To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
The SPICA mid- and far-infrared telescope will address fundamental issues in our understanding of star formation and ISM physics in galaxies. A particular hallmark of SPICA is the outstanding sensitivity enabled by the cold telescope, optimised detectors, and wide instantaneous bandwidth throughout the mid- and far-infrared. The spectroscopic, imaging, and polarimetric observations that SPICA will be able to collect will help in clarifying the complex physical mechanisms which underlie the baryon cycle of galaxies. In particular, (i) the access to a large suite of atomic and ionic fine-structure lines for large samples of galaxies will shed light on the origin of the observed spread in star-formation rates within and between galaxies, (ii) observations of HD rotational lines (out to ~10 Mpc) and fine structure lines such as [C ii] 158 μm (out to ~100 Mpc) will clarify the main reservoirs of interstellar matter in galaxies, including phases where CO does not emit, (iii) far-infrared spectroscopy of dust and ice features will address uncertainties in the mass and composition of dust in galaxies, and the contributions of supernovae to the interstellar dust budget will be quantified by photometry and monitoring of supernova remnants in nearby galaxies, (iv) observations of far-infrared cooling lines such as [O i] 63 μm from star-forming molecular clouds in our Galaxy will evaluate the importance of shocks to dissipate turbulent energy. The paper concludes with requirements for the telescope and instruments, and recommendations for the observing strategy.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
Our current knowledge of star formation and accretion luminosity at high redshift (z > 3–4), as well as the possible connections between them, relies mostly on observations in the rest-frame ultraviolet, which are strongly affected by dust obscuration. Due to the lack of sensitivity of past and current infrared instrumentation, so far it has not been possible to get a glimpse into the early phases of the dust-obscured Universe. Among the next generation of infrared observatories, SPICA, observing in the 12–350 µm range, will be the only facility that can enable us to trace the evolution of the obscured star-formation rate and black-hole accretion rate densities over cosmic time, from the peak of their activity back to the reionisation epoch (i.e., 3 < z ≲ 6–7), where its predecessors had severe limitations. Here, we discuss the potential of photometric surveys performed with the SPICA mid-infrared instrument, enabled by the very low level of impact of dust obscuration in a band centred at 34 µm. These unique unbiased photometric surveys that SPICA will perform will fully characterise the evolution of AGNs and star-forming galaxies after reionisation.
The physical processes driving the chemical evolution of galaxies in the last ~ 11Gyr cannot be understood without directly probing the dust-obscured phase of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei. This phase, hidden to optical tracers, represents the bulk of the star formation and black hole accretion activity in galaxies at 1 < z < 3. Spectroscopic observations with a cryogenic infrared observatory like SPICA, will be sensitive enough to peer through the dust-obscured regions of galaxies and access the rest-frame mid- to far-infrared range in galaxies at high-z. This wavelength range contains a unique suite of spectral lines and dust features that serve as proxies for the abundances of heavy elements and the dust composition, providing tracers with a feeble response to both extinction and temperature. In this work, we investigate how SPICA observations could be exploited to understand key aspects in the chemical evolution of galaxies: the assembly of nearby galaxies based on the spatial distribution of heavy element abundances, the global content of metals in galaxies reaching the knee of the luminosity function up to z ~ 3, and the dust composition of galaxies at high-z. Possible synergies with facilities available in the late 2020s are also discussed.
Much can be learned from terrestrial planets that appear to have had the potential to be habitable, but failed to realize that potential. Mars shows evidence of a once hospitable surface environment. The reasons for its current state, and in particular its thin atmosphere and dry surface, are of great interest for what they can tell us about habitable zone planet outcomes. A main goal of the MAVEN mission is to observe Mars’ atmosphere responses to solar and space weather influences, and in particular atmosphere escape related to space weather ‘storms’ caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Numerical experiments with a data-validated MHD model suggest how the effects of an observed moderately strong ICME compare to what happens during a more extreme event. The results suggest the kinds of solar and space weather conditions that can have evolutionary importance at a planet like Mars.
