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Considering the impact of coastal dynamics on the radiocarbon (14C) marine reservoir effect (MRE), upwelling has the potential of enhancing marine influence, usually 14C depleted. Freshwater input can contribute either to increased reservoir offsets, when dead carbon from rock weathering is available, but also towards an atmospheric 14C signal, when the presence of terrestrial organic matter from catchment prevails. An overview of the MRE studies based on shellmounds on the coast of Rio de Janeiro reveals a pattern of negative local corrections for Saquarema and Rio das Ostras but positive values for Cabo Frio island, suggesting the presence of cold upwelling waters in Cabo Frio at 1.6–1.2 cal kBP. New results for a shellmound on the Ilha Grande island, in the western portion of the Rio de Janeiro coast, revealed a negative value at about 3 ka. We discuss distribution of MRE values and temporal variability in the region and their relation to ocean dynamics, continental input and the choice of marine organisms used for ∆R determination. A comparison of local reservoir offsets for the Saquarema region obtained from fish otolith and mollusk shells revealed similar ΔR distributions, showing that both materials can be equally used.
This study aimed at evaluating the integrated measles and rubella surveillance system (IMRSS) in Apulia region, Italy, from its introduction in 2013 to 30 June 2016. Measles and rubella case reports were extracted from IMRSS. We estimated system sensitivity at the level of case reporting, using the capture–recapture method for three data sources. Data quality was described as the completeness of variables and timeliness of notification as the median-time interval from symptoms onset to initial alert. The proportion of suspected cases with laboratory investigation, the rate of discarded cases and the origin of infection were also computed. A total of 127 measles and four rubella suspected cases were reported to IMRSS and 82 were laboratory confirmed. Focusing our analysis on measles, IMRSS sensitivity was 82% (95% CI: 75–87). Completeness was >98% for mandatory variables and 57% for ‘genotyping’. The median-time interval from symptoms onset to initial alert was 4.5 days, with a timeliness of notification of 33% (41 cases reported ⩽48 h). The proportion of laboratory investigation was 87%. The rate of discarded cases was 0.1 per 100 000 inhabitants per year. The origin of infection was identified for 85% of cases. It is concluded that IMRSS provides good quality data and has good sensitivity; still efforts should be made to improve the completeness of laboratory-related variables, timeliness and to increase the rate of discarded cases.
The proportion of seasonal anoestrous ewes that ovulate in response to the introduction of rams has long been thought to be influenced by pheromone production by the rams (Watson and Radford, 1960). More recently the role of the sexual behaviour of the rams as a source of ewe stimulation has been demonstrated (Perkins and Fitzgerald, 1994). The present study investigated the hypothesis that the exposure of rams to ewes in oestrus can enhance rams’ sexual behaviour and consequently improve the efficacy of the ram effect.
Sixteen groups of 16 anoestrous ewes, described as the experimental ewes, were randomly allocated to 4 treatments and 4 periods. Treatments were as follows; ewes introduced to 2 rams (R), ewes introduced to 2 rams and 4 oestrous ewes (RE), ewes introduced to 2 rams recendy exposed to 4 oestrous ewes (ER) and ewes introduced to 2 rams recently exposed to 4 oestrous ewes plus a further 4 oestrous ewes (ERE). Treatments were replicated 4 times (4 periods) with 2-week intervals starting on 4 July. Another group of 16 ewes remained isolated from rams during the course of the experiment (C).
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program began in 1976 and transitioned into a 3-year Master’s degree program in 2006 when Rockefeller joined the National Institute of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award program. The program consists of ∼15 trainees supported by the Clinical and Translational Science Award KL2 award and University funds. It is designed to provide an optimal environment for junior translational investigators to develop team science and leadership skills by designing and performing a human subjects protocol under the supervision of a distinguished senior investigator mentor and a team of content expert educators. This is complemented by a tutorial focused on important translational skills.
