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Some studies found that providing micronutrient powder (MNP) causes adverse health outcomes, but modifying factors are unknown. We aimed to investigate whether Fe status and inherited Hb disorders (IHbD) modify the impact of MNP on growth and diarrhoea among young Lao children. In a double-blind controlled trial, 1704 children of age 6–23 months were randomised to daily MNP (with 6 mg Fe plus fourteen micronutrients) or placebo for about 36 weeks. IHbD, and baseline and final Hb, Fe status and anthropometrics were assessed. Caregivers provided weekly morbidity reports. At enrolment, 55·6 % were anaemic; only 39·3 % had no sign of clinically significant IHbD. MNP had no overall impact on growth and longitudinal diarrhoea prevalence. Baseline Hb modified the effect of MNP on length-for-age (LAZ) (P for interaction = 0·082). Among children who were initially non-anaemic, the final mean LAZ in the MNP group was slightly lower (–1·93 (95 % CI –1·88, –1·97)) v. placebo (–1·88 (95 % CI –1·83, –1·92)), and the opposite occurred among initially anaemic children (final mean LAZ –1·90 (95 % CI –1·86, –1·94) in MNP v. –1·92 (95 % CI –1·88, –1·96) in placebo). IHbD modified the effect on diarrhoea prevalence (P = 0·095). Among children with IHbD, the MNP group had higher diarrhoea prevalence (1·37 (95 % CI 1·17, 1·59) v. 1·21 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·41)), while it was lower among children without IHbD who received MNP (1·15 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·39) v. 1·37 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·64)). In conclusion, there was a small adverse effect of MNP on growth among non-anaemic children and on diarrhoea prevalence among children with IHbD.
We assessed the impact of an embedded electronic medical record decision-support matrix (Cerner software system) for the reduction of hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile. A critical review of 3,124 patients highlighted excessive testing frequency in an academic medical center and demonstrated the impact of decision support following a testing fidelity algorithm.
The spatial-intensity profile of light reflected during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a microstructured target is investigated experimentally and the potential to apply this as a diagnostic of the interaction physics is explored numerically. Diffraction and speckle patterns are measured in the specularly reflected light in the cases of targets with regular groove and needle-like structures, respectively, highlighting the potential to use this as a diagnostic of the evolving plasma surface. It is shown, via ray-tracing and numerical modelling, that for a laser focal spot diameter smaller than the periodicity of the target structure, the reflected light patterns can potentially be used to diagnose the degree of plasma expansion, and by extension the local plasma temperature, at the focus of the intense laser light. The reflected patterns could also be used to diagnose the size of the laser focal spot during a high-intensity interaction when using a regular structure with known spacing.
Two grazing trials were carried out to compare the grazing selectivity of oesophageal fistulated and intact steers, and to measure short term grazing behaviour and daily intake of steers in pastures (six pasture types) based on Brachiaria humidicola and Arachis pintoi. During the rainy season, the composition of the pasture affected the proportion of legume in the diet selected by the two groups of steers. The property of the pasture best related to legume selected by the intact steers was the legume mass in the forage available. The proportion selected by the fistulated steers was best related to the proportion of legumes in the pasture. The legume proportion selected by the two groups of steers was related to the bulk density of legumes in the forage, but the type of relationship varied between the groups. The relationship for the fistulated steers was linear, and that for the intact steers was exponential with an asymptote. During the dry season the relationships for the fistulated animals were similar to those observed during the rainy season, but the proportion of legume in the diet of the intact animals was not affected by attributes of the pasture. The pattern of intake in the short term was not affected by the height or amount of forage available during the rainy season, but during the dry season the weight per bite, and short-term intake was related to the height and amount of forage available. Daily herbage intake was not related to short-term intake.
The results of the first experiment confirmed that the selection of legumes by grazing steers can vary considerably between intact and fistulated steers. Furthermore it was suggested that the difference resulted partially from the different reactions of the two groups of experimental animals to changes in the attributes of the pasture. The second experiment showed that the daily intake of forage is not necessarily related to intake behaviour in the short term.
