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The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of cow genetic merit on enteric methane (CH4) emission rate. The study used a data set from 32 respiration calorimeter studies undertaken at this Institute between 1992 and 2010, with all studies involving lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Cow genetic merit was defined as either profit index (PIN) or profitable lifetime index (PLI), with these two United Kingdom genetic indexes expressing the expected improvement in profit associated with an individual cow, compared with the population average. While PIN is based solely on milk production, PLI includes milk production and a number of other functional traits including health, fertility and longevity. The data set had a large range in PIN (n=736 records, −£30 to +£63) and PLI (n=548 records, −£131 to +£184), days in milk (18 to 354), energy corrected milk yield (16.0 to 45.6 kg/day) and CH4 emission (138 to 598 g/day). The effect of cow genetic merit (PIN or PLI) was evaluated using ANOVA and linear mixed modelling techniques after removing the effects of a number of animal and diet factors. The ANOVA was undertaken by dividing each data set of PIN and PLI into three sub-groups (PIN:<£3, £3 to £15 and >£15, PLI:<£23, £23 to £67 and >£67) with these being categorised as low, medium and high genetic merit. Within the PIN and PLI data sets there was no significant differences among the three sub-groups in terms of CH4 emission per kg feed intake or per kg energy corrected milk yield, or CH4 energy (CH4-E) output as a proportion of energy intake. Linear regression using the whole PIN and PLI data sets also demonstrated that there was no significant relationship between either PIN or PLI, and CH4 emission per kg of feed intake or CH4-E output as a proportion of energy intake. These results indicate that cow genetic merit (PIN or PLI) has little effect on enteric CH4 emissions as a proportion of feed intake. Instead enteric CH4 production may mainly relate to total feed intake and dietary nutrient composition.
A model is presented for computing the temperature increase associated with the formation of an adiabatic shear band. The hypothesis is that the heating is supplied by the difference in energy of a pile-up of n dislocations and the energy of n individual dislocations. The heating is assumed to occur within a volume determined by the grain size (i.e. slip band length) and an effective thermal length determined by the dislocation velocity. The model predicts increases in temperature with increasing shear modulus (G), increasing numbers of piled up dislocations (n), increasing Burgers vector (b), increased grain size (d), and increased dislocation velocity (vd). Increasing temperature is also predicted with decreasing heat capacity (c*) and thermal diffusivity (α) as would be expected. The model was applied to low carbon steel for which considerable data are available. Application to low carbon steel gives a temperature increase of about 1400K. The implied result that untempered martensite should be observed after adiabatic shear banding is in agreement with examples cited in the literature. Further investigation into the dynamics of pile-up release and the associated heat transfer mechanisms is discussed.
The World Mental Health Survey Initiative (WMHSI) has advanced our understanding of mental disorders by providing data suitable for analysis across many countries. However, these data have not yet been fully explored from a cross-national lifespan perspective. In particular, there is a shortage of research on the relationship between mood and anxiety disorders and age across countries. In this study we used multigroup methods to model the distribution of 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI mood and anxiety disorders across the adult lifespan in relation to determinants of mental health in 10 European Union (EU) countries.
Logistic regression was used to model the odds of any mood or any anxiety disorder as a function of age, gender, marital status, urbanicity and employment using a multigroup approach (n = 35500). This allowed for the testing of specific lifespan hypotheses across participating countries.
No simple geographical pattern exists with which to describe the relationship between 12-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders and age. Of the adults sampled, very few aged ⩾80 years met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for these disorders. The associations between these disorders and key sociodemographic variables were relatively homogeneous across countries after adjusting for age.
Further research is required to confirm that there are indeed stages in the lifespan where the reported prevalence of mental disorders is low, such as among younger adults in the East and older adults in the West. This project illustrates the difficulties in conducting research among different age groups simultaneously.