Since 2006, 40 Clinical Scholars have graduated from the programs and gone on to careers in academia (72%), government service (5%), industry (15%), and private medical practice (3%); 2 (5%) remain in training programs; 39/40 remain in translational research careers with 23 National Institute of Health awards totaling $23 million, foundation and philanthropic support of $20.3 million, and foreign government and foundation support of $6 million. They have made wide ranging scientific discoveries and have endeavored to translate those discoveries into improved human health.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program provides one model for translational science training.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction ability of models that cope with longevity phenotypic expression as uncensored and censored in Nellore cattle. Longevity was defined as the difference between the dates of last weaned calf and cow birth. There were information of 77 353 females, being 61 097 cows with uncensored phenotypic information and 16 256 cows with censored records. These data were analyzed considering three different models: (1) Gaussian linear model (LM), in which only uncensored records were considered; and two models that consider both uncensored and censored records: (2) Censored Gaussian linear model (CLM); and (3) Weibull frailty hazard model (WM). For the model prediction ability comparisons, the data set was randomly divided into training and validation sets, containing 80% and 20% of the records, respectively. There were considered 10 repetitions applying the following restrictions: (a) at least three animals per contemporary group in the training set; and (b) sires with more than 10 progenies with uncensored records (352 sires) should have daughters in the training and validation sets. The variance components estimated using the whole data set in each model were used as true values in the prediction of breeding values of the animals in the training set. The WM model showed the best prediction ability, providing the lowest χ2 average and the highest number of sets in which a model had the smallest value of χ2 statistics. The CLM and LM models showed prediction abilities 2.6% and 3.7% less efficient than WM, respectively. In addition, the accuracies of sire breeding values for LM and CLM were lower than those obtained for WM. The percentages of bulls in common, considering only 10% of sires with the highest breeding values, were around 75% and 54%, respectively, between LM–CLM and LM–WM models, considering all sires, and 75% between LM–CLM and LM–WM, when only sires with more than 10 progenies with uncensored records were taken into account. These results are indicative of reranking of animals in terms of genetic merit between LM, CLM and WM. The model in which censored records of longevity were excluded from the analysis showed the lowest prediction ability. The WM provides the best predictive performance, therefore this model would be recommended to perform genetic evaluation of longevity in this population.
Among other zooarchaeological remains, terrestrial snails’ shells from the Thaumastus and Megalobulimus genera are found in some Brazilian shellmounds, presenting a potential substitute for charcoal in radiocarbon dating analyses, as reliable representatives of the atmospheric carbon isotopic ratio. In this paper, we present statistically similar results of both charcoal and land snails samples from the same archaeological contexts in three settlements on the coast of Rio de Janeiro. The Manitiba I shellmound results range from 4.2 to 3.7 ka cal BP (95.4%), contemporary with the Saquarema shellmound, occupied during the period from 4.3 to 3.6 ka cal BP (95.4%). For the Usiminas shellmound, two groups of samples revealed different periods of time for two occupational layers from 2.3 to 2.1 ka cal BP (95.4%) and from 1.6 and 1.3 ka cal BP (95.4%). A model constraining each group of samples to within a single phase has a general agreement of 97% with only two outliers out of 22 dates, yielding minimum individual agreement of 74% and 7% posterior outlier probability for Saquarema shells. These are good examples of sites in which the occupation chronology can be successfully obtained by the radiocarbon dating of land snails.
In the near future, ruminants may be forced to consume low-quality water since potable drinking water will become increasingly scarce in some regions of the world. A completely randomized design trial was completed to evaluate the effect of increasing concentrations of total dissolved salts (TDS) (640, 3187, 5740 and 8326 mg TDS/l) in drinking water on the performance, diet digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen (N) and water balance using 24 Red Sindhi heifers (200 ± 5 kg) that were fed Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) grass hay and concentrate in a ratio of 50 : 50. After a 15-day diet adaptation period, the digestion study was completed over a 5-day period and the performance trial was completed over a 56-day period. Dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed:gain, intake and digestibility of most feed components were unaffected by the concentration of salt in the water. However, intake and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre declined linearly as TDS inclusion rate increased. Further, the inclusion of TDS resulted in a linear increase in the intake of drinking water and total (food plus drinking) water intake. Similarly, TDS inclusion levels resulted in a linear increase in total water excretion, with urine being the major route of water excretion. In contrast, increasing concentrations of TDS caused a linear decrease in creatinine and allantoin excretions. Finally, increasing the inclusion rate of TDS resulted in a linear decrease in N retention and a linear increase in urinary N excretion, which may pose a considerable challenge for farmers with respect to the reduction and management of nutrient losses.
