To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Police brutality (excessive force) causes significant physical and psychological harm to victims, entails considerable financial costs to communities, and undermines the legitimacy of the institution of policing. The victims of police brutality in the United States are disproportionately black or Hispanic. Attempts to explain the relationship of race/ethnicity to police brutality have relied on two distinct theoretical approaches. Traditional perspectives locate the causes of police brutality primarily in the institution of policing, whereas conflict perspectives maintain that police brutality reflects racial/ethnic divisions of the larger society. This chapter explicates these theoretical perspectives, reviews the empirical evidence regarding their predictions about race/ethnicity and police brutality, and discusses the policy implications of research findings. Extant studies provide stronger support for the conflict argument. Yet recommendations to reduce police brutality have focused on changing police agencies and practices in line with the traditional approach. Broader social changes that alleviate the socioeconomic disadvantages experienced by many black and Hispanic citizens, in conjunction with meaningful efforts to improve policing, may ultimately mitigate the problem.
Objectives: Intraindividual variability increases with age, but the relative strength of association with cognitive domains is still unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between cognitive domains and the shape and spread of response time (RT) distributions as indexed by intraindividual standard deviation (ISD), and ex-Gaussian parameters (μ, σ, τ). Methods: Healthy adults (40 young [aged 18–30 years], 40 young-old [aged 65–74 years], and 41 old-old [aged 75–85 years]) completed neuropsychological testing and a touch-screen attention task from which ISD and ex-Gaussian parameters were derived. The relation between RT performance and cognitive domains (memory, processing speed, executive functioning) was examined with structural equation modeling (SEM), and the predictive power of RT distribution indices over age was investigated with linear regression. Results:ISD, μ, and τ, but not σ, showed a linear increase with age group. An SEM showed that independent of age, τ was most strongly associated with executive functioning, while μ exhibited less critical associations. Linear regression indicated that μ and τ explained a significant portion of variance in processing speed and executive ability in addition to age group. Memory was more parsimoniously predicted by age, without any significant contribution of ex-Gaussian parameters. Conclusions: The findings suggest that exceptionally slow responses convey attention lapses through wavering of cognitive control, which strongly correspond to executive functioning tests. General slowing and extremely slow responses predicted processing speed and executive performance beyond age group, indicating that RT metrics are sensitive to differences in cognitive ability. (JINS, 2018, 24, 456–465)
Conducting archaeological fieldwork increasingly relies on “high-tech” instruments. These include such technologies as portable X-ray diffraction; ground penetrating radar; high-precision global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers; laser scanners; multispectral, thermal, lidar, and hyperspectral instruments on Uncrewed Aerial Vehicles (UAVs); and many others. Using these devices internationally can present complex issues with export regulations and the potential for duties and value-added taxes. In short, there are many regulations affecting the movement of these devices across international borders. In the past, archaeologists had interactions with customs personnel and faced the complexities of import and export laws at the end of a project, as they dealt with the issues of taking samples or artifacts out of a country for study. Today's archaeologists must be prepared before they even begin their travel to ensure that their equipment and software can travel overseas. This article provides a practical overview of the laws, regulations, and practices affecting international transport of the archaeological high-tech tool kit.
The objective of this study was to evaluate weed control, crop yields, potential soil loss, and net returns to management of an integrated weed management system in no-till corn and soybean compared to an herbicide-based strategy. The integrated weed management system reduced herbicide inputs by delayed cover crop termination, herbicide banding, and high-residue cultivation (reduced herbicide [RH]), while the other system used continuous no-tillage and herbicides to control weeds (standard herbicide [SH]). Research was conducted within the Penn State Sustainable Dairy Cropping Systems Experiment, where corn and soybean are each planted once in a 6-yr crop rotation. In this 3-yr study, weed density and biomass were often greater under RH management, but weed biomass never exceeded 19 g m–2 in corn and 21 g m–2 in soybean. Corn yield and population did not differ in any year, and net returns to management were $33.65 ha–1 higher in RH corn due to lower herbicide costs and slightly, though not significantly, higher yields. Soybean yield was lower in RH compared to SH in 2 of 3 yr, and was correlated with soybean population and cover crop residue. Net financial returns were $43.69 ha–1 higher in SH soybean compared to RH. Predicted soil loss never exceeded T (maximum allowable soil loss) for any treatment and slope combination, though soil loss was 100% greater on a 10% slope under RH management (vs. SH) due to cultivation.
