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An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of offering beef cattle five silage diets. These were perennial ryegrass silage (PRGS) as the sole forage, tall fescue/perennial ryegrass silage (FGS) as the sole forage, PRGS in a 50:50 ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis with lupin/triticale silage (LTS), lupin/wheat silage (LWS) and pea/oat silage (POS). Each of the five silage diets was supplemented with 4 and 7 kg of concentrates/head/day in a five silages × two concentrate intakes factorial design. A total of 90 cattle were used in the 121-day experiment. The grass silages were of medium digestibility and were well preserved. The legume/cereal silages had high ammonia N, high acetic acid, low lactic acid, low butyric acid and low digestible organic matter concentrations (542, 562 and 502 g/kg DM for LTS, LWS and POS, respectively). Silage treatment did not significantly affect liveweight gain, carcass gain, carcass characteristics, the instrumental assessment of meat quality or fatty acid composition of the M. longissimus dorsi muscle. In view of the low yields of the legume/cereal crops, it is concluded that the inclusion of spring-sown legume/cereal silages in the diets of beef cattle is unlikely to be advantageous.
An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of offering beef steers grass silage (GS) as the sole forage, lupins/triticale silage (LTS) as the sole forage, a mixture of LTS and GS at a ratio of 70:30 on a dry matter (DM) basis, vetch/barley silage (VBS) as the sole forage, a mixture of VBS and GS at a ratio of 70:30 on a DM basis, giving a total of five silage diets. Each of the five silage diets was supplemented with 2 and 5 kg of concentrates/head/day in a 5 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the five silages at two levels of concentrate intake and to examine possible interactions between silage type and concentrate intake. A total of 80 beef steers were used in the 122-day experiment. The GS was well preserved while the whole crop cereal/legume silages had high ammonia-nitrogen (N) concentrations, low lactic acid concentrations and low butyric acid concentrations For GS, LTS, LTS/GS, VBS and VBS/GS, respectively, silage DM intakes were 6.5, 7.0, 7.2, 6.1 and 6.6 (s.e.d. 0.55) kg/day and live weight gains were 0.94, 0.72, 0.63, 0.65 and 0.73 (s.e.d. 0.076) kg/day. Silage type did not affect carcass fatness, the colour or tenderness of meat or the fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat in the longissimus dorsi muscle.
This study focused on the hypothesis that cognitive decline in aged dogs could be attenuated by dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend consisting of antioxidants, B vitamins, fish oil and l-arginine, referred to hereafter as the Brain Protection Blend (BPB). Baseline cognitive assessment before the start of treatment was used to establish cognitively equivalent control (10·464+2·33 kg) and treatment (12·118+3·386 kg) groups of aged dogs between 9·1 and 11·5 years of age and with body condition score of 5. After an initial wash-in period, all dogs were tested over a 6-month period on cognitive test protocols that assessed four phases of a landmark discrimination learning protocol, which assessed a spatial learning skill based on utilisation of external cues, and egocentric discrimination task, which assessed spatial learning based on internal body-centred cues. The BPB-supplemented group showed significantly better performance than the controls on the landmark 1 (P=0·0446) discrimination learning tasks, and on two egocentric discrimination reversal learning tasks (P=0·005 and P=0·01, respectively). The groups did not differ significantly (P>0·10) on the landmark zero discrimination task and the egocentric discrimination learning task. These results suggest beneficial effects are positively linked to task complexity. Many of the nutrients supplemented in the BPB diet were significantly higher in plasma, including arginine, α-tocopherol, DHA and EPA. These results indicate that long-term supplementation with the BPB can have cognition-improving effects and support the use of nutritional strategies in targeting brain ageing-associated risk factors as an intervention to delay cognitive ageing.
