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Geomorphic mapping, landform and sediment analysis, and cosmogenic 10Be and 36Cl ages from erratics, moraine boulders, and glacially polished bedrock help define the timing of the Wisconsinan glaciations in the Chugach Mountains of south-central Alaska. The maximum extent of glaciation in the Chugach Mountains during the last glacial period (marine isotope stages [MIS] 5d through 2) occurred at ~50 ka during MIS 3. In the Williwaw Lakes valley and Thompson Pass areas of the Chugach Mountains, moraines date to ~26.7 ± 2.4, 25.4 ± 2.4, 18.8 ± 1.6, 19.3 ± 1.7, and 17.3 ± 1.5 ka, representing times of glacial retreat. These data suggest that glaciers retreated later in the Chugach Mountain than in other regions of Alaska. Reconstructed equilibrium-line altitude depressions range from 400 to 430 m for late Wisconsinan glacial advances in the Chugach Mountains, representing a possible temperature depression of 2.1–2.3°C. These reconstructed temperature depressions suggest that climate was warmer in this part of Alaska than in many other regions throughout Alaska and elsewhere in the world during the global last glacial maximum.
Sedentary behaviour is potentially a modifiable risk factor for anxiety disorders, a major source of global disability that typically starts during adolescence. This is the first prospective study of associations between repeated, device-based measures of sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms in adolescents.
A UK cohort with 4257 adolescents aged 12 at baseline (56% female). Main exposures were sedentary behaviour and physical activity measured using accelerometers for 7-days at ages 12, 14, and 16. Primary outcome was anxiety symptom scores at age 18 from a Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. We used adjusted negative binomial regression and iso-temporal substitution methods to analyse the data.
We found a positive association between sedentary behaviour at ages 12, 14, and 16, with anxiety symptoms at age 18, independent of total physical activity volume. Theoretically replacing an hour of daily sedentary behaviour for light activity at ages 12, 14, and 16, was associated with lower anxiety symptoms by age 18 by 15.9% (95% CI 8.7–22.4), 12.1% (95% CI 3.4–20.1), and 14.7% (95% CI 4–24.2), respectively. Whereas, theoretically replacing an hour of sedentary behaviour with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was not associated with differences in anxiety symptoms. These results were robust to a series of sensitivity analyses.
Sedentary behaviour is a possible risk factor for increasing anxiety symptoms during adolescence, independent of total physical activity volume. Instead of focusing on moderate-to-vigorous activity, replacing daily sedentary behaviour with light activity during adolescence could be a more suitable method of reducing future anxiety symptoms.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Let G be a finite group, and let cs(G) be the set of conjugacy class sizes of G. Recalling that an element g of G is called a vanishing element if there exists an irreducible character of G taking the value 0 on g, we consider one particular subset of cs(G), namely, the set vcs(G) whose elements are the conjugacy class sizes of the vanishing elements of G. Motivated by the results inBianchi et al. (2020, J. Group Theory, 23, 79–83), we describe the class of the finite groups G such that vcs(G) consists of a single element under the assumption that G is supersolvable or G has a normal Sylow 2-subgroup (in particular, groups of odd order are covered). As a particular case, we also get a characterization of finite groups having a single vanishing conjugacy class size which is either a prime power or square-free.
CHD remains one of the leading causes of mortality of children in the United States. There is limited research about the experience of parents from the diagnosis of their child with CHD through the death of their child. A prior study has shown that adults with heart failure go through a series of four transitions: 1) learning the diagnosis, 2) reframing the new normal, 3) taking control of the illness, and 4) understanding death is inevitable. In our qualitative study, we performed semi-structured interviews with parents who have a child die of CHD to determine whether the four transitions in adults apply to parents of children with CHD. We found that these four transitions were present in the parents we interviewed and that there were two novel transitions, one that proceeded the first Jones et al transition (“Prenatal diagnosis”) and one that occurred after the final Jones et al transition (“Adjustment after death”). It is our hope that identification of these six transitions will help better support families of children with CHD.
Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) is an umbrella term for all drug and nondrug addictive behaviors, due to a dopamine deficiency, “hypodopaminergia.” There is an opioid-overdose epidemic in the USA, which may result in or worsen RDS. A paradigm shift is needed to combat a system that is not working. This shift involves the recognition of dopamine homeostasis as the ultimate treatment of RDS via precision, genetically guided KB220 variants, called Precision Behavioral Management (PBM). Recognition of RDS as an endophenotype and an umbrella term in the future DSM 6, following the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), would assist in shifting this paradigm.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems have developed protocols for prehospital activation of the cardiac catheterization laboratory for patients with suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to decrease first-medical-contact-to-balloon time (FMC2B). The rate of “false positive” prehospital activations is high. In order to decrease this rate and expedite care for patients with true STEMI, the American Heart Association (AHA; Dallas, Texas USA) developed the Mission Lifeline PreAct STEMI algorithm, which was implemented in Los Angeles County (LAC; California USA) in 2015. The hypothesis of this study was that implementation of the PreAct algorithm would increase the positive predictive value (PPV) of prehospital activation.
This is an observational pre-/post-study of the effect of the implementation of the PreAct algorithm for patients with suspected STEMI transported to one of five STEMI Receiving Centers (SRCs) within the LAC Regional System. The primary outcome was the PPV of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The secondary outcome was FMC2B.
A total of 1,877 patients were analyzed for the primary outcome in the pre-intervention period and 405 patients in the post-intervention period. There was an overall decrease in cardiac catheterization laboratory activations, from 67% in the pre-intervention period to 49% in the post-intervention period (95% CI for the difference, -14% to -22%). The overall rate of cardiac catheterization declined in post-intervention period as compared the pre-intervention period, from 34% to 30% (95% CI, for the difference -7.6% to 0.4%), but actually increased for subjects who had activation (48% versus 58%; 95% CI, 4.6%-15.0%). Implementation of the PreAct algorithm was associated with an increase in the PPV of activation for PCI or CABG from 37.9% to 48.6%. The overall odds ratio (OR) associated with the intervention was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.8). The effect of the intervention was to decrease variability between medical centers. There was no associated change in average FMC2B.
The implementation of the PreAct algorithm in the LAC EMS system was associated with an overall increase in the PPV of cardiac catheterization laboratory activation.
Introduction: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become standard practice in emergency departments ranging from remote rural hospitals to well-resourced academic centres. To facilitate quality assurance, the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) recommends image archiving. Due in part to poor infrastructure and lack of a national standard, however, archiving remains uncommon. Our objective was to establish a minimum standard archiving protocol for the core emergency department POCUS indications. Methods: Itemization of potential archiving standards was created through an extensive literature review. An online, three-round, modified Delphi survey was conducted with the thirteen POCUS experts on the national CAEP Emergency Ultrasound Committee tasked with representing diverse practice locations and experiences. Participants were surveyed to determine the images or clips, measurements, mode, and number of views that should comprise the minimum standard for archiving. Consensus was pre-defined as 80%. Results: All thirteen experts participated fully in the three rounds. In establishing minimum image archiving standards for emergency department POCUS, complete consensus was achieved for first trimester pregnancy, hydronephrosis, cardiac activity versus standstill, lower extremity deep venous thrombosis, and ultrasound-guided central line placement. Consensus was achieved for the majority of statements regarding abdominal aortic aneurysm, extended focused assessment with sonography in trauma, pericardial effusion, left and right ventricular function, thoracic B-line assessment, cholelithiasis and cholecystitis scans. In total, consensus was reached for 58 of 69 statements (84.1%). This included agreement on 41 of 43 statements (95.3%) describing mandatory images for archiving in the above indications. Conclusion: Our modified Delphi-derived consensus represents the first national standard archiving requirements for emergency department POCUS. Depending on the clinical context, additional images may be required beyond this minimum standard to support a diagnosis.