Kefir is fermented milk produced from grains that comprise a specific and complex mixture of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. The nutritional composition of kefir varies according to the milk composition, the microbiological composition of the grains used, the time/temperature of fermentation and storage conditions. Kefir originates from the Caucasus and Tibet. Recently, kefir has raised interest in the scientific community due to its numerous beneficial effects on health. Currently, several scientific studies have supported the health benefits of kefir, as reported historically as a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion, as well as being a safe and inexpensive food, easily produced at home. Regular consumption of kefir has been associated with improved digestion and tolerance to lactose, antibacterial effect, hypocholesterolaemic effect, control of plasma glucose, anti-hypertensive effect, anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, anti-allergenic activity and healing effects. A large proportion of the studies that support these findings were conducted in vitro or in animal models. However, there is a need for systematic clinical trials to better understand the effects of regular use of kefir as part of a diet, and for their effect on preventing diseases. Thus, the present review focuses on the nutritional and microbiological composition of kefir and presents relevant findings associated with the beneficial effects of kefir on human and animal health.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in serum and liver and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity of cattle experimentally infected by Fasciola hepatica. The group A consisted of five healthy animals (uninfected), and the group B was composed of five animals orally infected with 200 metacercariae of F. hepatica. On days 20, 40, 60 and 80 post-infection (PI) serum was collected to measure oxidative stress variables. On day 100 PI, animals were humanely euthanized and liver samples were collected. Infected animals showed lower (P < 0·05) seric ADA activities on days 40 and 60 PI but higher (P < 0·05) in the liver tissue compared with uninfected animals. Seric and hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) were higher (P < 0·05) in infected compared with uninfected animals. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were higher (P < 0·05) in infected animals. Catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities were lower in liver tissue of infected animals, while glutathione peroxidase was higher compared with uninfected (P < 0·05). In summary, we conclude that oxidative stress occurs in cattle experimentally infected by F. hepatica, mainly due to excessive ROS production in the course of fasciolosis, contributing to hepatic damage, and that increased in hepatic ADA activity may contribute to the inflammatory process.
The sabellariid worms are important ecosystem engineers in coastal zones, due to their ability to construct sand reefs, modify environments and structure biological communities. This article describes the reproductive biology of Sabellaria wilsoni on a beach of the Amazon coast. Each month between May 2008 and April 2009, specimens were collected for morphometric and histological analyses for sexing and determination of gonadal maturity. In females, the number and diameter of the oocytes at different stages of vitellogenesis were also recorded. The results showed that the species is dioecious, with sexual reproduction, females larger than males, and a female-biased sex ratio (overall, 1.6♀: 1♂). Four distinct stages of gonadal maturation were identified in the males and females – (i) initial development, (ii) maturing, (iii) mature and (iv) spawning. Sexual maturity is attained rapidly, and reproduction is continuous, with two breeding peaks, one in the dry season, related to the increased intensity of hydrodynamic conditions and reef erosion; and the other in the rainy season, when the availability of space and nutrients increases. The reproductive strategy of the species reinforces the classification of the sabellariids as r-strategists, adapted to colonize habitats with unstable environmental conditions.