Star-formation is one of the main processes that shape galaxies, and together with black-hole accretion activity the two agents of energy production in galaxies. It is important on a range of scales from star clusters/OB associations to galaxy-wide and even group/cluster scales. Recently, studies of star-formation in sub-galactic and galaxy-wide scales have met significant advances owing to: (a) developments in the theory of stellar evolution, stellar atmospheres, and radiative transfer in the interstellar medium; (b) the availability of more sensitive and higher resolution data; and (c) observations in previously poorly charted wavebands (e.g. Ultraviolet, Infrared, and X-rays). These data allow us to study more galaxies at ever-increasing distances and nearby galaxies in greater detail, and different modes of star formation activity such as massive star formation and low level continuous star formation in a variety of environments. In this contribution we summarize recent results in the fields of multi-wavelength calibrations of star-formation rate indicators, the Stellar Initial Mass function, and radiative transfer and modeling of the Spectrale Energy Disrtributions of galaxies.
Within the key project “Herschel M 33 extended survey” (HerM33es), we are studying the physical and chemical processes driving star formation and galactic evolution in the nearby galaxy M 33, combining the study of local conditions affecting individual star formation with properties only becoming apparent on global scales. Here, we present recent results obtained by the HerM33es team. Combining Spitzer and Herschel data ranging from 3.6 μm to 500μm, along with H i, Hα, and GALEX UV data, we have studied the dust at high spatial resolutions of 150 pc, providing estimators of the total infrared (TIR) brightness and of the star formation rate. While the temperature of the warm dust at high brightness is driven by young massive stars, evolved stellar populations appear to drive the temperature of the cold dust. Plane-parallel models of photon dominated regions (PDRs) fail to reproduce fully the [C ii], [O i], and CO maps obtained in a first spectroscopic study of one 2′ × 2′ subregion of M 33, located on the inner, northern spiral arm and encompassing the H ii region BCLMP 302.
We present results from the Herschel and IRAM projects to map M33 in the dust continuum and main emission lines, particularly C[II] and CO. The temperature of the cool dust decreases with distance from the center of M33 from ~25K to ~13K. The CO emission generally follows the dust temperature and the overall dust emission. However, about 1/6 of the molecular clouds are not associated with massive stars, such that about 1/6th the lifetime of an entity identifiable as a molecular cloud is in a pre-star formation state. These clouds are less CO-bright than those with massive stars. The largest sample of molecular clouds currently available for an external galaxy shows that the cloud CO luminosity function, usually viewed as the cloud H2 mass, steepens with radius such that smaller clouds are more numerous in the outer parts. The observations of the C[II] line with Herschel indicate that the C[II] emission traces on-going star formation rather than the neutral gas. This identification will be tested via velocity-resolved Herschel/HIFI C[II] spectra in the near future.
The radioimmunoassay for brucellosis previously reported from this laboratory was a sensitive and useful method for detecting antibody against Brucella abortus in bovine serum. Changes in the procedure have improved sensitivity, have apparently increased interassay precision, and have made the assay easier to perform.
Patricia J. Brooks, College of Staten Island and the Graduate School of City University of New York, New York University, Lehman College of City University of New York, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,
Martin D. S. Braine, College of Staten Island and the Graduate School of City University of New York, New York University, Lehman College of City University of New York, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,
Gisela Jia, College of Staten Island and the Graduate School of City University of New York, New York University, Lehman College of City University of New York, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,
Maria da Graca Dias, College of Staten Island and the Graduate School of City University of New York, New York University, Lehman College of City University of New York, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
Melissa Bowerman, Max-Planck-Institut für Psycholinguistik, The Netherlands,Stephen Levinson, Max-Planck-Institut für Psycholinguistik, The Netherlands
There were two points of departure for the work summarized here on the development of children's comprehension of universal quantifiers. One came from the claim that there is a mental logic (Braine 1978; Braine, Reiser, & Rumain 1984). The mental logic theory posits that some logical framework is available essentially innately. The child's task is to learn, through experience, associations between natural-language logical expressions and representations in the mental logic. Much of the theoretical work of Braine and colleagues in this area has been on reasoning at a propositional level with inferences that depend on the meanings of words like and, or, if, and not (e.g. Braine et al. 1984; Braine 1990; Braine, O'Brien, Noveck, et al. 1995). Expanding the work on reasoning to include inferences involving quantifiers has been on the agenda from the start and several years ago we became interested in the issue of the development of comprehension of universal quantifiers such as all, each, and every, in part because they give rise to an especially rich set of inferences.
