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Building on prior work using Tom Dishion's Family Check-Up, the current article examined intervention effects on dysregulated irritability in early childhood. Dysregulated irritability, defined as reactive and intense response to frustration, and prolonged angry mood, is an ideal marker of neurodevelopmental vulnerability to later psychopathology because it is a transdiagnostic indicator of decrements in self-regulation that are measurable in the first years of life that have lifelong implications for health and disease. This study is perhaps the first randomized trial to examine the direct effects of an evidence- and family-based intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on irritability in early childhood and the effects of reductions in irritability on later risk of child internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Data from the geographically and sociodemographically diverse multisite Early Steps randomized prevention trial were used. Path modeling revealed intervention effects on irritability at age 4, which predicted lower externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 10.5. Results indicate that family-based programs initiated in early childhood can reduce early childhood irritability and later risk for psychopathology. This holds promise for earlier identification and prevention approaches that target transdiagnostic pathways. Implications for future basic and prevention research are discussed.
The International Centre for Diffraction Data (1CDD), formally the Joint Committee for Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS), recently published a compilation of metal and alloy indexes of powder diffraction and structural data. This compilation is designed to make the identification and characterization of metallic and related materials easier and far more accurate. Systematic searches for chemical analogs and greater use of partial chemical knowledge are now possible.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly heterogeneous condition in terms of symptom presentation and, likely, underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, it is possible that only certain individuals with MDD are well-suited to antidepressants. A potentially fruitful approach to parsing this heterogeneity is to focus on promising endophenotypes of depression, such as neuroticism, anhedonia, and cognitive control deficits.
Within an 8-week multisite trial of sertraline v. placebo for depressed adults (n = 216), we examined whether the combination of machine learning with a Personalized Advantage Index (PAI) can generate individualized treatment recommendations on the basis of endophenotype profiles coupled with clinical and demographic characteristics.
Five pre-treatment variables moderated treatment response. Higher depression severity and neuroticism, older age, less impairment in cognitive control, and being employed were each associated with better outcomes to sertraline than placebo. Across 1000 iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation, the PAI model predicted that 31% of the sample would exhibit a clinically meaningful advantage [post-treatment Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) difference ⩾3] with sertraline relative to placebo. Although there were no overall outcome differences between treatment groups (d = 0.15), those identified as optimally suited to sertraline at pre-treatment had better week 8 HRSD scores if randomized to sertraline (10.7) than placebo (14.7) (d = 0.58).
A subset of MDD patients optimally suited to sertraline can be identified on the basis of pre-treatment characteristics. This model must be tested prospectively before it can be used to inform treatment selection. However, findings demonstrate the potential to improve individual outcomes through algorithm-guided treatment recommendations.
The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods.
The emergence and persistence of conduct problems (CPs) during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and of future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2–5) and school-age CPs (ages 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse sample of male and female children and their families (N = 731). A parallel-process growth model combining latent trajectory and cross-lagged approaches revealed the amplifying effect of observed coercive caregiver–child interactions on children's noncompliance, whereas child oppositional and aggressive behaviors did not consistently predict increased coercion. The slope and initial levels of child oppositional and aggressive behaviors and the stability of caregiver–child coercion were predictive of teacher-reported oppositional behavior at school age. Families assigned to the Family Check-Up condition had significantly steeper declines in child oppositional and aggressive behavior and moderate reductions in oppositional behavior in school and in coercion at age 3. Results were not moderated by child gender, race/ethnicity, or assignment to the intervention condition. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the early development of CPs and to designing optimal strategies for reducing problem behavior in early childhood with families most in need.
ZnO nanorods grown on plastic substrates by chemical methods are combined with both inorganic and organic p-type materials to make flexible p-n junction devices. When bent the devices generate both voltage and current peaks, which is attributed to the piezoelectric effect in the ZnO nanorods. The best device produces a maximum possible power density of 100 nWcm‑2. When vibrated at a constant frequency the voltage output by the devices scales linearly with vibration amplitude. Also, when illuminated the output of the devices drops. These effects are consistent with a piezoelectric source of the voltage.
American entry into World War I presented complex problems in the adjustment of the private economy to the needs of a nation in crisis. Professors Cuff and Urofsky analyze the process by which the steel industry and the Wilson Administration reached a pragmatic accommodation on the regulation of wartime prices.