In the aftermath of the major earthquake that hit Pakistan in 2005, there appeared to be a paucity of psychometric tools validated in Urdu. It was decided to translate the Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R) so as to obtain an internationally validated and recognised psychometric tool for use in research into post-traumatic stress disorder. The resulting Urdu and English versions of the IES-R were compared for linguistic, conceptual and scale equivalence. The Urdu version of the IES-R (UIES-R) can be used for clinical, psychological trauma populations in Pakistan with evidence of good reliability and satisfactory validity. In trauma research in Pakistan the UIES-R will be an extremely useful psychometric tool.
Coccidioidomycosis results from inhaling spores of the fungus Coccidioides spp. in soil or airborne dust in endemic areas. We investigated an outbreak of coccidioidomycosis in a 12-person civilian construction crew that excavated soil during an underground pipe installation on Camp Roberts Military Base, California in October 2007. Ten (83·3%) workers developed symptoms of coccidioidomycosis; eight (66·7%) had serologically confirmed disease, seven had abnormal chest radiographs, and one developed disseminated infection; none used respiratory protection. A diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in an eleventh worker followed his exposure to the outbreak site in 2008. Although episodic clusters of infections have occurred at Camp Roberts, the general area is not associated with the high disease rates found in California's San Joaquin Valley. Measures to minimize exposure to airborne spores during soil-disrupting activities should be taken before work begins in any coccidioides-endemic area, including regions with only historic evidence of disease activity.
This study investigated the nutritional ecology of forest elephants in Kibale National Park, Uganda relative to crop-raiding behaviour, and examined nutritional differences between crops and food consumed by wild elephants. An index of dietary nutrient concentration was determined by quantifying the species and parts of plants consumed along feeding trails, collecting food items, and analysing foods for energy, fibre, protein, minerals and secondary compounds. Frequency of crop raiding was quantified over 13 mo. Energy and protein concentration was within suggested levels, but concentrations of several minerals, particularly sodium, were low relative to requirements based on captive elephants and values reported for other wild populations. The very low sodium concentrations of Kibale elephant diets and low availability of alternative sodium sources, such as soil or water, suggest that sodium drive is very likely in this population. Crops consumed by Kibale elephants had higher Na concentrations and lower concentrations of fibre and secondary compounds than wild diets. The known attraction of elephants to mineral sources throughout their range and the low mineral concentration of leaves, fruits, bark, and stems consumed by forest elephant in this study suggest that mineral nutrition is likely to be an important factor driving elephant behaviour and patterns of habitat use.
The Information Revolution and Developing Countries. By
Ernest J. Wilson, III. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004. 431p. $49.95.
This book provides a comprehensive theoretic framework explaining the
“strategic restructuring” of government policies and
institutions associated with policies promoting the adoption of new
information and communications technologies (ICTs). It also provides
detailed case study chapters on Brazil, Ghana, and China, concluding with
two chapters placing ICTs in a global perspective. The Chinese case study
should be of interest to many readers, given China's political and
economic importance. Brazil has a long history of state-guided and
supported development strategies in this sector, combining import
substitution and partnerships with transnational corporations. Ghana
occupies a more peripheral position in global political economy, lacking
the size and industrialization of the other countries examined.
We present the first results from a Chandra survey of the central region of the Small Magellanic Cloud. We detect a total of 122 sources down to a limiting luminosity of ~4.3 x 1033erg s–1, including 4 pulsars, 5 SNRs and two new transient sources. We also identify 18 more transient candidates based on comparison with ROSAT and ASCA surveys.
