To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Pre-operative imaging is often used to predict the extent of a cholesteatoma and anatomical variation to plan for surgery. This study aimed to measure the predictive accuracy of computed tomography findings.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted of all patients in a district general hospital undergoing mastoid surgery within a consecutive 12-month period, in whom computed tomography had been performed prior to operative intervention. The study measured the key findings of pre-operative computed tomography imaging and compared them to the intra-operative findings.
A total of 106 patients were included. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting cholesteatoma were 79 per cent and 81 per cent respectively. The positive predictive value was 90 per cent and the negative predictive value was 65 per cent. In predicting complications of cholesteatomas, the sensitivity was 70 per cent, whereas the specificity was 91 per cent. The positive predictive value was 88 per cent and the negative predictive value was 76 per cent.
Pre-operative computed tomography conducted prior to mastoid surgery has high positive predictive values for both predicting cholesteatomas and complications (90 per cent and 88 per cent respectively).
Children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders are at elevated risk for a range of behavioral and emotional problems. However, as the usual reporter of psychopathology in children is the parent, reports of early problems in children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders may be biased by the parents' own experience of mental illness and their mental state.
Independent observers rated psychopathology using the Test Observation Form in 378 children and youth between the ages of 4 and 24 (mean = 11.01, s.d. = 4.40) who had a parent with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or no history of mood and psychotic disorders.
Observed attentional problems were elevated in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia (effect sizes ranging between 0.31 and 0.56). Oppositional behavior and language/thought problems showed variable degrees of elevation (effect sizes 0.17 to 0.57) across the three high-risk groups, with the greatest difficulties observed in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Observed anxiety was increased in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (effect sizes 0.19 and 0.25 respectively) but not in offspring of parents with schizophrenia.
Our results suggest that externalizing problems and cognitive and language difficulties may represent a general manifestation of familial risk for mood and psychotic disorders, while anxiety may be a specific marker of liability for mood disorders. Observer assessment may improve early identification of risk and selection of youth who may benefit from targeted prevention.
Salmonella enterica serovar Wangata (S. Wangata) is an important cause of endemic salmonellosis in Australia, with human infections occurring from undefined sources. This investigation sought to examine possible environmental and zoonotic sources for human infections with S. Wangata in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The investigation adopted a One Health approach and was comprised of three complimentary components: a case–control study examining human risk factors; environmental and animal sampling; and genomic analysis of human, animal and environmental isolates. Forty-eight human S. Wangata cases were interviewed during a 6-month period from November 2016 to April 2017, together with 55 Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) controls and 130 neighbourhood controls. Indirect contact with bats/flying foxes (S. Typhimurium controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–6.48)) (neighbourhood controls (aOR 8.33, 95% CI 2.58–26.83)), wild frogs (aOR 3.65, 95% CI 1.32–10.07) and wild birds (aOR 6.93, 95% CI 2.29–21.00) were statistically associated with illness in multivariable analyses. S. Wangata was detected in dog faeces, wildlife scats and a compost specimen collected from the outdoor environments of cases’ residences. In addition, S. Wangata was detected in the faeces of wild birds and sea turtles in the investigation area. Genomic analysis revealed that S. Wangata isolates were relatively clonal. Our findings suggest that S. Wangata is present in the environment and may have a reservoir in wildlife populations in north-eastern NSW. Further investigation is required to better understand the occurrence of Salmonella in wildlife groups and to identify possible transmission pathways for human infections.
Helical dislocations and vacancy aggregates have been reported in lithiumdoped germanium and in diffused silicon. In the present study, defects related to an excess vacancy concentration are examined in as-grown silicon. X-ray topography, etch techniques, and Hall effect are used in determining the conditions of formation of these imperfections. Two distinct types of defects are observed: (1) helical dislocations and (2) dislocation loops. The helical dislocations are identified in the X-ray topographs and correlated to their etch figures. The diameters of the helices in various crystals range from less than 10 to 100 μ. The largest concentration of helices are observed in the initial growth, but prismatic loops or helical segments are also present in the low dislocation density regions of some crystals. The dislocation loop image consists of a pair of opposed arcs. The lengths of images vary from 30 to 400 μ, and the axis of the loop is usually parallel to <110> linage contrast changes with changes in sample orientation, but conclusive Burgers vector determinations are incomplete.
The formation of these defects is shown to be directly related to the heat treatment during crystal growth. The total acquisition of vacancies during growth is quite high and is attributed to the “orbital” growth process. In the “orbital” method, the seed check rotates 8-9 rpm about the center of the crucible as the growing crystal rotates 50-60 rpm. A linear relationship exists at room temperature between the vacancy concentration and the antimony impurity concentration. Impurity concentrations were determined independently by chemical and mass spectrograph techniques. A defect complex involving V− and Sb+ in thermal equilibrium is employed to explain this effect.