Over the last three decades Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has gradually joined the
wind tunnel and flight test as a primary flow analysis tool for aerodynamic designers. CFD
has had its most favorable impact on the aerodynamic design of the high-speed cruise
configuration of a transport. This success has raised expectations among aerodynamicists
that the applicability of CFD can be extended to the full flight envelope. However, the
complex nature of the flows and geometries involved places substantially increased demands
on the solution methodology and resources required. Currently most simulations involve
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) codes although Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and
Detached Eddy Suimulation (DES) codes are occasionally used for component analysis or
theoretical studies. Despite simplified underlying assumptions, current RANS turbulence
models have been spectacularly successful for analyzing attached, transonic flows. Whether
or not these same models are applicable to complex flows with smooth surface separation is
an open question. A prerequisite for answering this question is absolute confidence that
the CFD codes employed reliably solve the continuous equations involved. Too often,
failure to agree with experiment is mistakenly ascribed to the turbulence model rather
than inadequate numerics. Grid convergence in three dimensions is rarely achieved. Even
residual convergence on a given grid is often inadequate. This paper discusses issues
involved in residual and especially grid convergence.
Experiments on annealing of CdGeAs2-, CdSnAs2- and ZnGeP2-crystals in the vapor of volatile constituents were carried out. Conductivity and Hall effect measurements were performed to characterize the modification of electrical properties, caused by the interaction of the crystal with the gas phase during annealing. Literature data and the results of the present work are discussed based on the results of a quasi-chemical analysis. This yielded that the results of annealing depends essentially on both the conditions of the experiment and the initial imperfection of the crystal. The most probable native structural defects becoming apparent under the annealing were the following: for CdSnAs2 - SnCd, VAs; for CdGeAs2 - VAs, VCd, CdGe, GeCd; for CdSiAs2 - SiAs, VAs ; for CdSiP2 - VCd, VP; for ZnGeP2 - ZnGe, GeZn, VZn, VP; and for ZnSnP2- ZnSn, SnZn, VZn, VP.
We report preliminary results of the design and operation of electrostatic levitators we have developed at JPL. Discussion is focussed on the single-axis levitators for groundbased operation and for operation in the reduced gravity environment. Design principles and the performance of final products are described.
Global climate change in the Mojave Desert will likely result in a greater intensity of summer (monsoon) rain events and greater N deposition. The nitrogen cycle has already been significantly altered by human activities to the extent that anthropogenically released N now equals natural terrestrial biological fixation (Vitousek et al. 1997; Galloway 1998). Because most bryophytes receive the bulk of their nutrients from direct atmospheric deposition (Bates 2000), this influx of N can affect the productivity of individual species and thus may alter bryophyte community structure and function. In addition to N deposition, global change models for the southwestern USA predict significant increases in summer precipitation in the northern Mojave Desert (Taylor & Penner 1994; Higgins & Shi 2001). The interaction between increased N deposition and an increased monsoon effect on bryophytes in the arid southwestern USA is largely unknown. Although growth rates of desert bryophytes are relatively low compared with bryophytes in more mesic ecosystems, the contribution of biological soil crusts (a community of cyanobacteria, mosses, lichens, algae, and fungi) to the global cycling of trace gases can be significant in regard to global budgets (Zaady et al. 2000).
Most field studies have found a rapid negative effect of N fertilization on the growth and productivity of mosses, with nutrient uptake a function of desiccation regime, temperature, and light. For several bryophyte species, high experimental N deposition rates decreased biomass production except in a widely tolerant species of Sphagnum (Jauhiainen et al. 1998).
In recognition of the fact that orang-utans (Pongo spp.) are severely threatened, a meeting of orang-utan experts and conservationists, representatives of national and regional governmental and non-governmental organizations, and other stakeholders, was convened in Jakarta, Indonesia, in January 2004. Prior to this meeting we surveyed all large areas for which orang-utan population status was unknown. Compilation of all survey data produced a comprehensive picture of orang-utan distribution on both Borneo and Sumatra. These results indicate that in 2004 there were c. 6,500 P. abelii remaining on Sumatra and at least 54,000 P. pygmaeus on Borneo. Extrapolating to 2008 on the basis of forest loss on both islands suggests the estimate for Borneo could be 10% too high but that for Sumatra is probably still relatively accurate because forest loss in orang-utan habitat has been low during the conflict in Aceh, where most P. abelii occur. When those population sizes are compared to known historical sizes it is clear that the Sumatran orang-utan is in rapid decline, and unless extraordinary efforts are made soon, it could become the first great ape species to go extinct. In contrast, our results indicate there are more and larger populations of Bornean orang-utans than previously known. Although these revised estimates for Borneo are encouraging, forest loss and associated loss of orang-utans are occurring at an alarming rate, and suggest that recent reductions of Bornean orang-utan populations have been far more severe than previously supposed. Nevertheless, although orang-utans on both islands are under threat, we highlight some reasons for cautious optimism for their long-term conservation.
