Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Some studies found that providing micronutrient powder (MNP) causes adverse health outcomes; modifying factors are unknown. We aimed to investigate if iron status and inherited hemoglobin disorders (IHbD) modify the impact of MNP on growth and diarrhea among young Lao children. In a double-blind controlled trial, 1704 children ages 6-23mo were randomized to: daily MNP (with 6mg iron plus 14 micronutrients) or placebo for ~36wks. IHbD, and baseline and final hemoglobin (Hb), iron status, and anthropometrics were assessed. Caregivers provided weekly morbidity reports. At enrollment 55.6% were anemic; only 39.3% had no sign of clinically significant IHbD. MNP had no overall impact on growth and longitudinal diarrhea prevalence. Baseline Hb modified the effect of MNP on LAZ (P for interaction=0.082). Among children who were initially non-anemic, final mean LAZ in the MNP group was slightly lower (−1.93 (95%CI: −1.88, −1.97)) vs. placebo (−1.88 (95%CI: −1.83, −1.92)), and the opposite occurred among initially anemic children (final mean LAZ −1.90 (95% CI: −1.86, −1.94) in MNP vs. −1.92 (95% CI: −1.88, −1.96) in placebo). IHbD modified the effect on diarrhea prevalence (P=0.095). Among children with IHbD, the MNP group had higher diarrhea prevalence (1.37 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.59) vs. 1.21 (95%CI: 1.04, 1.41)), while it was lower among children without IHbD who received MNP (1.15 (95%CI: 0.95, 1.39) vs. 1.37 (95%CI: 1.13, 1.64)). In conclusion, there was a small adverse effect of MNP on growth among non-anemic children and on diarrhea prevalence among children with IHbD.
The processes underwriting the acquisition of culture remain unclear. How are shared habits, norms, and expectations learned and maintained with precision and reliability across large-scale sociocultural ensembles? Is there a unifying account of the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of culture? Notions such as ‘shared expectations’, the ‘selective patterning of attention and behaviour’, ‘cultural evolution’, ‘cultural inheritance’, and ‘implicit learning’ are the main candidates to underpin a unifying account of cognition and the acquisition of culture; however, their interactions require greater specification and clarification. In this paper, we integrate these candidates using the variational (free energy) approach to human cognition and culture in theoretical neuroscience. We describe the construction by humans of social niches that afford epistemic resources called cultural affordances. We argue that human agents learn the shared habits, norms, and expectations of their culture through immersive participation in patterned cultural practices that selectively pattern attention and behaviour. We call this process “Thinking through Other Minds” (TTOM) – in effect, the process of inferring other agents’ expectations about the world and how to behave in social context. We argue that for humans, information from and about other people's expectations constitutes the primary domain of statistical regularities that humans leverage to predict and organize behaviour. The integrative model we offer has implications that can advance theories of cognition, enculturation, adaptation, and psychopathology. Crucially, this formal (variational) treatment seeks to resolve key debates in current cognitive science, such as the distinction between internalist and externalist accounts of Theory of Mind abilities and the more fundamental distinction between dynamical and representational accounts of enactivism.