Improving geolocation accuracy in text data has long been a goal of automated text processing. We depart from the conventional method and introduce a two-stage supervised machine-learning algorithm that evaluates each location mention to be either correct or incorrect. We extract contextual information from texts, i.e., N-gram patterns for location words, mention frequency, and the context of sentences containing location words. We then estimate model parameters using a training data set and use this model to predict whether a location word in the test data set accurately represents the location of an event. We demonstrate these steps by constructing customized geolocation event data at the subnational level using news articles collected from around the world. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing geocoders even in a case added post hoc to test the generality of the developed algorithm.
Theorists and researchers have linked resilience with a host of positive psychological and physical health outcomes. This paper examines perceptions of resilience and physical health symptoms in a sample of individuals exposed to multiple community disasters following involvement in integrated mental health services.
A multiwave naturalistic design was used to follow 762 adult clinic patients (72% female; 28% minority status), ages 18-92 years (mean age=40 years), who were evaluated for resilience and physical health symptoms prior to receiving services and at 1, 3, and 6 months’ follow-up.
Data indicated increases in perceptions of resilience and decreased physical health symptoms reported over time. Results also indicated that resilience predicted physical health symptoms, such that resilience and physical health symptoms were negatively associated (ie, improved resilience was associated with decreases in physical health symptoms). These effects were primarily observed for those individuals with previous exposure to natural disasters.
Findings provide correlational evidence for behavioral health treatment provided as part of a stepped-care, collaborative model in reducing physical health symptoms and increasing resilience post-disaster. Controlled trials are warranted. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:223–229)
Morelli, Potosky, Arthur, and Tippins (2017) make a timely and appropriate call for authors to create conceptual models of technology in industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology. We agree with their call, but we believe that Morelli et al. overlooked the contributions of related fields that conduct research on technology in the workplace that are already consistent with their call. For this reason, we briefly detail other fields that commonly study the dynamics of technology and its influence on the workplace, followed by a discussion regarding the place of I-O psychology in the broader scheme of technology research. This discussion can aid future authors in conceptualizing appropriate contributions to the study of technology in I-O psychology as well as identifying whether these contributions benefit other fields. Perhaps more importantly, this discussion can help identify where I-O psychology fits in the broader scheme of technology research and which associated fields may be most readily available to aid in the creation of new models—two questions that currently seem unanswered.
To determine the patterns and predictors of treatment response trajectories for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Conditional latent growth mixture modelling was used to identify classes and predictors of class membership. In total, 2686 veterans treated for PTSD between 2002 and 2015 across 14 hospitals in Australia completed the PTSD Checklist at intake, discharge, and 3 and 9 months follow-up. Predictor variables included co-morbid mental health problems, relationship functioning, employment and compensation status.
Five distinct classes were found: those with the most severe PTSD at intake separated into a relatively large class (32.5%) with small change, and a small class (3%) with a large change. Those with slightly less severe PTSD separated into one class comprising 49.9% of the total sample with large change effects, and a second class comprising 7.9% with extremely large treatment effects. The final class (6.7%) with least severe PTSD at intake also showed a large treatment effect. Of the multiple predictor variables, depression and guilt were the only two found to predict differences in response trajectories.
These findings highlight the importance of assessing guilt and depression prior to treatment for PTSD, and for severe cases with co-morbid guilt and depression, considering an approach to trauma-focused therapy that specifically targets guilt and depression-related cognitions.
Elemental, chemical, and structural analysis of polycrystalline materials at the micron scale is frequently carried out using microfocused synchrotron X-ray beams, sometimes on multiple instruments. The Maia pixelated energy-dispersive X-ray area detector enables the simultaneous collection of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and diffraction because of the relatively large solid angle and number of pixels when compared with other systems. The large solid angle also permits extraction of surface topography because of changes in self-absorption. This work demonstrates the capability of the Maia detector for simultaneous measurement of XRF and diffraction for mapping the short- and long-range order across the grain structure in a Ni polycrystalline foil.
Most of our understanding of BPF's is based on observations of the neutral and ionized gas in bright, high luminosity sources. Data on low luminosity (L ≲ 30 L⊙) objects has now become more available (e.g. Frerking and Langer, Astrophys. J. 256, 523, 1982) permitting a test of models at this end of the luminosity range. We have performed a series of multi-wavelength observations, emphasizing low luminosity objects.
Interventions that improve cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease are urgently required.
To assess whether a novel cognitive training paradigm based on ‘chunking’ improves working memory and general cognitive function, and is associated with reorganisation of functional activity in prefrontal and parietal cortices (trial registration: ISRCTN43007027).
Thirty patients with mild Alzheimer's disease were randomly allocated to receive 18 sessions of 30 min of either adaptive chunking training or an active control intervention over approximately 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were also conducted.
Adaptive chunking training led to significant improvements in verbal working memory and untrained clinical measures of general cognitive function. Further, fMRI revealed a bilateral reduction in task-related lateral prefrontal and parietal cortex activation in the training group compared with controls.
