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Multiple experimental configurations for performing nanoscale orientation mapping are compared to determine their fidelity to the true microstructure of a sample. Transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) experiments in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and nanobeam diffraction (NBD) experiments in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were performed on thin electrodeposited hard Au films with two different microstructures. The Au samples either had a grain size that is >50 or <20 nm. The same regions of the samples were measured with TKD apparatuses at 30 kV in an SEM with detectors in the horizontal and vertical configurations and in the TEM at 300 kV. Under the proper conditions, we demonstrate that all three configurations can produce data of equivalent quality. Each method has strengths and challenges associated with its application and representation of the true microstructure. The conditions needed to obtain high-quality data for each acquisition method and the challenges associated with each are discussed.
In the UK, mental illness is a major source of disease burden costing in the region of £105 billion pounds. mHealth is a novel and emerging field in psychiatric and psychological care for the treatment of mental health difficulties such as psychosis.
To develop an intelligent real-time therapy (iRTT) mobile intervention (TechCare) which assesses participant's symptoms in real-time and responds with a personalised self-help based psychological intervention, with the aim of reducing participant's symptoms. The system will utilise intelligence at two levels:
– intelligently increasing the frequency of assessment notifications if low mood/paranoia is detected;
– an intelligent machine learning algorithm which provides interventions in real-time and also provides recommendations on the most popular selected interventions.
The aim of the current project is to develop a mobile phone intervention for people with psychosis, and to conduct a feasibility study of the TechCare App.
The study consists of both qualitative and quantitative components. The study will be run across three strands:
– qualitative work;
– test run and intervention refinement;
– feasibility trial.
Preliminary analysis of qualitative data from Strand 2 (test run and intervention refinement) in-depth interviews with service users (n = 2) and focus group with health professionals (n = 1), highlighted main themes around security of the device, multimedia and the acceptability of psychological interventions being delivered via the TechCare App.
Research in this area can be potentially helpful in addressing the demand on mental health services globally, particularly improving access to psychological interventions.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The commercially important chokka squid Loligo reynaudii occurring in South African waters is currently managed on a single-unit stock hypothesis. We tested this assumption through a spatial comparison of the morphology throughout the distributional range of the species. Forty-three morphometric characters were measured from 1079 chokka collected off the south coast of South Africa, the west coast of South Africa, and southern Angola. While no significant differences were found in the hard body parts, results from classification analysis showed that though all four types of morphometric attributes (soft body parts, beaks, statoliths, sucker rings) resulted in some separation, the most consistent separation of samples from the three regions was based on soft body part morphometric characters. On average, though dependent on the model, the overall correct classification rate ranged from 0.68–0.99 for males and 0.7–0.99 for females in all three regions. Previous DNA analysis had revealed some genetic differences between west coast and south coast samples, suggesting the confluence of the cold Benguela and warm Agulhas current may act as the approximate point of a phenotypic and possible genetic breakpoint. Finer scale genetic analysis of samples collected across the Benguela–Agulhas confluence reported no significant genetic structuring in this area suggesting environmental heterogeneity and not restriction of genetic flow/isolation as the primary driver of the observed phenotypic divergence.
We describe two cases of infant botulism due to Clostridium butyricum producing botulinum type E neurotoxin (BoNT/E) and a previously unreported environmental source. The infants presented at age 11 days with poor feeding and lethargy, hypotonia, dilated pupils and absent reflexes. Faecal samples were positive for C. butyricum BoNT/E. The infants recovered after treatment including botulism immune globulin intravenous (BIG-IV). C. butyricum BoNT/E was isolated from water from tanks housing pet ‘yellow-bellied’ terrapins (Trachemys scripta scripta): in case A the terrapins were in the infant's home; in case B a relative fed the terrapin prior to holding and feeding the infant when both visited another relative. C. butyricum isolates from the infants and the respective terrapin tank waters were indistinguishable by molecular typing. Review of a case of C. butyricum BoNT/E botulism in the UK found that there was a pet terrapin where the infant was living. It is concluded that the C. butyricum-producing BoNT type E in these cases of infant botulism most likely originated from pet terrapins. These findings reinforce public health advice that reptiles, including terrapins, are not suitable pets for children aged <5 years, and highlight the importance of hand washing after handling these pets.
Human leptospirosis is found throughout the world, albeit with a higher incidence in tropical regions. In temperate regions it is associated with certain occupational and recreational activities. This paper reports both on the incidence of human leptospirosis in Ireland and on possible associated exposures, using leptospirosis case notification, enhanced surveillance, hospital discharge data and death registrations. Based on official notification data, there was a threefold increase in the reported incidence of leptospirosis in Ireland between 1995–1999 and 2004–2009, which appears partially to be due to improved reporting. The exposures most associated with infection were those involving contact with livestock or water-based recreational sports, in particular kayaking. Advice on prevention should continue to be targeted in the first instance at these groups. The variety of potential transmission routes reported should inform clinicians to consider leptospirosis in individuals with a compatible clinical profile who were not from occupational groups historically considered at risk.
The advent of aberration correction for transmission electron microscopy has transformed atomic resolution imaging into a nearly routine technique for structural analysis. Now an emerging frontier in electron microscopy is the development of in situ capabilities to observe reactions at atomic resolution in real time and within realistic environments. Here we present a new in situ gas cell holder that is designed for compatibility with a wide variety of sample type (i.e., dimpled 3-mm discs, standard mesh grids, various types of focused ion beam lamellae attached to half grids). Its capabilities include localized heating and precise control of the gas pressure and composition while simultaneously allowing atomic resolution imaging at ambient pressure. The results show that 0.25-nm lattice fringes are directly visible for nanoparticles imaged at ambient pressure with gas path lengths up to 20 μm. Additionally, we quantitatively demonstrate that while the attainable contrast and resolution decrease with increasing pressure and gas path length, resolutions better than 0.2 nm should be accessible at ambient pressure with gas path lengths less than the 15 μm utilized for these experiments.
