Maracá is a riverine island located in the Rio Uraricoera in Roraima State (Brazil) and has an area of about 100,000ha. A forest type dominated by Peltogyne gracilipes Ducke (Caesalpiniaceae) occurs on Maracá Island on a range of soil types. This study compares the structure, floristic composition and soils of the Peltogyne forest with the most widespread lowland forest type on Maracá. Three 0.25ha plots were set up in each of three forest types: Peltogyne-rich forest (PRF), Peltogyne-pooi forest (PPF) and forest without Peltogyne (FWP). Within each plot all trees (≤ 10cm dbh) were recorded. Seedlings and saplings were sampled in subplots of 2m × 1m (seedlings) and 4m × 4m (saplings). In the PPF and FWP, Sapotaceae were the most important family with the highest relative dominance and relative density values. Caesalpiniaceae showed high values in the PRF and PPF. Licania kunthiana, Pradosia surinamensis and Simarouba amara occurred in the canopy layer in all the forest types. Peltogyne dominated the canopy in the PRF and comprised 20% of stems and 53% of the total basal area of all trees ≥ 10cm dbh, and 91% of the stems and 97% of the total basal area of individuals ≥ 50cm dbh. In PPF, Lecythis corrugata and Tetragastris panamensis were the most abundant species, followed by Peltogyne. In the FWP the most abundant trees (≥ 10cm dbh) were Licania kunthiana and Pradosia surinamensis. In all forest types, the soils were sandy and acid with low concentrations of extractable phosphorus and exchangeable cations, but the soils under PRF were notably richer in magnesium.