In recent years, government and hospital disaster planners have recognized the increasing importance of pharmaceutical preparedness for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) events, as well as other public health emergencies. The development of pharmaceutical surge capacity for immediate use before support from the (US) Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) becomes available is integral to strengthening the preparedness of local healthcare networks.
The Pharmaceutical Response Project served as an independent, multidisciplinary collaboration to assess statewide hospital pharmaceutical response capabilities. Surveys of hospital pharmacy directors were conducted to determine pharmaceutical response preparedness to CBRNE threats.
All 45 acute care hospitals in Maryland were surveyed, and responses were collected from 80% (36/45). Ninety-two percent (33/36) of hospitals had assessed pharmaceutical inventory with respect to biological agents, 92% (33/36) for chemical agents, and 67% (24/36) for radiological agents. However, only 64% (23/36) of hospitals reported an additional dedicated reserve supply for biological events, 67% (24/36) for chemical events, and 50% (18/36) for radiological events. More than 60% of the hospitals expected to receive assistance from the SNS within ≤48 hours.
From a pharmaceutical perspective, hospitals generally remain under-prepared for CBRNE threats and many expect SNS support before it realistically would be available. Collectively, limited antibiotics and other supplies are available to offer prophylaxis or treatment, suggesting that hospitals may have insufficient pharmaceutical surge supplies for a large-scale event. Although most state hospitals are improving pharmaceutical surge capabilities, further efforts are needed.
Following the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, children vertically infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) living in the developed world are surviving into adult life. This paper reviews the neurodevelopmental outcomes of 62 consecutively-presenting children with HIV-1 infection diagnosed before 3 years of age (32 males, 30 females; median age at presentation 6mo). Neurological and developmental data are presented with immunological and virological responses to antiretroviral therapy. Fourteen children (22%) had abnormal neurological signs and 25 (40%) demonstrated significant developmental delay on standardized developmental assessments. Children presenting with more severe HIV-1 disease and immune compromise had significantly more abnormal neurological signs and developmental delays than children presenting with milder HIV-1 symptomatology. Immune function, control of HIV-1 viral replication, and growth parameters improved with antiretroviral therapy (median age at last follow-up 7y 3mo); however, abnormal neurological signs and significant gross motor difficulties persisted.
During the development of a new treatment for bipolar disorder, maintenance studies are used to evaluate the ability of the putative mood stabiliser to prevent relapse and recurrence of further episodes. Comparisons with the early bipolar disorder maintenance studies indicate that the methodologies of recent trials have evolved substantially.
To review the methods used in the first- and second-generation maintenance studies, highlighting the differences of the various designs.
Methods that have evolved the most include patient enrolment, randomisation schemes and the use of outcome measures and statistical analyses. In addition, regulatory and commercial issues have also influenced study design.
There is little consensus on the methodology of bipolar disorder maintenance studies. As the integration of newer therapies into routine clinical practice is dependent on the evidence from controlled studies, it is essential that future maintenance trials in bipolar disorder achieve adequate methodological rigour without sacrificing overall feasibility.
Significant educational delays, even in the absence of cognitive-processing deficits, can be attributed to the inability to sustain attention. The relation between dyslexia and attention deficits is well established. Although research on the relation between dyscalculia and attention deficits is limited, evidence is mounting for a pivotal relation between these two disorders. Indeed, attention deficits may be more strongly associated with dyscalculia than with dyslexia.
The small subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) gene was amplified from Gyrodactylus salaris using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloned, and the complete gene sequence of 1966 bp determined. The V4 region of the srRNA gene was identified and amplified from single specimens of G. salaris, G. derjavini and G. truttae. Comparison of the V4 sequences from these three species revealed sequence differences from which restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were predicted and an oligonucleotide probe (GsV4) specific to G. salaris designed. Digestion of the amplified V4 region of the srRNA gene with Hae III and either Alw I, BstY I, Dde I or Mbo I provided a means of discriminating between G. salaris, G. derjavini and G. truttae. The GsV4 probe was used to detect the srRNA gene from G. salaris in Southern and dot blots of the amplified V4 region. The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL Data Library under accession numbers Z26942 (G. salaris), Z35128 (G. derjavini) and Z35129 (G. truttae).
Effective control of parkinsonian symptoms can be achieved in a substantial number of patients by the judicious use of dopaminergic agents. To a considerable extent these drugs produce optimal therapeutic effects during the first 3–5 years of their use. Subsequently, efficacy diminishes with reemergence of parkinsonian symptoms as well as a number of untoward responses. The nature, frequency and mechanisms underlying the limitations of long term use of presently available anti-parkinson agents are discussed in this presentation.