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Motivated by the manufacture of carbon fibre components, this paper considers the smooth draping of loosely woven fabric over rigid obstacles, both smooth and nonsmooth. The draped fabric is modelled as the continuum limit of a Chebyshev net of two families of short rigid rods that are freely pivoted at their joints. This approach results in a system of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations whose characteristics are the fibres in the fabric. The analysis of this system gives useful information about the drapability of obstacles of many shapes and also poses interesting theoretical questions concerning well-posedness, smoothness and computability of the solutions.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
This study analyzes the relationship between state-level variables and Twitter discourse on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Using geographically identified tweets related to GMOs, we examined how the sentiments expressed about GMOs related to education levels, news coverage, proportion of rural and urban counties, state-level political ideology, amount of GMO-related legislation introduced, and agricultural dependence of each U.S. state. State-level characteristics predominantly did not predict the sentiment of the discourse. Instead, the topics of tweets predicted the majority of variance in tweet sentiment at the state level. The topics that tweets within a state focused on were related to state-level characteristics in some cases.
A non-parametric Gaussian process regression model is developed in the three-dimensional equilibrium reconstruction code V3FIT. A Gaussian process is a normal distribution of functions that is uniquely defined by specifying a mean function and covariance kernel function. Gaussian process regression assumes that an unknown profile belongs to a particular Gaussian process and uses Bayesian analysis to select the function the give the best fit to measured data. The implementation in V3FIT uses a hybrid representation where Gaussian processes are used to infer some of the equilibrium profiles and standard parametric techniques are used to infer the remaining profiles. The implementation of the Gaussian process is tested using both synthetic data and experimental data from multiple machines.
We develop a general model to describe a network of interconnected thin viscous sheets, or viscidas, which evolve under the action of surface tension. A junction between two viscidas is analysed by considering a single viscida containing a smoothed corner, where the centreline angle changes rapidly, and then considering the limit as the smoothing tends to zero. The analysis is generalized to derive a simple model for the behaviour at a junction between an arbitrary number of viscidas, which is then coupled to the governing equation for each viscida. We thus obtain a general theory, consisting of
partial differential equations and
algebraic conservation laws, for a system of
viscidas connected at
junctions. This approach provides a framework to understand the fabrication of microstructured optical fibres containing closely spaced holes separated by interconnected thin viscous struts. We show sample solutions for simple networks with
or 3. We also demonstrate that there is no uniquely defined junction model to describe interconnections between viscidas of different thicknesses.
We derive a mathematical model for the drawing of a two-dimensional thin sheet of viscous fluid in the direction of gravity. If the gravitational field is sufficiently strong, then a portion of the sheet experiences a compressive stress and is thus unstable to transverse buckling. We analyse the dependence of the instability and the subsequent evolution on the process parameters, and the mutual coupling between the weakly nonlinear buckling and the stress profile in the sheet. Over long time scales, the sheet centreline ultimately adopts a universal profile, with the bulk of the sheet under tension and a single large bulge caused by a small compressive region near the bottom, and we derive a canonical inner problem that describes this behaviour. The large-time analysis involves a logarithmic asymptotic expansion, and we devise a hybrid asymptotic–numerical scheme that effectively sums the logarithmic series.
We investigate the gravity-driven flow of a thin film of liquid metal on a conducting conical substrate in the presence of a strong toroidal magnetic field (transverse to the flow and parallel to the substrate). We solve the leading-order governing equations in a physically relevant asymptotic limit to find the free-surface profile. We find that the leading-order fluid flow rate is a non-monotonic bounded function of the film height, and this can lead to singularities in the free-surface profile. We perform a detailed stability analysis and identify values of the relevant geometric, hydrodynamic and magnetic parameters such that the flow is stable.