CVD affect a large proportion of the world’s population, with dyslipidaemia as the major risk factor. The regular consumption of both probiotic bacteria and yeast has been associated with improvement in the serum lipid profile. Thus, the present review aims to describe and discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for the hypocholesterolaemic effect of regular consumption of probiotic bacteria and yeast. Regarding the hypocholesterolaemic effect of probiotic bacteria, the potential mechanisms responsible include: deconjugation of bile salts; modulation of lipid metabolism; and decreased absorption of intestinal cholesterol through co-precipitation of intestinal cholesterol with the deconjugated bile salts, incorporation and assimilation of cholesterol in the cell membrane of the probiotics, intestinal conversion of cholesterol in coprostanol, and inhibition of the expression of the intestinal cholesterol transporter Niemann–Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) in the enterocytes. The potential mechanisms responsible for the hypocholesterolaemic effect of probiotic yeasts include: deconjugation of bile salts; co-precipitation of intestinal cholesterol with the deconjugated bile salts; incorporation and assimilation of cholesterol in the cell membrane; and inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis. The regular consumption of probiotic bacteria and yeast, as a non-pharmaceutical approach to help manage cardiovascular risk, holds promise, according to the beneficial hypocholesterolaemic effects described herein. However, the hypocholesterolaemic effects vary according to the strains used, the physiological state of the host, and the type of diet to which the probiotics are added. Further studies are necessary to fill the gaps with regard to the knowledge related to this topic.
The solar rotation is determined tracing coronal EUV and soft X-ray bright points, active regions, parts of coronal holes and foot points of coronal loops. Full-disc solar images in the EUV part of the spectrum from the SOHO spacecraft (EIT, Fe XV, 28.4 nm) and from the Yohkoh satellite (SXT, 2 nm) are used.
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of brain amyloid beta is now clinically available in several countries including the United States and the United Kingdom, but not Canada. It has become an established technique in the field of neuroimaging of aging and dementia, with data incorporated in the new consensus guidelines for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and predementia Alzheimer’s disease–related conditions. At this point, there are three US Food and Drug Administration– and European Union–approved tracers. Guided by appropriate use criteria developed in 2013 by the Alzheimer’s Association and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, the utility of amyloid imaging in medical practice is now supported by a growing body of research. In this paper, we aimed to provide an update on the 2012 Canadian consensus guidelines to dementia care practitioners on proper use of amyloid imaging. We also wished to generate momentum for the industry to submit a new drug proposal to Health Canada. A group of local, national, and international dementia experts and imaging specialists met to discuss scenarios in which amyloid PET could be used appropriately. Peer-reviewed and published literature between January 2004 and May 2015 was searched. Technical and regulatory considerations pertaining to Canada were considered. The results of a survey of current practices in Canadian dementia centers were considered. A set of specific clinical and research guidelines was agreed on that defines the types of patients and clinical circumstances in which amyloid PET could be used in Canada. Future research directions were also outlined, notably the importance of studies that would assess the pharmaco-economics of amyloid imaging.
We have been interested in the plasmonic properties of alternative conducting materials to metals, such as conducting oxides, and we have recently expanded our studies to include highly correlated oxides, such as vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films. VO2 exhibits a metal-insulator transition (MIT) just above ambient temperature at ∼ 340K. Interestingly, this transition can be induced thermally, optically or applying electric fields. Across the MIT, the optical properties are completely modified over a broad frequency range. We will present our recent optical investigations on the photon induced transition studies on such films, as well as the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) modulation in nanopatterned Au gratings by the thermally induced MIT in VO2 thin films, addressing possibilities of ultrafast SPR modulation with VO2.
Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is the most pathogenic hantavirus in Europe with a case-fatality rate of up to 12%. To detect changes in risk for humans, the prevalence of antibodies to DOBV has been monitored in a population of Apodemus flavicollis in the province of Trento (northern Italy) since 2000, and a sudden increase was observed in 2010. In the 13-year period of this study, 2077 animals were live-trapped and mean hantavirus seroprevalence was 2·7% (s.e. = 0·3%), ranging from 0% (in 2000, 2002 and 2003) to 12·5% (in 2012). Climatic (temperature and precipitation) and host (rodent population density, rodent weight and sex, and larval tick burden) variables were analysed using Generalized Linear Models and multi-model inference to select the best model. Climatic changes (mean annual precipitation and maximum temperature) and individual body mass had a positive effect on hantavirus seroprevalence. Other possible drivers affecting the observed pattern need to be studied further.