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To assess the validity of self-reported height and weight by parents of 4-year-old children and subjective weight perception.
Descriptive cross-sectional study.
Paediatric population living in the Autonomous Community of Madrid.
Children born in 2008–2009 examined at 47–59 months of age. Data were collected by paediatricians of the Madrid Primary Care Physicians Sentinel Network. Parents reported weight and height data. Prevalence of weight status categories was calculated using WHO and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) reference criteria. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were estimated. The appraisal of their child’s weight perception and parental misperception were assessed.
For 2914 children, reported height was underestimated by −1·38 cm, weight by −0·25 kg and BMI was overestimated by +0·41 kg/m2 on average. The prevalence of obesity estimated with reported data was 2·7 times higher than that calculated with measured data (16·2 v. 6·0 %) according to WHO classification, and 3·6 times higher with IOTF classification. Sensitivity to identify obesity was 70·5 %, specificity was 87·3 % and PPV was 26·2 % (WHO classification). Half of the parents of pre-schoolers with obesity failed to identify their child’s weight status. Parental misperception among children classified as having overweight or obesity reached 93·0 and 58·8 %, respectively.
Parents underestimated children’s height and weight, leading to an overestimation of the prevalence of obesity. Small inaccuracies in reported measures have an important effect for the estimation of population prevalences. Parents’ report of child weight status is unreliable. Parental awareness and acknowledgement of child weight status should be improved.
Millions of micro electro mechanical system sensors are fabricated each year using an ultra-clean process that allows for a vacuum-encapsulated cavity. These devices have a multi-layer structure that contains hidden layers with highly doped silicon, which makes common imaging techniques ineffective. Thus, examining device features post-fabrication, and testing, is a significant challenge. Here, we use a combination of micro- and nano-scale x-ray computed tomography to study device features and assess failure mechanisms in such devices without destroying the ultra-clean cavity. This provides a unique opportunity to examine surfaces and trace failure mechanisms to specific steps in the fabrication process.
Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. is widely used as a high-protein supplementary food for ruminants in many parts of the tropics. Native to Central America and Mexico, it has become widely naturalized elsewhere but the introduced populations are mostly of unknown origin and uncertain quality. Studies of the genetic resources from the native range, under a research programme at OFI, have shown great variation between populations in yield (Dunsdon and Simons, 1996). The objective of the research described here was to investigate whether there is also important genetic variation in fodder quality, to inform decisions on future distribution of ‘superior’ germplasm of G. sepium under the OFI programme.
In the last years various OH surveys at 1612 MHz have been carried out in the galactic bulge region with high spatial resolution (Lindqvist et al. 1992; Sevenster et al. 1997; Sjouwerman et al. 1998) which have resulted in the detection of over five hundred double-peaked objects commonly associated with oxygen-rich AGB stars. More recently, the ISOGAL survey, which is part of the ISO mission, scanned several regions along the galactic plane, including the inner bulge, at 6.8 and 15 micron wavelengths. In this work we report an analysis of 104 OH/IR stars in the bulge, based on near and mid-infrared observations. Mass-loss rates, luminosities and masses are determined for a sub-sample of stars, for which near-infrared data are available in the literature.
Phosphatase activity of Leishmania spp. has been shown to deregulate the signalling pathways of the host cell. We here show that Leishmania mexicana promastigotes and amastigotes secrete proteins with phosphatase activity to the culture medium, which was higher in the Promastigote Secretion Medium (PSM) as compared with the Amastigote Secretion Medium (ASM) and was not due to cell lysis, since parasite viability was not affected by the secretion process. The biochemical characterization showed that the phosphatase activity present in PSM was higher in dephosphorylating the peptide END (pY) INASL as compared with the peptide RRA (pT)VA. In contrast, the phosphatase activity in ASM showed little dephosphorylating capacity for both peptides. Inhibition assays demonstrated that the phosphatase activity of both PSM and ASM was sensible only to protein tyrosine phosphatases inhibitors. An antibody against a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) of Leishmania major cross-reacted with a 44·9 kDa molecule in different cellular fractions of L. mexicana promastigotes and amastigotes, however, in PSM and ASM, the antibody recognized a protein about 70 kDa. By electron microscopy, the PP2C was localized in the flagellar pocket of amastigotes. PSM and ASM induced the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1β, IL-12p70 and IL-10 in human macrophages.