To examine the relationship between intake of whole grains and BMI Z-score in rural children.
General linear models and logistic regression were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between whole grain intake and BMI Z-score, prevalence and odds ratios of overweight and obesity. Dietary intake was assessed using the Block Food Screener for ages 2–17 years. Children were classified into three categories according to servings of whole grain intake: <1·0 serving/d, 1·0–1·5 servings/d and >1·5 servings/d.
The CHANGE (Creating Healthy, Active and Nurturing Growing-up Environments) study, an obesity prevention intervention in elementary schools in eight rural US communities in California, Mississippi, Kentucky and South Carolina.
Seven hundred and ninety-two children attending 3rd–6th grade.
After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, physical activity and state of residence, whole grain intake was inversely associated with BMI Z-score (0·90 v. 0·61 in the lowest v. the highest whole grain intake category; P trend = 0·01). Children who consumed >1·5 servings of whole grains/d had a 40 % lower risk of being obese (OR = 0·60; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·95, P = 0·02) compared with children who consumed <1·0 serving/d. Further adjustment for potential dietary predictors of body weight (fruit, vegetable and dairy intakes) did not change the observed associations.
Increasing the intake of whole grains as part of an overall healthy lifestyle may be beneficial for children to achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
We investigated an international outbreak of Salmonella Agona with a distinct PFGE pattern associated with an Irish Food company (company X) producing pre-cooked meat products sold in various food outlet chains in Europe. The outbreak was first detected in Ireland. We undertook national and international case-finding, food traceback and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental samples. We undertook a matched case-control study on Irish cases. In total, 163 cases in seven European countries were laboratory-confirmed. Consumption of food from food outlet chains supplied by company X was significantly associated with being a confirmed case (mOR 18·3, 95% CI 2·2–149·2) in the case-control study. The outbreak strain was isolated from the company's pre-cooked meat products and production premises. Sufficient evidence was gathered to infer the vehicles of infection and sources of the outbreak and to justify the control measures taken, which were plant closure and food recall.
Recent work suggests that heavy use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia-like psychosis. However, there is a dearth of experimental studies of the effects of the constituents of cannabis, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In a study of intravenous (i.v.) synthetic THC in healthy humans, we aimed to study the relationship of the psychotic symptoms induced by THC to the consequent anxiety and neuropsychological impairment.
Twenty-two healthy adult males aged 28±6 years (mean±s.d.) participated in experimental sessions in which i.v. THC (2.5 mg) was administered under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions. Self-rated and investigator-rated measurements of mood and psychosis [the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE)] were made at baseline and at 30, 80 and 120 min post-injection. Participants also completed a series of neuropsychological tests [the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (RAVLT), Digit Span, Verbal Fluency and the Baddeley Reasoning Task] within 45 min of injection.
THC-induced positive psychotic symptoms, and participant- and investigator-rated measurements of these were highly correlated. Participants showed an increase in anxiety ratings but there was no relationship between either self- or investigator-rated positive psychotic symptoms and anxiety. THC also impaired neuropsychological performance but once again there was no relationship between THC-induced positive psychotic symptoms and deficits in working memory/executive function.
These findings confirm that THC can induce a transient, acute psychotic reaction in psychiatrically well individuals. The extent of the psychotic reaction was not related to the degree of anxiety or cognitive impairment.
A series of glass samples were prepared analogously to high level waste glass using either glass frit or glass precursors combined with a high level waste surrogate containing NaTcO4. Three different technetium species were observed in these glasses depending upon the synthesis conditions. If the glasses were prepared by reducing NaTcO4 to TcO2•2H2O with hydrazine or if a large amount of organic material was present, inclusions of TcO2 were observed. If no organic material was present, technetium was incorporated as TcO4−. If only a small amount of organic material was present, isolated Tc(IV) sites were observed in the glass. The relative technetium retention of these glasses was estimated from the Tc K-edge height, and had no correlation with the oxidation state of the technetium. Pertechnetate was well retained in these glasses.
A common theme in engineering surfaces for biomedical materials and devices is the control of cell behavior at the material-tissue interface. Multiple analytical techniques are required to fully characterize a material surface both prior to and after exposure to the biological environment. In addition, a full cadre of microscopy techniques are essential for understanding cell behavior to these surface engineered materials. At the heart of understanding the mechanisms that control cell function on solid materials is the adsorption of serum proteins, which ultimately dictates how a cell responds to a material. A great deal of complexity is introduced into the system by adsorbed proteins, since there are over 200 proteins in human blood, and that post adsorption changes in conformation could lead to altered function. Until recently it has been extremely difficult to correlate cell behavior with the initial surface chemistry of a material and the type of protein adsorbed to the surface.
X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been used to characterize the local structure surrounding Ga and Ge in BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses. Based on comparisons with results for crystalline standards of known structure, Ge and Ga in all of the glasses are primarily in tetrahedral coordination; no evidence for octahedral coordination is observed. Bond length and coordination values derived from fitting calculations are fairly uniform for all glasses, however disorder increases with increase in BaO and decrease in GeO2 content, especially in the second shell surrounding Ge and Ga. Ge absorption edges for all glasses resemble smoothed BGG-An or GeO2 [quartz] edges. Ga absorption edges of the glasses also resemble the BGG-An edge which has two edge maxima, but in the glasses the relative intensities of the two maxima vary with composition.