Historically, alloy development with better radiation performance has been focused on traditional alloys with one or two principal element(s) and minor alloying elements, where enhanced radiation resistance depends on microstructural or nanoscale features to mitigate displacement damage. In sharp contrast to traditional alloys, recent advances of single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have opened up new frontiers in materials research. In these alloys, a random arrangement of multiple elemental species on a crystalline lattice results in disordered local chemical environments and unique site-to-site lattice distortions. Based on closely integrated computational and experimental studies using a novel set of SP-CSAs in a face-centered cubic structure, we have explicitly demonstrated that increasing chemical disorder can lead to a substantial reduction in electron mean free paths, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity, which results in slower heat dissipation in SP-CSAs. The chemical disorder also has a significant impact on defect evolution under ion irradiation. Considerable improvement in radiation resistance is observed with increasing chemical disorder at electronic and atomic levels. The insights into defect dynamics may provide a basis for understanding elemental effects on evolution of radiation damage in irradiated materials and may inspire new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for advanced energy systems.
To assess alcoholic beverage intake among Australian adults and its contribution to dietary energy intake.
Secondary analysis of a national dietary survey using 24 h dietary recall.
Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) conducted from May 2011 to June 2012.
Adults (n 9341) aged 19 years and over.
On the day preceding the survey, 32·8% of Australian adults consumed one or more alcoholic drinks. The median contribution to total energy intake for consumers did not differ significantly between males and females (13·7% and 12·9%, respectively; P=0·10). The prevalence of consumption of alcoholic drinks on Friday, Saturday and Sunday was 38·8 (95% CI 37·1, 40·5)%, higher than the other days (28·6 (95% CI 27·5, 29·8)%). Consumers had a median daily intake of 4·0 standard drinks on the weekend compared with 3·0 standard drinks during the week (P<0·001). Beer was the most commonly consumed alcoholic beverage for men and white wine for women. The highest prevalence of alcoholic beverage intake occurred in the highest quintile of adjusted household income (42·7 (95% CI 40·4, 45·0)%) and the ‘overweight’ BMI category (40·3 (95% CI 38·5, 42·0)%). Alcoholic beverage intake among consumers was significantly different by household income quintile (median 3·84 (highest) v. 3·05 standard drinks (lowest); P<0·05) and by waist circumference category (median 4·09 standard drinks (highest)).
Alcoholic drinks contribute substantially to the dietary energy intake of Australian adults. The type and pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverage intake should be considered in the development of strategies to improve dietary intake.
Variation in human cognitive ability is of consequence to a large number of health and social outcomes and is substantially heritable. Genetic linkage, genome-wide association, and copy number variant studies have investigated the contribution of genetic variation to individual differences in normal cognitive ability, but little research has considered the role of rare genetic variants. Exome sequencing studies have already met with success in discovering novel trait-gene associations for other complex traits. Here, we use exome sequencing to investigate the effects of rare variants on general cognitive ability. Unrelated Scottish individuals were selected for high scores on a general component of intelligence (g). The frequency of rare genetic variants (in n = 146) was compared with those from Scottish controls (total n = 486) who scored in the lower to middle range of the g distribution or on a proxy measure of g. Biological pathway analysis highlighted enrichment of the mitochondrial inner membrane component and apical part of cell gene ontology terms. Global burden analysis showed a greater total number of rare variants carried by high g cases versus controls, which is inconsistent with a mutation load hypothesis whereby mutations negatively affect g. The general finding of greater non-synonymous (vs. synonymous) variant effects is in line with evolutionary hypotheses for g. Given that this first sequencing study of high g was small, promising results were found, suggesting that the study of rare variants in larger samples would be worthwhile.