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An SPSS Companion for the Third Edition of The Fundamentals of Political Science Research offers students a chance to delve into the world of SPSS using real political data sets and statistical analysis techniques directly from Paul M. Kellstedt and Guy D. Whitten's best-selling textbook. Built in parallel with the main text, this workbook teaches students to apply the techniques they learn in each chapter by reproducing the analyses and results from each lesson using SPSS. Students will also learn to create all of the tables and figures found in the textbook, leading to an even greater mastery of the core material. This accessible, informative, and engaging companion walks through the use of SPSS step-by-step, using command lines and screenshots to demonstrate proper use of the software. With the help of these guides, students will become comfortable creating, editing, and using data sets in SPSS to produce original statistical analyses for evaluating causal claims. End-of-chapter exercises encourage this innovation by asking students to formulate and evaluate their own hypotheses.
Invasive species drive biodiversity loss and lead to changes in parasite–host associations. Parasites are linked to invasions and can mediate invasion success and outcomes. We review theoretical and empirical research into parasites in biological invasions, focusing on a freshwater invertebrate study system. We focus on the effects of parasitic infection on host traits (behaviour and life history) that can mediate native/invader trophic interactions. We review evidence from the field and laboratory of parasite-driven changes in predation, intraguild predation and cannibalism. Theoretical work shows that the trait-mediated effects of parasites can be as strong as classical density effects and their impact on the host’s trophic interactions merits more consideration. We also report on evidence of broader cascading effects warranting deeper study. Biological invasion can lead to altered parasite–host associations. Focusing on amphipod invasions, we find patterns of parasite introduction and loss that mirror host invasion pathways, but also highlight the risks of introducing invasive parasites. Horizon scanning and impact predictions are vital in identifying future disease risks, potential pathways of introduction and suitable management measures for mitigation.
In primates and carnivores, the main laminae of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) receive monocular excitatory input in an eye-alternating fashion. There is also evidence that nondominant eye stimulation can reduce responses to dominant eye stimulation and that a subset of LGN cells in the koniocellular (K) layers receives convergent binocular excitatory input from both eyes. What is not known is how the two eye inputs summate in the K layers of LGN. Here, we aimed to answer this question by making extracellular array electrode recordings targeted to K layers in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) LGN, as visual stimuli (flashed 200 ms temporal square-wave pulses or drifting gratings) were presented to each eye independently or to both eyes simultaneously. We found that when the flashed stimulus was presented to both eyes, compared to the dominant eye, the peak firing rate of most cells (61%, 14/23) was reduced. The remainder showed response facilitation (17%) or partial summation (22%). A greater degree of facilitation was seen when the total number of spikes across the stimulus time window (200 ms) rather than peak firing rates was measured. A similar pattern of results was seen for contrast-varying gratings and for small numbers of parvocellular (n = 12) and magnocellular (n = 3) cells recorded. Our findings show that binocular summation in the marmoset LGN is weak and predominantly sublinear in nature.
Few expected the contentious, disruptive politics that dominated the Confederacy. In the first exciting days of independence, Southern leaders looked forward to a purified, harmonious government. Liberated at last, they said, from unconstitutional aggressions and the pollution of Northern parties and demagogues, the Confederate government had a bright future. Even Jefferson Davis, the newly chosen president, who was more realistic than most, proclaimed a new era based on the ties uniting all whites in a slaveholding society. “It is joyous to look around upon a people united in heart,” he declared as he took up his duties.
To update current estimates of non–device-associated pneumonia (ND pneumonia) rates and their frequency relative to ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), and identify risk factors for ND pneumonia.
Academic teaching hospital.
All adult hospitalizations between 2013 and 2017 were included. Pneumonia (device associated and non–device associated) were captured through comprehensive, hospital-wide active surveillance using CDC definitions and methodology.
From 2013 to 2017, there were 163,386 hospitalizations (97,485 unique patients) and 771 pneumonia cases (520 ND pneumonia and 191 VAP). The rate of ND pneumonia remained stable, with 4.15 and 4.54 ND pneumonia cases per 10,000 hospitalization days in 2013 and 2017 respectively (P = .65). In 2017, 74% of pneumonia cases were ND pneumonia. Male sex and increasing age we both associated with increased risk of ND pneumonia. Additionally, patients with chronic bronchitis or emphysema (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–3.06), congestive heart failure (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.07–2.05), or paralysis (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09–2.73) were also at increased risk, as were those who were immunosuppressed (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.18–2.00) or in the ICU (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.06–2.09). We did not detect a change in ND pneumonia risk with use of chlorhexidine mouthwash, total parenteral nutrition, all medications of interest, and prior ventilation.
The incidence rate of ND pneumonia did not change from 2013 to 2017, and 3 of 4 nosocomial pneumonia cases were non–device associated. Hospital infection prevention programs should consider expanding the scope of surveillance to include non-ventilated patients. Future research should continue to look for modifiable risk factors and should assess potential prevention strategies.