To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Background: On imaging, thrombosed aneurysms can be mistaken for tumor with potentially disastrous consequences. Methods: We present two cases of aneurysms mimicking tumor. Results:Patient 1 (6 months of left-sided facial weakness): MRI demonstrated a 3.3 cm, T1-isotense, T2-hypertense heterogeneous enhancing mass favored to represent a CPA schwannoma. Biopsy revealed a thrombosed aneurysm. DSA subsequently revealed an area of contrast penetration, treated by parent artery (AICA) obliteration. Two-year follow-up revealed stable occlusion with reduced mass effect. Patient 2 (1 year of headaches): Imaging demonstrated an extra-axial T1-mixed, T2-hyperintense heterogeneously enhancing mass in the left CPA adjacent to the vertebral artery, enlarging from 1.7 cm to 3.2 cm over 2 years. DSA revealed slow, crescentic filling with suggestion of arborisation distally. Patient deteriorated due to mass effect requiring a VP shunt and passed away from SAH 3 months later. Imaging review revealed crescentic filling of the remnant lumen on CE-MRA and signal voids on T2 in both cases, which may suggest the aneurysm diagnosis. However our cases did not have other features such as lamellated thrombus or pulsation artifact. Conclusions: Central contrast enhancement does not necessarily preclude the diagnosis of thrombosed aneurysm. The possibility of revascularization or penetration of contrast through the thrombus in giant aneurysms needs to be considered.
Background: CAS is reported to have higher complication rates in elderly compared to younger patients. This effect may be a surrogate for unfavourable anatomy (tortuosity, arch/access vessel atheroma burden) for endovascular treatment. We report our experience with 42 highly selected patients with favourable anatomy in spite of age. Methods: From a cohort of 217 consecutive patients undergoing CAS at St Michael’s Hospital from 2010-2016, stroke and a composite outcome of stroke, MI or death at 30 days post procedure was recorded. We compared outcomes in patients below and above the age of 75. Results: In 217 patients, 175 (80.7%) were below and 42 (19.3%) were above age 75 years. The stroke rate was 1.7% (n=3) and 2.4% (n=1), for patients below and above age 75 years respectively (p=0.58). The composite outcome rate was 4.0% (n=7) and 4.8% (n=2) for patients below and above age 75 years respectively (p=0.69). Conclusions: Patients without high-risk anatomic features were selected for CAS treatment. In this selected group, outcomes for those older than 75 years are comparable to the younger age category. Complication rates were comparable to the results in major randomized symptomatic carotid trials.
Background: The CREST trial remains the most influential study regarding choice of treatment modality for carotid revascularization in the modern era. The effect of the CREST trial on patient outcomes and changes to clinical practice are yet to be fully elucidated. Methods: We report a cohort of 217 consecutive symptomatic average risk patients undergoing CAS at St. Michael’s Hospital, between 2010 and 2016. Outcome measures were stroke, MI and death at 30 days post procedure. Of the 217 patients, 42 were above the age of 75 (19%). Results: The 30-day combined stroke, MI and death outcome for all patients was 4.1%. One death occurred (0.46%) in a patient who suffered an MI. One disabling stroke (0.46%) and 3 mild strokes (1.38%) with full recovery by 6 months occurred. Overall 4 patients suffered an MI (1.84%). Conclusions: As a result of the CREST trial in our single institutional experience there has been a clear migration to treating average risk patients using CAS, a treatment previously reserved for high risk patients. In this average risk cohort we report favourable outcomes when compared to the CREST trial as well as the firmly established benchmarks for CEA complications derived from the NASCET trial.
UVB Flight curves and spectrograms of R CMa obtained with the 48-inch telescope of Japal-Rangapur Observatory during 1980-82 have been used for deriving the eclipse and orbital elements as well as the absolute dimensions of the components. The primary is found to be a Main-Sequence F2V star of mass 1.52 M⊙ and the secondary a subgiant star of spectral type G8 and mass 0.20 M⊙ which fills its Roche lobe, in agreement with Kopal and Shapley (1956) results, Kopal (1959), or Sahade's (1963) results. From a consideration of the possible evolution of this system it is concluded that a large fraction of the original mass of the secondary is lost from the system. A study of the period changes indicates the possible presence of a third component of mass of about 0.5 M⊙ which is most likely to be an M dwarf.