Brandãoite, [BeAl2(PO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4](H2O), is a new Be–Al phosphate mineral from the João Firmino mine, Pomarolli farm region, Divino das Laranjeiras County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, where it occurs in an albite pocket with other secondary phosphates, including beryllonite, atencioite and zanazziite, in a granitic pegmatite. It occurs as colourless acicular crystals <10 µm wide and <100 µm long that form compact radiating spherical aggregates up to 1.0–1.5 mm across. It is colourless and transparent in single crystals and white in aggregates, has a white streak and a vitreous lustre, is brittle and has conchoidal fracture. Mohs hardness is 6, and the calculated density is 2.353 g/cm3. Brandãoite is biaxial (+), α = 1.544, β = 1.552 and γ = 1.568, all ± 0.002; 2Vobs = 69.7(10)° and 2Vcalc = 71.2°. No pleochroism was observed. Brandãoite is triclinic, space group P
, a = 6.100(4), b = 8.616(4), c = 10.261(5) Å, α = 93.191(11), β = 95.120(11), γ = 96.863(11)°, V = 532.1(8) Å3 and Z = 2. Chemical analysis of a 4 µm wide needle-shaped crystal by electron microprobe and secondary-ion mass spectrometry gave P2O5 = 28.42, Al2O3 = 20.15, BeO = 4.85, H2O = 21.47 and sum = 74.89 wt.%. The empirical formula, normalised on the basis of 15 anions pfu with (OH) = 2 and (H2O) = 5 apfu (from the crystal structure) is Be0.98Al1.99P2.02H12O15. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods and refined to an R1 index of 7.0%. There are two P sites occupied by P5+, two Al sites occupied by octahedrally coordinated Al3+, and one Be site occupied by tetrahedrally coordinated Be2+. There are fifteen anions, two of which are (OH) groups and five of which are (H2O) groups. The simplified ideal formula is thus [BeAl2(PO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4](H2O) with Z = 2. Beryllium and P tetrahedra share corners to form a four-membered ring. Aluminium octahedra share a common vertex to form an [Al2φ11] dimer, and these dimers are cross-linked by P tetrahedra to form a complex slab of polyhedra parallel to (001). These slabs are cross-linked by BeO2(OH)(H2O) tetrahedra, with interstitial (H2O) groups in channels that extend along .
The question of causality is pervasive to fluid–structure interactions, where it finds its most alluring instance in the study of fish swimming in coordination. How and why fish align their bodies, synchronize their motion, and position in crystallized formations are yet to be fully understood. Here, we posit a model-free approach to infer causality in fluid–structure interactions through the information-theoretic notion of transfer entropy. Given two dynamical units, transfer entropy quantifies the reduction of uncertainty in predicting the future state of one of them due to additional knowledge about the past of the other. We demonstrate our approach on a system of two tandem airfoils in a uniform flow, where the pitch angle of one airfoil is actively controlled while the other is allowed to passively rotate. Through transfer entropy, we seek to unveil causal relationships between the airfoils from information transfer conducted by the fluid medium.
The ‘Landscapes of Production and Punishment’ project aims to examine how convict labour from 1830–1877 affected the built and natural landscapes of the Tasman Peninsula, as well as the lives of the convicts themselves.
Upland sheep production systems based on the utilisation of enclosed sown pastures are considered in relation to environmental constraints, recent trends in marketing requirements and a continuing need to improve economic efficiency. The need for quantitatively described decision making in relation to both the testing, development and application of new technology is discussed with particular reference to those factors influencing herbage growth, utilisation and management.
Relatively few upland farms are capable of producing marketable fat lambs before the decline in returns per kg lamb in June. Although higher returns for heavier fat or store lambs can be obtained in the autumn, the degree to which this maximizes the returns per ha will be dependent upon the stocking rate and ewe and lamb performance during the summer. It will also be dependent on the extent to which there is competition for pasture in the autumn and its effect on ewe live weight and condition during the pre-mating and post-mating period; weight and condition will affect reproductive performance which has a substantial effect on returns per ha.
The significance of sward height as a means of controlling the performance of sheep grazing sown pastures is reviewed in relation to ongoing and completed systems experiments and development projects. It is concluded that, for practical purposes, a sward height held between 3.5 and 5.5 cm will provide a sound basis for management of the lactating ewe and suckling lamb until weaning. The means of achieving sward height control in varying farming situations and the development of commercially viable management systems is considered.
In the development of systems towards improving production efficiency, a better description of responses to both level and pattern of N used is required. The need for a better understanding of responses of the ewe in terms of ovulation rate and embryo wastage to changing sward characteristics in the autumn and to the use of supplementary feeding is also required. New techniques, such as the endocrine manipulation of reproductive performance, need to be assessed in relation to existing practices and performance.
Weed resistance to herbicides occurs when herbicides are overused and can be mitigated by reducing their use. Consensus on herbicide resistance management strategies is problematic given strong industrial profit motive links in the weed science discipline.
