thyroarytenoid muscle atrophy contributes to presbyphonia should be re-examined.
Background: Optic pathway gliomas (OPG) represent 5% of pediatric brain tumours. Visual acuity measures are used to evaluate treatment response. Current clinical tests to assess visual field integrity are subjective and require verbal cooperation. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (ssVEPs) to measure visual field integrity in a non-invasive and objective manner. Methods: SsVEPs were obtained in ten children with OPGs and 42 controls ages 3 to 21. The stimuli consisted of two circular dartboard patterns stimulating fovea and peripheral zones at two flickering frequencies, so that central and peripheral visual fields could be assessed simultaneously. The test consisted of eight stimuli presentations of 10 seconds. Results: Results indicate significantly lower ssVEP amplitudes in children with OPGs (M=2.52, 95% CI [1.13, 3.92]) compared to controls (M=13.26, 95% CI [8.85, 17.67]) in the central visual field (p=.021). However, no between group differences were detected in the peripheral field (p >.05). There were no significant differences between age groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: This objective, affordable, and non-invasive method appears to be effective in detecting central visual field deficits in children with OPGs rapidly and consistently.
We investigated relationship between pasture biomass and measures of height and NDVI (normalised difference vegetation index). The pastures were tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica) located in Tasmania, Victoria and in the Northern Tablelands of NSW, Australia. Using the Trimble® GreenSeeker® Handheld active optical sensor (AOS) to measure NDVI, and a rising plate meter, the optimal model to estimate green dry biomass (GDM) during two years was a combination of NDVI and falling plate height index. The combined index was significantly correlated with GDM in each region during winter and spring (r2=0.62–0.77, P<0.001). Regional calibrations provided a smaller error in estimates of green biomass, required for potential application in the field, compared to a single overall calibration. Data collected in a third year will be used to test the accuracy of the models.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and subsequent neonatal catch-up growth are implicated in the programming of increased appetite, adiposity and cardiometabolic diseases. Guinea pigs provide an alternate small animal model to rodents to investigate mechanisms underlying prenatal programming, being relatively precocial at birth, with smaller litter sizes and undergoing neonatal catch-up growth after IUGR. The current study, therefore, investigated postnatal consequences of spontaneous IUGR due to varying litter size in this species. Size at birth, neonatal, juvenile (post-weaning, 30–60 days) and adolescent (60–90 days) growth, juvenile and adolescent food intake, and body composition of young adults (120 days) were measured in 158 male and female guinea pigs from litter sizes of one to five pups. Compared with singleton pups, birth weight of pups from litters of five was reduced by 38%. Other birth size measures were reduced to lesser degrees with head dimensions being relatively conserved. Pups from larger litters had faster fractional neonatal growth and faster absolute and fractional juvenile growth rates (P<0.005 for all). Relationships of post-weaning growth, feed intakes and adult body composition with size at birth and neonatal growth rate were sex specific, with neonatal growth rates strongly and positively correlated with adiposity in males only. In conclusion, spontaneous IUGR due to large litter sizes in the guinea pig causes many of the programmed sequelae of IUGR reported in other species, including human. This may therefore be a useful model to investigate the mechanisms underpinning perinatal programming of hyperphagia, obesity and longer-term metabolic consequences.
Rosette nanotubes (RNTs) are tubular architectures generated through the hierarchical self-assembly of the guanine-cytosine (G∧C) motif 1 or 2 (Figure 1). Motif 2 differs from 1 by the substitution at the N-atom in the G-ring with a C-atom as shown in red. In this paper, we prepare a new tricyclic G∧C base 3 from a functionalized derivative of 2 and demonstrate its self-assembly into fluorescent helical RNTs in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The self-assembly and fluorescent properties of RNTs 3 were established using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-visible spectroscopy.
Ferroelectric epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) layers were grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3/GaAs templates fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. The templates present an excellent structural quality and the SrTiO3/GaAs is abrupt at the atomic scale thanks to surface Ti pre-treatment. The PZT layers contain a- and c- domains, as shown by X-Ray diffraction analyses. Piezoforce microscopy experiments and macroscopic electrical characterizations indicate that PZT is ferroelectric. A relative dielectric permittivity of 164 is extracted from these measurements.
We address the issue of parameter variations in POD approximations of time-dependent
problems, without any specific restriction on the form of parameter dependence.
Considering a parabolic model problem, we propose a POD construction strategy allowing us
to obtain some a priori error estimates controlled by the POD remainder –
in the construction procedure – and some parameter-wise interpolation errors for the model
solutions. We provide a thorough numerical assessment of this strategy with the
FitzHugh − Nagumo 1D model. Finally, we give detailed illustrations of the approach in two
parameter estimation applications, the first in a variational estimation framework with
the FitzHugh − Nagumo model, and the second with a beating heart mechanical model for
which we employ a sequential estimation method to characterize model parameters using real
image data in a clinical case.
This book explores the power of print and the politics of the book in South Africa from a range of disciplinary perspectives—historical, bibliographic, literary-critical, sociological, and cultural studies. The essays collected here, by leading international scholars, address a range of topics as varied as: the role of print cultures in contests over the nature of the colonial public sphere in the nineteenth century; orthography; iimbongi, orature and the canon; book- collecting and libraries; print and transnationalism; Indian Ocean cosmopolitanisms; books in war; how the fates of South African texts, locally and globally, have been affected by their material instantiations; photocomics and other ephemera; censorship, during and after apartheid; books about art and books as art; local academic publishing; and the challenge of ‘book history’ for literary and cultural criticism in contemporary South Africa.