Conjugated polymers are intensively pursued as candidate materials for emission and detection devices with the optical range of interest determined by the chemical structure. On the other hand the optical range for emission and detection can also be tuned by size selection in semiconductor nanoclusters. The mechanisms for charge generation and separation upon optical excitation, and light emission are different for these systems. Hybrid systems based on these different class of materials reveal interesting electronic and optical properties and add further insight into the individual characteristics of the different components. Multilayer structures and blends of these materials on different substrates were prepared for absorption, photocurrent (Iph), photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminscence (EL) studies. Polymers chosen were derivatives of polythiophene (PT) and polyparaphenylenevinylene (PPV) along with nanoclusters of cadmium sulphide of average size 4.4 nm (CdS-44). The photocurrent spectral response in these systems followed the absorption response around the band edges for each of the components and revealed additional features, which depended on bias voltage, thickness of the layers and interfacial effects. The current-voltage curves showed multi-component features with emission varying for different regimes of voltage. The emission spectral response revealed additive features and is discussed in terms of excitonic mechanisms.
The risk of stroke after transient ischemic attack (TIA) is elevated in the days to weeks after TIA. A variety of prediction rules to predict stroke risk have been suggested. In Alberta a triage algorithm to facilitate urgent access based on risk level was agreed upon for the province. Patients with ABCD2 score ≥ 4, or motor or speech symptoms lasting greater than five minutes, or with atrial fibrillation were considered high risk (the ASPIRE approach). We assessed the ability of the ASPIRE approach to identify patients at risk for stroke.
We retrospectively reviewed charts from 573 consecutive patients diagnosed with TIA in Foothills Hospital emergency room from 2002 through 2005. We recorded clinical and event details and identified the risk of stroke at three months.
Among 573 patients the 90-day risk of stroke was 4.7% (95% CI 3.0%, 6.4%). 78% of the patients were identified as high risk using this approach. In patients defined as high risk on the ASPIRE approach there was a 6.3% (95% CI 4.2%, 8.9%) risk of stroke. In patients defined as low risk using the ASPIRE approach there were no recurrent strokes (100% negative predictive value). In contrast, two patients with low ABCD2 scores (ABCD2 score < 4) suffered recurrent strokes.
The ASPIRE approach has a perfect negative predictive value in the population in predicting stroke. However, this high sensitivity comes at a cost of identifying most patients as high risk.
The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is an autonomous and independent navigational system being developed by India. IRNSS will provide position, navigation and timing services for national applications. To improve accuracy, it can be augmented using GPS and pseudolites (pseudo-satellites). In this paper, the effect on DOP (Dilution of Precision) due to augmentation of the proposed constellation of IRNSS with pseudolites is investigated. GDOP is reduced to 1·75 (max) from 3·63 (max) due to augmentation of IRNSS with two airport pseudolites (APLs). Due to augmentation of IRNSS with GPS, GDOP is reduced to 2·4 (max). When IRNSS is augmented with an APL as well as with GPS, GDOP is further decreased to 1·65 (max). The regional effect on DOP due to IRNSS is also investigated at different locations in the Indian region.
To assess the efficacy of the Food and Agriculture Organization's global school-based nutrition education initiative, Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger (FMFH), in improving nutrition-related knowledge levels of schoolchildren.
Adopting the cluster randomisation technique, five schools each in experimental and control groups were randomly chosen from the member schools of a voluntary organisation. Repeated measures of knowledge levels were carried out at three points in time to assess pre-, post-intervention and retention of knowledge gained during the intervention. Children from experimental schools were given nutrition education by teachers in the classroom setting using FMFH material.
Schoolchildren (n = 358 in the control group and n = 312 in the experimental group) of grades VIII and IX from schools in Hyderabad, India.