Bias in self-reported dietary intake is important when evaluating the effect of dietary interventions, particularly for intervention foods. However, few have investigated this in children, and none have investigated the reporting accuracy of fish intake in children using biomarkers. In a Danish school meal study, 8- to 11-year-old children (n 834) were served the New Nordic Diet (NND) for lunch. The present study examined the accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods (berries, cabbage, root vegetables, legumes, herbs, potatoes, wild plants, mushrooms, nuts and fish) characterising the NND. Children, assisted by parents, self-reported their diet in a Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children during the intervention and control (packed lunch) periods. The reported fish intake by children was compared with their ranking according to fasting whole-blood EPA and DHA concentration and weight percentage using the Spearman correlations and cross-classification. Direct observation of school lunch intake (n 193) was used to score the accuracy of food-reporting as matches, intrusions, omissions and faults. The reporting of all lunch foods had higher percentage of matches compared with the reporting of signature foods in both periods, and the accuracy was higher during the control period compared with the intervention period. Both Spearman's rank correlations and linear mixed models demonstrated positive associations between EPA+DHA and reported fish intake. The direct observations showed that both reported and real intake of signature foods did increase during the intervention period. In conclusion, the self-reported data represented a true increase in the intake of signature foods and can be used to examine dietary intervention effects.
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to deposit a laminate structure of alternating SiO2 and TiO2 monolayers onto a Si wafer. The resulting samples were analyzed in detail by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealing a distinct O 1s signature due to the presence of Si-O-Ti species. These findings are in good agreement with those reported for thin ALD films of TiO2 grown on SiO2.
Conflicts, of various sizes and purported purposes, cast a long and dark shadow on the lives of many and on the histories of nations and peoples. Theories of conflict abound – for wars between nations, internal civil conflicts, and terrorist operations – primarily based on national or group leaders convincing followers to take up a fight for some purpose, noble (to advance an idea, a religion, a culture, a form of government) or otherwise (to appropriate). While leaders, on occasion, do profit from conflict, they do so less often than they might ever imagine. Indeed, leaders, depending on institutional constraints, can separate the spoils of war (land, resources) from the dim costs of war.
The men and women who conduct the battles, however, can seldom avoid the costs of war, and so are fully saddled with the loss of life, limb, loved ones, livelihood, and way of life. Nor are the soldiers’ interests fully reflected in the interests of those who make the decision to initiate, continue or to change the course of battle. In his famous letter to his World War I commanding officer, Lt. Siegfried Sassoon of the Royal Welch Fusiliers, wrote:
I believe that the war upon which I entered as a war of defence and liberation has now become a war of agression [sic] and conquest. . . . I have seen and endured the sufferings of the troops and I can no longer be a party to prolonging these sufferings for ends which I believe to be evil and unjust. I am not protesting against the conduct of the war, but against the political errors and insincerities for which the fighting men are being sacrificed. On behalf of those who are suffering now, I make this protest against the deception which is being practised upon them; also I believe it may help to destroy the callous complacency with which the majority of those at home regard the continuance of agonies which they do not share and which they have not enough imagination to realise. July, 1917
To determine whether enhanced daily cleaning would reduce contamination of healthcare worker (HCW) gowns and gloves with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB).
A cluster-randomized controlled trial.
Four intensive care units (ICUs) in an urban tertiary care hospital.
ICU rooms occupied by patients colonized with MRSA or MDRAB.
Extra enhanced daily cleaning of ICU room surfaces frequently touched by HCWs.
A total of 4,444 cultures were collected from 132 rooms over 10 months. Using fluorescent dot markers at 2,199 surfaces, we found that 26% of surfaces in control rooms were cleaned and that 100% of surfaces in experimental rooms were cleaned (P < .001). The mean proportion of contaminated HCW gowns and gloves following routine care provision and before leaving the rooms of patients with MDRAB was 16% among control rooms and 12% among experimental rooms (relative risk, 0.77 [95% confidence interval, 0.28-2.11]; P = .23). For MRSA, the mean proportions were 22% and 19%, respectively (relative risk, 0.89 [95% confidence interval, 0.50-1.53]; P = .16).
Intense enhanced daily cleaning of ICU rooms occupied by patients colonized with MRSA or MDRAB was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in contamination of HCW gowns and gloves after routine patient care activities. Further research is needed to determine whether intense environmental cleaning will lead to significant reductions and fewer infections.