Cortical thickness measurement offers an index of brain development processes. In healthy individuals, cortical thickness is reduced with increasing age and is related to cognitive decline. Cortical thinning has been reported in schizophrenia. Whether cortical thickness changes differently over time in patients and its impact on outcome remain unanswered.
Data were examined from 109 patients and 76 healthy controls drawn from the Santander Longitudinal Study of first-episode schizophrenia for whom adequate structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were available (n = 555 scans). Clinical and cognitive assessments and MRIs were acquired at three regular time points during a 3-year follow-up period. We investigated likely progressive cortical thickness changes in schizophrenia during the first 3 years after initiating antipsychotic treatment. The effects of cortical thickness changes on cognitive and clinical variables were also examined along with the impact of potential confounding factors.
There were significant diagnoses × scan time interaction main effects for total cortical thickness (F1,309.1 = 4.60, p = 0.033) and frontal cortical thickness (F1,310.6 = 5.30, p = 0.022), reflecting a lesser thinning over time in patients. Clinical and cognitive outcome was not associated with progressive cortical changes during the early years of the illness.
Cortical thickness abnormalities do not unswervingly progress, at least throughout the first years of the illness. Previous studies have suggested that modifiable factors may partly account for cortical thickness abnormalities. Therefore, the importance of implementing practical actions that may modify those factors and improve them over the course of the illness should be highlighted.
Visible derivative spectroscopy (VDS) analysis of sediment from Cleland Lake, Southeastern British Columbia provides a reconstruction of paleolimnological productivity and hydrologic change during the past 14,000 calibrated 14C years before present (cal yr BP). The first five principal components (PC) of the VDS data explain 97% of the variance in the VDS data set. Four PCs correlate with standard reflectance derivative spectra for diatom, dinoflagellate algae, and cyanophyte pigments that record ecological change, while two PCs are paleohydrologic indicators. Dinoflagellate algae are predominant from 11,600 to 8600 cal yr BP then decrease to low levels after ~ 8500 cal yr BP. PCs 3–5 represent variations in cyanophyte abundance and exhibit peaks from 14,000 to 11,600, 14,000 to 9500, and 6100 to 5400 cal yr BP, respectively. Conditions shifted toward favoring diatoms around 9400 and lasted until 170 cal yr BP. Higher dinoflagellate-related pigment concentrations suggest a lower lake level from 11,600 to 8600 cal yr BP, followed by higher water levels and wetter conditions after 8500 cal yr BP. We propose that drier conditions transitioning from the late glacial into the Holocene were caused by summer insolation-driven, non-linear feedbacks between the northern hemisphere subtropical high-pressure systems, vegetation, and soil moisture.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious clinical condition with no effective treatment. Tubular cells are key targets in AKI. Tubular cells and, specifically, proximal tubular cells are extremely rich in mitochondria and mitochondrial changes had long been known to be a feature of AKI. However, only recent advances in understanding the molecules involved in mitochondria biogenesis and dynamics and the availability of mitochondria-targeted drugs has allowed the exploration of the specific role of mitochondria in AKI. We now review the morphological and functional mitochondrial changes during AKI, as well as changes in the expression of mitochondrial genes and proteins. Finally, we summarise the current status of novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting mitochondria such as mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening inhibitors (cyclosporine A (CsA)), quinone analogues (MitoQ, SkQ1 and SkQR1), superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics (Mito-CP), Szeto-Schiller (SS) peptides (Bendavia) and mitochondrial division inhibitors (mdivi-1). MitoQ, SkQ1, SkQR1, Mito-CP, Bendavia and mdivi-1 have improved the course of diverse experimental models of AKI. Evidence for a beneficial effect of CsA on human cardiac ischaemia–reperfusion injury derives from a clinical trial; however, CsA is nephrotoxic. MitoQ and Bendavia have been shown to be safe for humans. Ongoing clinical trials are testing the efficacy of Bendavia in AKI prevention following renal artery percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single layer centrifugation (SLC) using Androcoll-E-Large on donkey sperm quality parameters after 24 h of cool-storage. Ejaculates were collected from Andalusian donkeys and then cooled at 5°C. SLC was carried out after 24 h of cool-storage using Androcoll-E-Large. In the first experiment, all sperm parameters assessed (total and progressive sperm motility, viability, sperm morphology and sperm kinematics VCL, VSL, VAP, LIN, STR, WOB, ALH and BCF) were statistically compared between semen samples processed or not with Androcoll-E-Large. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found between SLC-selected and unselected semen samples for all parameters assessed, obtaining better results after SLC. In the second experiment, semen samples were classified in two groups according to their sperm progressive motility (PM) before SLC. Then, the increments obtained in semen quality parameters after SLC were compared between groups. No significant differences were found between groups, indicating that SLC improved the sperm quality parameters of entire set of semen samples processed with independence to their original PM. In conclusion, SLC with Androcoll-E-Large can be used in donkeys, increasing the sperm quality of cooled-stored donkey semen doses after 24 h of cool storage.
Schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder associated with structural brain abnormalities already present at the onset of the illness. Whether these brain abnormalities might progress over time is still under debate.
The aim of this study was to investigate likely progressive brain volume changes in schizophrenia during the first 3 years after initiating antipsychotic treatment. The study included 109 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder and a control group of 76 healthy subjects. Subjects received detailed clinical and cognitive assessment and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at regular time points during a 3-year follow-up period. The effects of brain changes on cognitive and clinical variables were examined along with the impact of potential confounding factors.
Overall, patients and healthy controls exhibited a similar pattern of brain volume changes. However, patients showed a significant lower progressive decrease in the volume of the caudate nucleus than control subjects (F1,307.2 = 2.12, p = 0.035), with healthy subjects showing a greater reduction than patients during the follow-up period. Clinical and cognitive outcomes were not associated with progressive brain volume changes during the early years of the illness.
Brain volume abnormalities that have been consistently observed at the onset of non-affective psychosis may not inevitably progress, at least over the first years of the illness. Taking together with clinical and cognitive longitudinal data, our findings, showing a lack of brain deterioration in a substantial number of individuals, suggest a less pessimistic and more reassuring perception of the illness.
We consider the problem of providing optimal uncertainty quantification (UQ) – and hence
rigorous certification – for partially-observed functions. We present a UQ framework
within which the observations may be small or large in number, and need not carry
information about the probability distribution of the system in operation. The UQ
objectives are posed as optimization problems, the solutions of which are optimal bounds
on the quantities of interest; we consider two typical settings, namely parameter
sensitivities (McDiarmid diameters) and output deviation (or failure) probabilities. The
solutions of these optimization problems depend non-trivially (even non-monotonically and
discontinuously) upon the specified legacy data. Furthermore, the extreme values are often
determined by only a few members of the data set; in our principal physically-motivated
example, the bounds are determined by just 2 out of 32 data points, and the remainder
carry no information and could be neglected without changing the final answer. We propose
an analogue of the simplex algorithm from linear programming that uses these observations
to offer efficient and rigorous UQ for high-dimensional systems with high-cardinality
legacy data. These findings suggest natural methods for selecting optimal (maximally
informative) next experiments.
The T-REX project aims at developing novel readout techniques for Time Projection Chambers in experiments searching for rare events. The enhanced performance of the latest Micromegas readouts in issues like energy resolution, gain stability, homogeneity, material budget, combined with low background techniques, is opening new windows of opportunity for their application in this field. Here we review the latest results regarding the use and prospects of Micromegas readouts in axion physics (CAST and the future helioscope), as well as the R&D carried out within NEXT, to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay.
Lasing action on a third order waveguide mode is demonstrated at room temperature under optical pumping, in a specifically designed quantum well laser structure. The AlGaAs heterostructure involves barriers which ensure that the third order mode has a higher overlap with the single quantum well emitter than the fundamental mode. Third order mode operation of a laser structure opens the way to modal phase matched parametric down conversion inside the semiconductor laser itself. It is a first step towards the realization of semiconductor twin photon laser sources, needed for quantum information experiments.
We studied the Al redistribution in the vicinity of a well-defined EOR band formed by Ge pre-amorphization. Aluminum was implanted in Si at 3 MeV to a low dose before the preamorphization step in order to localize the as-implanted Al peak away from the EOR band. Rapid thermal annealings were performed in the temperature range [900-1000°C] for times varying from 20 s up to 200 s. The results of this study evidence a clear accumulation of the dopant on the extended defects, indicating a direct trapping mechanism of the dopant by the EOR.