The classroom-based intervention resulted in a significant improvement (P < 0.01) in nutrition knowledge levels of schoolchildren in the experimental group. Significant improvement in knowledge was also observed in the control group. The effect size indicated that the improvement in knowledge levels of schoolchildren in experimental schools over control schools was medium (d = 0.40), indicating the efficacy of the FMFH programme in improving nutrition-related knowledge. No significant decrease (P>0.05) in knowledge levels was observed after 2 months, indicating retention of the knowledge acquired through the intervention.
The FMFH programme provides an opportunity for schoolchildren to learn more about nutrition through their teachers in a classroom setting if the lesson plans are adapted to the local circumstances. Furthermore, it has the potential to make nutrition education interactive, effective and sustainable.
A comparative study was undertaken on the performance of Khaki Campbell, Desi ducks and their reciprocal crosses in the Darrang District of Assam (India). Four hundred and seventy ducks were studied for certain economic traits. Results of the study in respect of age at maturity, body weight, egg production, egg quality, mortality and economic performance from the flocks are highlighted.
In the near future, Spaced-Based Augmentation Systems (such as the Wide Area
Augmentation System in North America) will become operational, permitting the use of GPS
as a primary system for all phases of flight. Recently the International Civil Aviation
Organisation (ICAO) has recommended the use of un-augmented GPS as a supplemental
navigation system for all phases of flight including non-precision approaches. In this paper,
the salient features of the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system in India, and the use of
conventional navigational aids are described. A new landing procedure is proposed using un-augmented
GPS known as ‘a non-precision instrument approach procedure with vertical
guidance (IPV)’ for Hyderabad Airport, Runway 27. This procedure, if implemented, would
be cost-effective and reliable for many airports in India. An algorithm has also been
developed for determining the range and bearing between the departure and the arrival
waypoints of an aircraft using the IPV.
An artificial diet developed for the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was used in a bioassay of endotoxin proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains and plant-derived protease inhibitors against the leaffolder, C. medinalis, and the yellow stemborer, Scirpophaga incertnlas. Of the 14 samples of endotoxins derived from different strains of Bt (sub-species kurstaki and sphericus) tested, 5 samples — BT 29, BT 47, BT 61, BT 70 and HD-1— were effective against leaffolder larvae in preliminary tests. Subsequent tests indicated HD-1 to be the most effective against the leaffolder, followed by BT 61 and BT 70, with non-overlapping 95% fiducial limits of LC50 values (3.9,18.2 and 41.1 mg protein/kg diet, respectively). Mortality was observed after 48 h of release of neonate larvae. In contrast, the two protease inhibitors tested, namely soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) and jackfruit seed trypsin inhibitor (JSTI) were less lethal to the two pests. The latter was more effective against the yellow stemborer at much lower concentrations.
We consider here the flow due to the oscillation of a slender oblate spheroid in a non-homogeneous, rotating fluid confined between two parallel planes which are perpendicular to the (vertical) axis of rotation. The direction of oscillation of the spheroid is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. By solving a set of dual integrals the steady-state solution is obtained in the two cases when the plates are at an infinite distance from the body and when they are at a large but finite distance. The singular or discontinuous surfaces observed in the case of homogeneous fluid are absent here. Also, the steady-state velocity is no longer independent of the distance along the axis of rotation. The velocity has now a vertical gradient, an important feature in the case of stratified fluid. It is also found that the presence of the plane boundaries increases the force on the body.
Detailed accounts of the morphology of the elephant louse and of its phylogenetic affinities and origin are given. The main points noted are: The peculiarity of the knobs and plate in the head are described. The mouthparts are described, a notable feature being the rotation of the mandible to 180 degrees. Structural peculiarities of the thorax with the muscles are given. The abdomen is found to consist of eight segments. The alimentary canal is described; no crop has been found. The histology of Weber's organ is given, and it is held that this organ is excretory in function. The structure of the spiracle is described, no spiracular gland has been found. The reproductive organs are described. In the female, the follicular epithelium of the ovary is binucleate and a spermatheca is present. In the male, the testis is bi-follicular. The affinities of the elephant louse are discussed and the creation of a new order, the Rhyncophthiraptera, to accommodate Haematomyzus, is suggested.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.