In May 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) released the report “Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects,” summarizing scientific consensus on genetically engineered crops and their implications. NASEM reports aim to give the public and policymakers information on socially relevant science issues. Their impact, however, is not well understood. This analysis combines national pre- and post-report survey data with a large-scale content analysis of Twitter discussion to examine the report’s effect on public perceptions of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We find that the report’s release corresponded with reduced negativity in Twitter discourse and increased ambivalence in public risk and benefit perceptions of GMOs, mirroring the NASEM report’s conclusions. Surprisingly, this change was most likely for individuals least trusting of scientific studies or university scientists. Our findings indicate that NASEM consensus reports can help shape public discourse, even in, or perhaps because of, the complex information landscape of traditional and social media.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Leadership is an essential and recognized team science competency. Modeled after the successful LEAD (Leadership in Emerging Academic Departments) program at University of Texas Southwestern (UTSW), ConduITS LEAD Program is designed to: (1) provide personal and professional development opportunities for participants; (2) promote organizational change through applied leadership skills; (3) provide a platform for integrating multiple disciplines and fostering interprofessional relationships among investigators and clinicians. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The 1-year structured LEAD program curriculum includes monthly interactive seminars covering: personal and situational leadership; unconscious bias; communication and influence; navigating personal conflict; negotiation and networking; selecting and managing the right team; teamwork; financing the academic mission, budgets and business plan development; strategic planning and vision; presentation skills. To foster the development of leadership skills participants engage in Hogan Assessments, individual and peer mentoring from an executive coach and self-directed learning activities and assignments. Completion of an individual Capstone leadership project empowers learners to enact practice change through the implementation of leadership concepts in practice. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In collaboration with the Office of Academic Enrichment & Development (OADE), the first competitive RFA was issued in November of 2016. In total, 63 applications were received including: gender: 29 M: 34 F; URM: 10; Degrees: M.D. (40); Ph.D. (11); M.D./Ph.D. (6); M.D./M.P.H. (3); M.D./M.S.C.R. (2); PharmD (1); Departments: 19; Institutes/Centers: 12; MSHS: 3 sites. Through a competitive and rigorous application process, 24 junior faculty with evidence of leadership potential and trajectory were chosen to participate. The current cohort of LEAD participants joined in February 2017, and will complete the program in January 2018. Using qualitative and quantitative survey methodology, participants will be evaluated for self-reported change to attitudes, belief, skills and development of new relationships and collaborations. Submitted Capstone projects were mainly focused on implementing situational and personal leadership concepts to practice, with one additionally focused on the use of behavioral interviewing techniques to optimize team building and teamwork. At the time of abstract submission 30% of the cohort has implemented their Capstone project in practice. Participants will be followed-up in 6 months’ time to evaluate the impact of the LEAD program on their practice. Following a second RFA, 24/52 candidates have been selected as our next cohort, and will start in February 2018. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Leadership is known to be a core component of team science, and the ability to implement leadership into practice may advance personal and professional change. This program addresses the need to empower Junior Faculty to engage in leadership in practice. In addition, this program is able to provide added value to extend the reach of the OADE, promote new individual collaborations and facilitate additional leadership training efforts at our Institution. Future collaborative studies will focus on common outcomes as well as institutional differences between these 2 CTSA institutions.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
Mollusc seashells grow through the local deposition and calcification of material at the shell opening by a soft and thin organ called the mantle. Through this process, a huge variety of shell structures are formed. Previous models have shown that these structural patterns can largely be understood by examining the mechanical interaction between the deformable mantle and the rigid shell aperture to which it adheres. In this paper we extend this modelling framework in two distinct directions. For one, we incorporate a mechanical feedback in the growth of the mollusc. Second, we develop an initial framework to couple the two primary and orthogonal modes of pattern formation in shells, which are termed antimarginal and commarginal ornamentation. In both cases we examine the change in shell morphology that occurs due to the different mechanical influences and evaluate the hypotheses in light of the fossil record.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
In 2013, New York State mandated that, during influenza season, unvaccinated healthcare personnel (HCP) wear a surgical mask in areas where patients are typically present. We found that this mandate was associated with increased HCP vaccination and decreased HCP visits to the hospital Workforce Health and Safety Department with respiratory illnesses and laboratory-confirmed influenza.
The Zadko telescope is a 1 m f/4 Cassegrain telescope, situated in the state of Western Australia about 80-km north of Perth. The facility plays a niche role in Australian astronomy, as it is the only meter class facility in Australia dedicated to automated follow-up imaging of alerts or triggers received from different external instruments/detectors spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, the location of the facility at a longitude not covered by other meter class facilities provides an important resource for time critical projects. This paper reviews the status of the Zadko facility and science projects since it began robotic operations in March 2010. We report on major upgrades to the infrastructure and equipment (2012–2014) that has resulted in significantly improved robotic operations. Second, we review the core science projects, which include automated rapid follow-up of gamma ray burst (GRB) optical afterglows, imaging of neutrino counterpart candidates from the ANTARES neutrino observatory, photometry of rare (Barbarian) asteroids, supernovae searches in nearby galaxies. Finally, we discuss participation in newly commencing international projects, including the optical follow-up of gravitational wave (GW) candidates from the United States and European GW observatory network and present first tests for very low latency follow-up of fast radio bursts. In the context of these projects, we outline plans for a future upgrade that will optimise the facility for alert triggered imaging from the radio, optical, high-energy, neutrino, and GW bands.