Introduction: Electronic medical records (EMR) have placed increasing demand on emergency physicians and may contribute to physician burnout and stress. The use of scribes to reduce workload and increase productivity in emergency departments (ED) has been reported. This objective of this study was to evaluate the educational and experiential value of scribing among medical and undergraduate students. We asked: “Will undergraduates be willing to scribe in exchange for clinical exposure and experience?”; and, “Should scribing be integrated into the medical school curriculum?” Methods: A mixed-methods model was employed. The study population included 5 undergraduate, and 5 medical students. Scribes received technical training on how to take physician notes. Undergraduate students were provided with optional resources to familiarize themselves with common medical terminology. Scribes were assigned to physicians based on availability. An exit interview and semi-structured interviews were conducted at the conclusion of the study. Interviews were transcribed and coded into thematic coding trees. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the results. Themes were reviewed and verified by two members of the research team. Results: Undergraduate students preferred volunteering in the ED over other volunteer experiences (5/5); citing direct access to the medical field (5/5), demystification of the medical profession (4/5), resume building (5/5), and perceived value added to the health care team (5/5) as main motivators to continue scribing. Medical students felt scribing should be integrated into their curriculum (4/5) because it complemented their shadowing experience by providing unique value that shadowing did not. Based on survey results, five undergraduate students would be required to cover 40 volunteer hours per week. Conclusion: A student volunteer model of scribing is worthwhile to students and may be feasible; however, scribe availability, potentially high scribe turnover, and limited time to develop a rapport with their physician may impact any efficiency benefit scribes might provide. Importantly, scribing may be an invaluable experience for directing career goals and ensuring that students intrinsically interested in medicine pursue the profession. Medical students suggested that scribing could be added to the year one curriculum to help them develop a framework for how to take histories and manage patients.
Introduction: Determining fluid status prior to resuscitation provides a more accurate guide for appropriate fluid administration in the setting of undifferentiated hypotension. Emergency Department (ED) point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) has been proposed as a potential non-invasive, rapid, repeatable investigation to ascertain inferior vena cava (IVC) characteristics. Our goal was to determine the feasibility of using PoCUS to measure IVC size and collapsibility. Methods: This was a planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective multicentre international study investigating PoCUS in ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension. We prospectively collected data on IVC size and collapsibility using a standard data collection form in 6 centres. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a clinically useful (determinate) scan defined as a clearly visible intrahepatic IVC, measurable for size and collapse. Descriptive statistics are provided. Results: A total of 138 scans were attempted on 138 patients; 45.7% were women and the median age was 58 years old. Overall, one hundred twenty-nine scans (93.5%; 95% CI 87.9 to 96.7%) were determinate. 131 (94.9%; 89.7 to 97.7%) were determinate for IVC size, and 131 (94.9%; 89.7 to 97.7%) were determinate for collapsibility. Conclusion: In this analysis of 138 ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension, the vast majority of PoCUS scans to investigate IVC characteristics were determinate. Future work should include analysis of the value of IVC size and collapsibility in determining fluid status in this group.
Introduction: Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with hypotension have a high mortality rate and require careful yet rapid resuscitation. The use of cardiac point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) in the ED has progressed beyond the basic indications of detecting pericardial fluid and activity in cardiac arrest. We examine if finding left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) on emergency physician performed PoCUS reliably predicts the presence of cardiogenic shock in hypotensive ED patients. Methods: We prospectively collected PoCUS findings performed in 135 ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension as part of an international study. Patients with clearly identified etiologies for hypotension were excluded, along with other specific presumptive diagnoses. LVD was defined as identification of a generally hypodynamic LV in the setting of shock. PoCUS findings were collected using a standardized protocol and data collection form. All scans were performed by PoCUS-trained emergency physicians. Final shock type was defined as cardiogenic or non-cardiogenic by independent specialist blinded chart review. Results: All 135 patients had complete follow up. Median age was 56 years, 53% of patients were male. Disease prevalence for cardiogenic shock was 12% and the mortality rate was 24%. The presence of LVD on PoCUS had a sensitivity of 62.50% (95%CI 35.43% to 84.80%), specificity of 94.12% (88.26% to 97.60%), positive-LR 10.62 (4.71 to 23.95), negative-LR 0.40 (0.21 to 0.75) and accuracy of 90.37% (84.10% to 94.77%) for detecting cardiogenic shock. Conclusion: Detecting left ventricular dysfunction on PoCUS in the ED may be useful in confirming the underlying shock type as cardiogenic in otherwise undifferentiated hypotensive patients.
With concerns for presymptomatic transmission of COVID-19 and increasing burden of contact tracing and employee furloughs, several hospitals have supplemented pre-existing infection prevention measures with universal masking of all personnel in hospitals. Other hospitals are currently faced with the dilemma of whether or not to proceed with universal masking in a time of critical mask shortages. We summarize the rationale behind a universal masking policy in healthcare settings, important considerations before implementing such a policy and the challenges with universal masking. We also discusses proposed solutions such as universal face shields.