Chunking-based cognitive training is a simple and potentially scalable intervention to improve cognitive function in early Alzheimer's disease.
Insulating silicon dioxide (SiO2) films can be produced by hydrolysis of metal alkoxide tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of an acid catalyst in supercritical fluid CO2 (sc-CO2). In this study, SiO2 films are formed on different substrates using TEOS as a source of silicon, and acetic acid (HAc) as a catalyst. Water required for the hydrolysis reaction is from in situ generation of esterification and condensation reactions involving HAc and the alcohol produced. The acid catalyzed deposition reaction actually starts at room temperature but produces decent films in sc-CO2 at moderately high temperatures (e.g. 50 °C). Supercritical fluid CO2 is known to have near zero surface tension and provides an ideal medium for fabrication of SiO2 films. Formation of SiO2 films via hydrolysis reaction in sc-CO2 is more rapid compared to the traditional hydrolysis reaction at room temperature. In general, metal alkoxide hydrolysis reactions carried out in a closed sc-CO2 system is not affected by moisture in air compared with traditional open-air hydrolysis systems. Using sc-CO2 as a reaction medium can eliminate undesirable organic solvents utilized in traditional alkoxide hydrolysis reactions.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction (ED) measurements demonstrated that the SiO2 films produced are amorphous. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy show elemental compositions of the films formed on the substrate surfaces to be SiO2. Film thickness formation by controlling the amount of the catalyst is discussed.
For close to a decade, the Gulf Coast of the United States has been in almost constant disaster recovery mode, and a number of lessons have been learned concerning disaster recovery and behavioral health. The purpose of this report was to describe the natural development of a Gulf Coast Resilience Coalition (GCRC).
The GCRC methods began with state-specific recovery goals following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and transitioned to a shared multistate and multidiscipline coalition. The coalition’s effectiveness is demonstrated through continuation, procurement of funding to provide response services, and increased membership to ensure sustainability.
The coalition has enhanced response, recovery, and resilience by providing strategic plans for dissemination of knowledge; post-disaster surveillance and services; effective relationships and communication with local, state, and regional partners; disaster response informed by past experience; a network of professionals and community residents; and the ability to improve access to and efficiency of future behavioral health coordination through an organized response.
The GCRC can not only improve readiness and response, but work toward a shared vision of improved overall mental and behavioral health and thus resilience, with beneficial implications for the Gulf South and other communities as well. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:657–665)
Since March 28, 1979, the Solwind coronagraph has been observing the Sun's white light corona (2.6 − 10.0 R⊙) routinely with a spatial resolution of approximately 1.25 arc min and a repetition rate of 10 minutes during the one-hour sunlit portion of each 97-minute satellite orbital period. These are the first satellite observations of the outer corona near the peak of a sunspot cycle when coronal transients and high-latitude streamers are common.
This paper describes the main features of the 8 May 1979 solar mass ejection, including the eruption of a polar crown filament to 1.5 R ⊙ during 0810-1036 UT and the passage of material through the outer corona, from 2.6 to 10.0 R⊙, during 1028-1246 UT.
This paper shows the first satellite observations of the Sun's white light corona (2.6 R⊙ −10.0 R⊙) during the active phase of a sunspot cycle. Since March 28, 1979, these observations have been obtained routinely with a spatial resolution of 1.25 arc min and a repetition rate of 10 minutes during the one-hour sunlit portion of each 97-minute satellite orbital period. As an illustration of these new observations, we show the coronal changes associated with the great mass ejection of May 8, 1979.
Stress and vulnerability likely interact to play a major role in psychosis. While much has been written about the neural diathesis-stress model in psychosis and its clinical risk states, little is known about HPA axis biomarkers in non-help-seeking individuals at familial high risk (FHR). We sought to prospectively measure pituitary volume (PV) in adolescents and young adults at FHR for schizophrenia and to follow their emerging sub-clinical psychotic symptoms and clinical trajectories.
Forty healthy controls and 38 relatives of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were identified in Pittsburgh, USA. PV was derived from baseline 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging. Chapman's schizotypy scales were acquired at baseline, and structured clinical interviews for DSM-IV-TR Axis I diagnoses were attempted annually for up to 3 years.
Seven individuals converted to psychosis. PV did not differ between FHR and control groups overall. Within the FHR group, PV was positively correlated with Chapman's positive schizotypy (Magical Ideation and Perceptual Aberration) scores, and there was a significant group × PV interaction with schizotypy. PV was significantly higher in FHR subjects carrying any baseline Axis I diagnosis (p = 0.004), and higher still in individuals who went on to convert to psychosis (p = 0.0007).
Increased PV is a correlate of early positive schizotypy, and may predict trait vulnerability to subsequent psychosis in FHR relatives. These preliminary findings support a model of stress-vulnerability and HPA axis activation in the early phases of psychosis.