Prior to the introduction of functional endoscopic sinus surgery, several surgeons had begun to use telescopes to perform surgical procedures in the nose and sinuses. However, the central concepts of functional endoscopic sinus surgery evolved primarily from Messerklinger's endoscopic study of mucociliary clearance and endoscopic detailing of intranasal pathology. The popularity of a combination of endoscopic ethmoidectomy plus opening of secondarily involved sinuses grew rapidly during the latter part of the twentieth century, and endoscopic intranasal techniques began to expand to deal with pathology other than inflammation. We present a review of the evolution of knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of inflammatory sinus disease since that point in time, and of the impact that this has had on the management of inflammatory sinus disease. We also detail the technological advances that have allowed endoscopic intranasal techniques to expand and successfully treat other pathology, including skull base and orbital disease. In addition, we describe evolving technologies which may further influence development within this field.
A retrospective study of 258 children admitted to Ruchill Hospital, Glasgow, with croup between 1966 and 1972 indicated that the viruses most frequently associated with the syndrome were parainfluenza types 1 and 3 and influenza A. Most cases were admitted in the late autumn and winter months, with a small peak in May and June. This seasonal distribution mirrored the circulation of the main causative agents in the community, parainfluenza 1 being principally associated with the autumn cases, influenza A the winter cases and parainfluenza 3 the summer cases. Two of these ‘croup associated’ viruses showed regular periodicity, parainfluenza 1 occurring biennially in even years and influenza A in most years. The periodicity of parainfluenza 3 is as yet undetermined.
The microbial population of the intestinal tract is a complex natural resource that can be utilized in an effort to reduce the impact of pathogenic bacteria that affect animal production and efficiency, as well as the safety of food products. Strategies have been devised to reduce the populations of food-borne pathogenic bacteria in animals at the on-farm stage. Many of these techniques rely on harnessing the natural competitive nature of bacteria to eliminate pathogens that negatively impact animal production or food safety. Thus feed products that are classified as probiotics, prebiotics and competitive exclusion cultures have been utilized as pathogen reduction strategies in food animals with varying degrees of success. The efficacy of these products is often due to specific microbial ecological factors that alter the competitive pressures experienced by the microbial population of the gut. A few products have been shown to be effective under field conditions and many have shown indications of effectiveness under experimental conditions and as a result probiotic products are widely used in all animal species and nearly all production systems. This review explores the ecology behind the efficacy of these products against pathogens found in food animals, including those that enter the food chain and impact human consumers.
Genetic epidemiology data suggest that younger age of onset is associated with family history (FH) of depression. The present study tested whether the presence of FH for depression or anxiety in first-degree relatives determines younger age of onset for depression.
A sample of 1022 cases with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) was recruited at the Max Planck Institute and at two affiliated hospitals. Patients were assessed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and questionnaires including demographics, medical history, questions on the use of alcohol and tobacco, personality traits and life events. Survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to determine whether FH of depression signals earlier age of onset of depression.
Patients who reported positive FH had a significantly earlier age of onset than patients who did not report FH of depression (log-rank=48, df=1, p<0.0001). The magnitude of association of FH varies by age of onset, with the largest estimate for MDD onset before age 20 years (hazard ratio=2.2, p=0.0009), whereas FH is not associated with MDD for onset after age 50 years (hazard ratio=0.89, p=0.5). The presence of feelings of guilt, anxiety symptoms and functional impairment due to depressive symptoms appear to characterize individuals with positive FH of depression.
FH of depression contributes to the onset of depression at a younger age and may affect the clinical features of the illness.
The development of computer-aided systems for endoscopic sinus surgery has enabled surgical navigation through diseased or surgically altered sinus anatomy with increased confidence. However, conventional computer-aided systems do not provide intra-operative updated computed tomography imaging. We describe the technical aspects of the xCAT™, a new intra-operative mobile volume computed tomography scanner.
A patient with a malignant melanoma unwittingly removed at another hospital underwent surgery for removal of the lateral nasal wall and directed biopsies, in an attempt to identify the site of tumour origin. The procedure was performed with the GE InstaTrak 3500 PlusTM computer-aided system, updated with intra-operative computed tomography images. Intra-operative, updated images were integrated successfully into the InstaTrak system, and these images were consistent with the observed endoscopic anatomy.
The xCAT intra-operative mobile volume computed tomography scanner is a technological advancement that can assist the endoscopic sinus surgeon when performing complex rhinological and skull base procedures.