Research on at-risk states of psychosis has mainly aimed to predict conversion. Yet as a considerable number of patients does not to progress to this outcome during the investigated observation periods, the course of these non-converters (NC) is of major interest, particularly with regard to preventive interventions and treatment.
To analyze the psychopathological and functional in 18-month non-converters.
Data were derived from the prospective multicenter European Prediction of Psychosis Study with an 18-month follow-up period. Participants had to fulfill ultra-high risk criteria and/or the COGDIS criterion, which is based on a set of cognitive basic symptoms. Psychopathology was assessed with the Structure Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS), including the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) and a short version of the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument (SPI-A).
All total and subscale scores improved significantly during follow-up. However, a more detailed analysis revealed that a considerable part of the patients showed no improvement or even a worsening of psychopathology and function.
Our first analysis of course on non-converters shows that a high proportion of patients improved. In the light of results from retrospective studies, however, this improvement has to be interpreted with caution, as the observation period does not allow to determine the proportion of outpost syndromes, i.e. precursors of a later prodrome. Furthermore, a considerable portion of our sample worsened functionally and/or symptomatically. With regard to retrospective schizophrenia related results, very long observation periods may be needed to characterize the patterns of course in subpsychotic syndromes.
Early detection and indicated early intervention in the initial prodromal phase should considerably improve the course of psychoses. Yet, the benefits of such programmes still require an evidence-based evaluation on the basis of a sufficient sample-size.
This report presents an overview on the concept and design of the European Prediction of Psychosis Study (EPOS) an European 4-country naturalistic field-study of the initial Prodrome.
Materials and Methods
Across six participating centres (Germany: Cologne, Berlin; Finland: Turku; The Netherlands: Amsterdam; United Kingdom: Birmingham, Manchester), 16 to 40 year old putatively prodromal persons attending specialized services or general psychiatric services underwent multi-level baseline, 9-months follow-up, and 18-months follow-up examinations. Inclusion criteria were the presence of APS, BLIPS, at least 2 of 9 Basic Symptoms (BS), and Familial Risk or Schizotypal Personality Disorder plus Reduced Functioning (FR+RF). In addition, psychopathological, neurocognitive, neurobiological, psychosocial, and service and treatment-related assessments were carried out.
A substantial part of more than 250 subjects included into the study participated in their respective baseline, 1st follow-up, and 2nd follow-up examinations. A high percentage presented themselves with BS and/or APS, a smaller percentage with BLIPS or FR+RF. The rates of transition into psychosis and the levels of psychopathology, distress and functional decline found among this patient group underline the need for indicated early recognition and intervention.
EPOS provides for the first time a sound data base allowing an evaluation of the applicability and cost-benefit ratio of early detection and intervention programmes in Europe.
A main objective of EPOS is to provide a valid multifactorial model for the prediction of psychosis. One major element of such a model should be the clinical state.
In a European multicentre study, persons fulfilling clinical criteria thought to indicate an increased risk for psychosis (PAR) were assessed amongst others with different psychopathological instruments covering the whole spectrum from basic symptoms to frank psychotic symptoms. Inclusion criteria comprised attenuated positive symptoms (APS), brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS), cognitive basic symptoms (CogDis) and a combination of family risk and reduced functioning (S&T).
246 PAR were included into the study, mostly by APS or CogDis. Analysis of demographical data showed a high amount of functional impairment, resulting e.g. in low mean GAF scores (51.0 ± 11.8 SD), and of non-psychotic axis-I disorders. In September 2006, the hazard rate for a conversion to psychosis was 15.3 at 12 and 20.0 at 18 months after baseline assessment. According to the inclusion criteria, the highest rate of conversion was observed among PAR with BLIPS. On a dimensional level, a low GAF score was among the best predictors of conversion.
The transition rates of EPOS were in line with recent studies. A first analysis of clinical data supports the notion that the functional state should be an inherent part of any set of clinical risk criteria. Further analysis will consider the contribution of single symptoms or symptom combinations and the impact of symptom duration.