We present an analysis of changes of state, pressures and conservation responses over 20 years in the Tanzanian portion of the Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa biodiversity hotspot. Baseline data collected during 1989–1995 are compared with data from a synthesis of recently published papers and reports and new field work carried out across the region during 2010–2014. We show that biodiversity endemism values are largely unchanged, although two new species (amphibian and mammal) have been named and two extremely rare tree species have been relocated. However, forest habitat continues to be lost and degraded, largely as a result of agricultural expansion, charcoal production to supply cities with cooking fuel, logging for timber and cutting of wood for firewood and building poles. Habitat loss is linked to an increase in the number of species threatened over time. The government-managed forest reserve network has expanded slightly but has low effectiveness. Three forest reserves have been upgraded to National Parks and Nature Reserves, which have stricter protection and more effective enforcement. There has also been rapid development of village-owned forest reserves, with more than 140 now existing; although usually small, they are an important addition to the areas being managed for sustainable resource use, and also provide tangible benefits to local people. Human-use pressures remain intense in many areas, and combined with emerging pressures from mining, gas and oil exploration, many endemic species remain threatened with extinction.
Two broad aims drive weed science research: improved management and improved understanding of weed biology and ecology. In recent years, agricultural weed research addressing these two aims has effectively split into separate subdisciplines despite repeated calls for greater integration. Although some excellent work is being done, agricultural weed research has developed a very high level of repetitiveness, a preponderance of purely descriptive studies, and has failed to clearly articulate novel hypotheses linked to established bodies of ecological and evolutionary theory. In contrast, invasive plant research attracts a diverse cadre of nonweed scientists using invasions to explore broader and more integrated biological questions grounded in theory. We propose that although studies focused on weed management remain vitally important, agricultural weed research would benefit from deeper theoretical justification, a broader vision, and increased collaboration across diverse disciplines. To initiate change in this direction, we call for more emphasis on interdisciplinary training for weed scientists, and for focused workshops and working groups to develop specific areas of research and promote interactions among weed scientists and with the wider scientific community.
Although rare, typhoid fever cases acquired in the United States continue to be reported. Detection and investigation of outbreaks in these domestically acquired cases offer opportunities to identify chronic carriers. We searched surveillance and laboratory databases for domestically acquired typhoid fever cases, used a space–time scan statistic to identify clusters, and classified clusters as outbreaks or non-outbreaks. From 1999 to 2010, domestically acquired cases accounted for 18% of 3373 reported typhoid fever cases; their isolates were less often multidrug-resistant (2% vs. 15%) compared to isolates from travel-associated cases. We identified 28 outbreaks and two possible outbreaks within 45 space–time clusters of ⩾2 domestically acquired cases, including three outbreaks involving ⩾2 molecular subtypes. The approach detected seven of the ten outbreaks published in the literature or reported to CDC. Although this approach did not definitively identify any previously unrecognized outbreaks, it showed the potential to detect outbreaks of typhoid fever that may escape detection by routine analysis of surveillance data. Sixteen outbreaks had been linked to a carrier. Every case of typhoid fever acquired in a non-endemic country warrants thorough investigation. Space–time scan statistics, together with shoe-leather epidemiology and molecular subtyping, may improve outbreak detection.
Nonindigenous plant species (NIS) can affect individuals, communities, and ecosystems through numerous direct and indirect mechanisms. To synthesize the current understanding of how NIS cause impacts, we reviewed experimental research from the past decade. We found alteration of the microenvironment, such as incident light and air and soil temperature, was much more often a mechanism underlying NIS impacts than competition for soil water and nutrients. NIS litter frequently caused the alteration of microenvironments, and litter effects were often of greater consequence than the effects of live NIS plants. Results supported altered soil microbial communities and mycorrhizal associations as mechanisms underlying NIS impacts on native plant growth, community structure, and nutrient cycling. Impacts often could not be attributed to a single mechanism, highlighting the need for multi-factor studies that identify and distinguish between multiple, concurrently operating mechanisms. Overall, our synthesis indicates that effective management will require attention to legacy effects of NIS, that removing live NIS may not ameliorate impacts, and that removal of dead NIS biomass may be necessary for native species' survival. Furthermore, rehabilitating soil microbial and mycorrhizal communities may be crucial for successful post-NIS management revegetation.