We study theoretically and experimentally how a thin layer of liquid flows along a flexible beam. The flow is modelled using lubrication theory and the substrate is modelled as an elastica which deforms according to the Euler–Bernoulli equation. A constant flux of liquid is supplied at one end of the beam, which is clamped horizontally, while the other end of the beam is free. As the liquid film spreads, its weight causes the beam deflection to increase, which in turn enhances the spreading rate of the liquid. This feedback mechanism causes the front position
and the deflection angle at the front
to go through a number of different power-law behaviours. For early times, the liquid spreads like a horizontal gravity current, with
. For intermediate times, the deflection of the beam leads to rapid acceleration of the liquid layer, with
. Finally, when the beam has sagged to become almost vertical, the liquid film flows downward with
. We demonstrate good agreement between these theoretical predictions and experimental results.
The first observations by a worldwide network of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors offer a unique opportunity for the astronomical community. At design sensitivity, these facilities will be able to detect coalescing binary neutron stars to distances approaching 400 Mpc, and neutron star–black hole systems to 1 Gpc. Both of these sources are associated with gamma-ray bursts which are known to emit across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Gravitational wave detections provide the opportunity for ‘multi-messenger’ observations, combining gravitational wave with electromagnetic, cosmic ray, or neutrino observations. This review provides an overview of how Australian astronomical facilities and collaborations with the gravitational wave community can contribute to this new era of discovery, via contemporaneous follow-up observations from the radio to the optical and high energy. We discuss some of the frontier discoveries that will be made possible when this new window to the Universe is opened.
Thin glass sheets may be manufactured using a two-part process in which a sheet is first cast and then subsequently reheated and drawn to a required thickness. The latter redrawing process typically results in a sheet with non-uniform thickness and with smaller width than the cast glass block. Experiments suggest that the loss of width can be minimized and the non-uniformities can be essentially confined to thickening at the sheet edges if the heater zone through which the glass is drawn is made very short. We present a three-dimensional mathematical model for the redraw process and consider the limits in which (i) the heater zone is short compared with the sheet width, and (ii) the sheet thickness is small compared with both of these length scales. We show that, in the majority of the sheet, the properties vary only in the direction of drawing and the sheet motion is one-dimensional, with two-dimensional behaviour and the corresponding thick edges confined to boundary layers at the sheet extremities. We present numerical solutions to this boundary-layer problem and demonstrate good agreement with experiment, as well as with numerical solutions to the full three-dimensional problem. We show that the final thickness at the sheet edge scales with the inverse square root of the draw ratio, and explore the effect of tapering of the ends to identify a shape for the initial preform that results in a uniform rectangular final product.
A rare subclass of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) shows evidence of strong interaction with a hydrogen-rich circumstellar medium (CSM); these objects are referred to as SNe Ia-CSM. PTF11kx began life as a SN Ia, but after a month it began to show indications of significant interaction with its CSM. This well-studied object solidified the connection between SNe Ia-CSM and more typical SNe Ia, despite their spectral similarity to Type IIn SNe (which likely come from massive star progenitors, as opposed to the white dwarf progenitors for the SNe Ia-CSM). The spectra of all ~20 known SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by Hα emission (with widths of ~2000 km s−1) and exhibit large Hα/Hβ intensity ratios; moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission (see left panel of Figure 1). They also show possible evidence of dust formation through a decrease in the red wing of Hα 75–100 days past maximum brightness. The absolute magnitudes of SNe Ia-CSM are found to be -21.3 mag ≤ MR ≤ −19 mag (see right panel of Figure 1), and they also show ultraviolet emission at early times and strong infrared emission at late times (but no detected radio or X-ray emission). Finally, the host galaxies of SNe Ia-CSM imply that these objects come from a relatively young stellar population.
In this paper, we consider the straining flow of a weakly interacting polymer–surfactant solution below a free surface, with the bulk surfactant concentration above the critical micelle concentration. We formulate a set of coupled differential equations describing the concentration of monomers, micelles, polymer, and polymer–micelle aggregates in the flow. We analyse the model in several asymptotic limits, and make predictions about the distribution of each of the species. In particular, in the large-reaction-rate limit we find that the model predicts a region near the free surface where no micelles or aggregates are present, and beneath this a region where the concentration of surfactant is constant, across which the concentration of aggregates increases until all the free polymer is consumed. For certain parameter regimes, a maximum in the concentration of the polymer–micelle complex occurs within the bulk fluid. In the finite-reaction-rate limit, micelles, and aggregates are present right up to the free surface, and the plateau in the concentration of surfactant in the bulk is no longer present. Results from the asymptotic theory compare favorably with full numerical solutions.