The utility of questionnaire based self-report measures for non-clinical psychotic symptoms is unclear and there are few reliable data about the nature and prevalence of these phenomena in children. The study aimed to investigate psychosis-like symptoms (PLIKS) in children utilizing both self-report measures and semi-structured observer rated assessments.
The study was cross-sectional; the setting being an assessment clinic for members of the ALSPAC birth cohort in Bristol, UK. 6455 respondents were assessed over 21 months, mean age 12.9 years. The main outcome measure was: 12 self-report screening questions for psychotic symptoms followed by semi-structured observer rated assessments by trained psychology graduates. The assessment instrument utilised stem questions, glossary definitions, and rating rules adapted from DISC-IV and SCAN items.
The 6-month period prevalence for one or more PLIKS rated by self-report questions was 38.9 % (95% CI = 37.7-40.1). Prevalence using observer rated assessments was 13.7% (95% CI = 12.8-14.5). Positive Predictive Values for the screen questions versus observer rated scores were low, except for auditory hallucinations (PPV=70%; 95% CI = 67.1-74.2). The most frequent observer rated symptom was auditory hallucinations (7.3%); in 18.8% of these cases symptoms occurred weekly or more. The prevalence of DSM-IV ‘core’ schizophrenia symptoms was 3.62%. Rates were significantly higher in children with low socio-economic status.
With the exception of auditory hallucinations, self-rated questionnaires are likely to substantially over-estimate the frequency of PLIKS in 12-year-old children. However, more reliable observer rated assessments reveal that PLIKS occur in a significant proportion of children.
Craving in negative emotional situations (negative craving) is commonly associated with relapse and heavy alcohol use. Elevated dynorphin levels were associated with negative emotions, while variations in the OPRK1 and PDYN genes encoding OPRK1 receptor and dynorphins were associated with alcohol dependence.
To investigate potential overlap in the genetic factors underlying, negative craving and alcohol dependence.
Examine the association of the negative craving and genetic variation in the OPRK1 and PDYN genes.
13 PDYN and 10 OPRK1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), including those previously reported to be associated with alcohol dependence were genotyped in 196 alcohol dependent subjects. The raw scores of the negative subscale of Inventory of Drug Taking Situations (IDTS) were utilized as a quantitative measure of negative craving. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations after controlling for age and gender.
Gene-level haplotype testing demonstrated significant association of negative craving with variation in PDYN (p < 0.05) but not OPRK1 gene. The rs2281285 - rs199794 haplotype showed significant association (p = 0.0236) with negative craving, while rs2235749 - rs10485703 haplotype showed marginally significant association (p = 0.055). This replicates previous findings of association between these haplotypes and alcohol dependence. Negative craving was also associated with PDYN rs2281285 variant (p = 0.012) with estimated effect size of 6.95 (SE = 2.75). This new association finding was not significant after correction for multiple testing (p = 0.18).
Our findings support association of PDYN sequence variation with negative craving in alcohol dependent subjects. Future studies should investigate functional mechanisms of this association.
Fibromyalgia is characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, headaches, and cognitive and affective disturbance. The aetiological pathway is not clearly understood nor is there a clearly defined pathophysiological profile for the disorder that distinguishes it as a diagnosis.
To investigate the efficacy of 20 mg escitalopram monotherapy in management of depressive symptoms, pain, fatigue and sleep.
To demonstrate efficacy of escitalopram in improving depressive and pain symptoms as measured by primary and secondary outcome measures.
60 subjects were randomized to treatment or control group and evaluated at 4,8 and 12 weeks using MADRAS, McGill pain questionnaire, fibromyalgia impact score and sleep questionnaires.
Mean MADRAS score was significantly lower in the treatment group (14.96 ± 1.02 vs 18.12 ± 1.05; p = 0.03) as compared to the control group. When the change from baseline on MADRAS score was compared between the groups, the reduction was even more apparent in the treatment group (−12.49 ± 1.48 vs − 4.77 ± 1.54; p = 0.001).Mean FIBROMYALGIA score was significantly lower in the treatment group as compared to the control group (54.20 ± 2.09 vs 64.93 ± 2.14; p < 0.001). The reduction was much higher in the treatment group than the control group (−21.31 ± 2.94 vs − 2.79 ± 3.03; p < 0.001).
Positive statistically significant results for treatment group on all primary outcome measures of MADRAS and fibromyalgia impact score questionnaire.