The environment in which a plant grows (maternal environment) can affect seed viability, germination, and dormancy. We assessed the effects of maternal environment on wild oat seed viability, germination, dormancy, and pathogen infection by collecting and analyzing wild oat seed from above and below a barley canopy at three field sites in Montana. The viability of wild oat seed collected below a crop canopy was consistently less than it was for seed from the overstory but varied among sites and years. Reductions in viability because of relative canopy position ranged from 10% to 30%. Effects of position relative to crop canopy on weed seed germination/dormancy rates varied by site and suggest that the direction and magnitude of the effects of maternal environment on dormancy depend on environmental conditions. These effects may be driven by crop competition or by changes in seed pathogen pressure or both. Seven species each of fungi and bacteria were isolated from wild oat seeds. The only fungi causing reductions in seed viability (15%) was isolated from understory seeds, and several bacteria from both overstory and understory sources reduced seed germination. Results suggest that, in addition to the known weed-suppressive effects of using taller or earlier emerging varieties of crops, such crops can reduce weed spread through effects on weed seed demography because weeds growing beneath the crop canopy produce a reduced amount of viable seed that is less likely to germinate in the following year.
Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) use the passive capillary-driven flow of aqueous solutions through patterned paper channels to transport a sample fluid into distinct detection zones that contain the reagents for a chemical assay. These devices are simple, affordable, portable, and disposable; they are, thus, well suited for diagnostic applications in resource-limited environments. Adding screen-printed electrodes to the detection zones of a μPAD yields a device capable of performing electrochemical assays (an EμPAD). Electrochemical detection has the advantage over colorimetric detection that it is not affected by interference from the color of the sample and can be quantified with simple electronics. The accessibility of EμPADs, however, is limited by the requirement for an external potentiostat to power and interpret the electrochemical measurement. New developments in paper-based electronics may help loosen this requirement. This review discusses the current capabilities and limitations of EμPADs and paper-based electronics, and sketches the ways in which these technologies can be combined to provide new devices for diagnostic testing.
Sex attraction studies were carried out to investigate the mate-finding behaviour of invasive Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) wasps. Delta traps were baited with live, caged males, and gynes (virgin queens) of V. vulgaris to determine whether either sex produced a long-range sex attractant. Traps baited with gynes caught 71 males, while the controls and live-male wasp baited traps did not catch gynes. Wind tunnel trials were performed to verify if the signal produced by the gynes was chemical in nature. First, V. vulgaris males were flown to live caged gynes, where more than half of the males tested flew upwind in a zigzagging pattern and made contact with caged gynes. Males were also flown to hexane rinses of gynes and flew upwind in a zigzagging pattern towards the gyne extract, although none made contact with the cotton roll stimulus. The results presented here demonstrate conclusively that V. vulgaris gynes produce a sex pheromone.
Early detection of an invading nonindigenous plant species (NIS) may be critical for efficient and effective management. Adaptive survey sampling methods may provide unbiased sampling for best estimates of distribution of rare and spatially clustered populations of plants in the early stages of invasion. However, there are few examples of these methods being used for nonnative plant surveys in which travelling distances away from an initial or source patch, or away from a road or trail, can be time consuming due to the topography and vegetation. Nor is there guidance as to which of the many adaptive methods would be most appropriate as a basis for invasive plant mapping and subsequent management. Here we used an empirical complete census of four invader species in early to middle stages of invasion in a management area to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of three nonadaptive methods, four adaptive cluster methods, and four adaptive web sampling methods that all originated from transects. The adaptive methods generally sampled more NIS-occupied cells and patches than standard transect approaches. Sampling along roads only was time-efficient and effective, but only for species with restricted distribution along the roads. When populations were more patchy and dispersed over the landscape the adaptive cluster starting at the road generally proved to be the most time-efficient and effective NIS detection method.