Our initial framework for thinking about universal quantifiers and their development stemmed from the work of Vendler (1967) and Ioup (1975). Vendler suggested that there were at least two sorts of basic representations corresponding to the meanings of all, each, and every. First was a collective representation whereby a predicate applies to a whole set in a collective sense.
In situ, ultrahigh vacuum anneals were performed to induce Cu reflow at 500°C following deposition of Cu films and a Ta barrier layer on 1 μm wide by 1 μm deep trenches. Transmission electron micrograph cross-sections show profiles which suggest that grain boundaries and surface energy anisotropy significantly affect reflow. The extent of reflow is dependent on the structure of grain boundary-surface intersections, and the surface profile consists of regions of low curvature within grains and with sharp discontinuities in curvature at grain boundaries, a structure that inhibits surface diffusion. We present results showing how the surface diffusion mediated reflow varies with grain boundary groove angle and position, and compare these results with finite-element simulations that model surface diffusion-driven reflow.
The past and present state of the empiricism–nativism issue is analysed. Empiricist philosophical doctrine (‘no innate ideas’) distinguished idea from structure or mechanism. However, Chomsky's conception of innate linguistic universals erased this distinction. The elimination left would-be empiricists without a coherent and defensible position. I argue that the issue remains alive primarily because of tension between two scientific tasks that face students of development. One is to discover what is cognitively and linguistically primitive, a task that encourages nativism. However, nativism is ultimately unsatisfactory because it systematically neglects the other task, which is to account for development, including the emergence of postulated innate primitives. To account for such primitives, it is necessary to relate them to particular central nervous System structures in such a way as to explain how the structure has the particular cognitive effects that define the primitive. That is likely to be difficult, and I show how the study of learning – much neglected in recent years – can help by reducing the number and type of innate primitives whose origin must be explained in that way.
Results are reported of a study to evaluate possible associations between nasal septal deformity and palatal symmetry in neonates.
Five hundred babies, born consecutively, were examined within three days of birth. Prenatal and delivery data were recorded for each baby and the nose was examined to determine airway patency and possible septal deformity. When a deviation of the septum was discovered an alginate impression of the palate was taken along with photographs of the nostrils. A matched control was then selected for each study group baby and similar records were obtained.
Only 14 cases of septal deformity were found, an incidence of 2.8 per cent. No evidence of palatal asymmetry was found. The theory that moulding pressures during delivery may be a major cause of nasal septal deformity was not supported.
We hypothesize that canonical sentence schemas (e.g. Agent—verb-Patient) can sometimes assign argument structure to verbs. In particular, they provide a default argument structure early in learning when a verb's lexical entry may record the nature of the action but lack a specific argument structure. To test the theory and its application to causative verb errors (e.g. stay it there), novel action verbs were modelled, some as causative, some as intransitive, and some unmarked for transitivity. Spontaneous usage was recorded, along with responses to agent-questions (‘What is the [Agent] doing?’) and patient-questions (‘What is the [Patient] doing?’). Comparable data were obtained for familiar English verbs, some of fixed and some of optional transitivity. Subjects were willing to use all novel verbs both transitively and intransitively, although adults respected assigned transitivity more than children. All subjects largely respected the transitivity of familiar verbs. The discourse pressure of the agent- and patient-questions greatly affected observed transitivity. No evidence was found for the intransitive-to-causative derivational process postulated by Bowerman. We propose that the kind of causativity error observed by Bowerman is due to assignment of argument structure from canonical sentence schemas, especially under pressure of a need to make a sentence with a particular argument (Agent or Patient) as subject. The theory has the advantage of explaining errors without postulating the acquisition of erroneous lexical entries that have to be unlearned, and it can be extended to other kinds of errors in the choice and placement of arguments.