Although the zebrafish has become an important model in visual
neuroscience, little has been done to examine the processing of its
higher visual centers. The purpose of this work was twofold. The first
purpose was to examine the physiology of the zebrafish retinotectal
system and its relationship to retinal physiology. Spectral sensitivity
functions were derived from visually evoked tectal responses and these
functions were compared to the functions of electroretinogram (ERG)
responses obtained using the same stimulus conditions. The second
purpose was to examine the recovery of visual functioning of the tectum
following optic nerve damage. The optic nerves of adult zebrafish were
damaged (crushed), and tectal visual processing was assessed following
damage. The results showed that the spectral sensitivity functions
based on the On-responses of the tectum and ERG were qualitatively
similar. The functions based on each response type received similar
cone contributions including both nonopponent and opponent
contributions. However, the spectral sensitivity functions based on the
Off-responses of the tectum and ERG differed. The results also showed
that the zebrafish visual system is capable of neural regeneration. By
90 days following an optic nerve crush, the spectral sensitivity
function based on the tectal On-response was similar to functions
obtained from normal zebrafish. Although the tectal Off-response did
recover, the spectral sensitivity based on the Off-response was not the
same as the function of normal zebrafish. These results support the
notion that different levels of the visual system process information
differently and that the zebrafish visual system, like those of other
lower vertebrates, is capable of functional regeneration.
In recent years there has been an increasing recognition of the association between marital conflict and children's adjustment (Fincham, 1998; Grych & Fincham, 1990). In spite of the increase of attention to the effects of familial conflict on children's functioning, there has been little attention devoted to children's competence with peers. The goal of this chapter is to address this relatively unexplored issue of the links between marital conflict and children's peer relationships.
Importance of Examining Links between Marital Conflict and Peer Relationships
Understanding children's social competence with peers as an outcome of marital conflict is critical for several reasons. First, the correlates and predictive associations of social incompetence (including truancy, school dropout, and criminality) have been well documented (Parker & Asher, 1987). Second, as Wasserstein and La Greca (1996) found in their investigation of marital discord and peer support among children in middle childhood, children's close friendships moderate the negative effects of marital discord. This finding highlights the importance of understanding the links between marital discord and children's peer relationships. Third, although most past research in this area has used unitary measures of child adjustment (e.g., internalizing or externalizing problems), these global evaluations need to be complemented by more specific indices in order to identify particular outcomes that may be more proximal or distal to particular aspects of marital conflict (Grych & Fincham, 1990). These global problems may, in fact, be associated with peer relationships, but there is little research that has investigated how children from families high in marital conflict are perceived socially by their peers and teachers and their level of acceptance in peer contexts.
Excess disability was examined in 17 nursing home residents with dementia by comparing their performance of morning care tasks under two activities of daily living (ADL) caregiving approaches—a dependence-supportive one under usual care and an independence-supportive one under functional rehabilitation. The results suggest that excess disability in severely cognitively impaired and functionally disabled residents can be reduced by increasing opportunities for independent activity, and substituting nondirective and directive verbal assists for physical assists. Further, the findings indicate that increased independence in ADL can be achieved without increasing disruptive behaviors and can foster appropriate requests for task-related help during caregiving. Functional rehabilitation, however, requires more time than usual care.
Polychromatic synchrotron x-ray microbeams offer a very efficient alternative to electron beam methods for quantifying the amount and character of grain subdivision accompanying large deformations. With a 0.01 mm diameter collimator, bending magnet radiation from a 3.0 GeV source and image storage plates, samples of copper with thicknesses greater than 0.1 mm have been studied. Results from an as-received sample and a sample deformed to 100% torsion are compared and illustrate how efficiently grain subdivision can be quantified with polychromatic microbeam diffraction.
The sex-stimulant contact pheromone present in the cuticle of female tsetse Glossina pallidipes Austen has been extracted with hexane, separated by preparative gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. The aphrodisiac, consisting of 13,17-dimethylpentatriacontane and 15,19-dimethylpentatriacontane, is present in cuticular extracts of 1-week-old females and, in lower amounts, in teneral females but it is almost absent in males of all ages. Full copulatory responses to hexane-washed dead males treated with the two dimethylpentatriacontane isomers were induced in 10–20-day-old adult male G. pallidipes. The practical uses to which this discovery can now be put—towards the mass-rearing and control of G. pallidipes— are discussed in detail.
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