The maskless ion implantation with the focused ion beam as a new method for ion beam synthesis of cobalt sulicide wires is presented. In order to perform the implantation a special achromatic mass separator was implemented into the ion column, liquid alloy ion sources for cobalt ions were developed and a substrate heating was built. Ion implantation was performed with 30 keV Co+ and 60 keV Co++ ions. The dose dependence for room temperature implantation and the influence of the substrate temperature were investigated.
Various ion exchange materials have been proposed for the removal of Cs from
high level waste streams produced during the reprocessing of fuel rods. Cs
can be released from loaded traditional exchange resins by elution and then
the resin can be reused. However large quantities of secondary wastes are
generated. Another class of “single use” exchangers is directly incorporated
in the loaded state into a solid waste form (e.g. borosilicate glass logs).
A third alternative is electroactive ion-exchange materials, where the
uptake and elution of Cs are controlled by an applied potential. This
approach has several advantages over traditional reusable ion-exchange
resins including much reduced secondary waste, higher Cs selectivity, and
XAS experiments were conducted at the Fe K-edge and Cs Lm-edge on
a series of electrochemically produced nickel ferrocyanide films to
determine the effects of deposition conditions and subsequent alkali
exchange on structural and chemical aspects of the films. The deposition
conditions include methods described in the literature and PNNL proprietary
procedures. Although the performance and the durability of the films do vary
with processing conditions, Fe K-edge EXAFS results indicate that all
deposition conditions result in the. formation of the cubic phase. Initial
results from Cs Lm-edge EXAFS analysis suggest that the Cs ion is
present as a hydrated species.
The chemical behavior of actinide elements in tank solutions, in soil, and
in groundwater is dependent upon the chemical species that form when aqueous
solutions come in contact with the actinide compounds. In particular the
chemical speciation of the reduced actinide oxidation states (III and IV)
are important, for example, to DOE waste tank processing and, more
generally, to nuclear waste disposal issues. Predicting the solubility of
the actinides in these solutions requires identification of the strong
aqueous complexes, such as carbonates and organic chelating agents, that can
form in aqueous solution.
Previous speciation work has often relied on indirect techniques such as
potentiometric titrations or solubility measurements. Recent XAS experiments
determine directly the speciation of the Th carbonato species of seven
solutions under a range of carbonate concentrations and pH conditions. The
presence of the pentacarbonato complex is confirmed and the complex's
stability at low carbonate concentrations is determined. These experimental
results support a proposed thermodynamic model that describes the solubility
of Th(IV) hydrous oxide in the aqueous Na+-HCO3--CO32--OH--ClO4--H2O system extending to high concentrations at 25°C.
This model is relatively simple in that only two aqueous species are
included Th(OH)3CO3- and Th(CO3)56-.
The kinetics and phase formation sequence of thin-film solid-state reactions, including silicide forming reactions, have frequently been considered to be controlled by interfacial kinetic reaction barriers. These are purely phenomenological quantities which describe the finite rate of the interfacial reaction in terms of limited particle fluxes crossing the respective interfaces. No atomic mechanisms that might be responsible for the action of such barriers have so far been indicated, with the exception of Schmalzried's formulation. The latter says that the interfacial barrier is due to the limited relaxation time needed by the particles to rearrange into the proper sublattice after having crossed the interface. We present correlated kinetic and structural observations during the 2Ni + Si → NiSi2 reaction on the Si(111) surface and discuss them with the help of a model involving the formation and lateral propagation of interfacial steps of different height. The model allows us to explain the kinetic observations by reaction barriers formed as a result of the crystallographic boundary conditions of the reaction.
To examine the relationship between the neighbourhood food environment and dietary intake among adolescents.
Cross-sectional design using: (i) a geographic information system to assess characteristics of the neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood socio-economic status; (ii) the modified Healthy Eating Index (HEI) to assess participants’ overall diet quality; and (iii) generalized linear models to examine associations between HEI and home and school food environmental correlates.
Mid-sized Canadian city in Ontario, Canada.
Grade 7 and 8 students (n 810) at twenty-one elementary schools.
Students living in neighbourhoods with a lower diversity of land-use types, compared with their higher diversity counterparts, had higher HEI scores (P < 0·05). Students with more than 1 km between their home and the nearest convenience store had higher HEI scores than those living within 1 km (P < 0·01). Students attending schools with a distance further than 1 km from the nearest convenience store (P < 0·01) and fast-food outlet (P < 0·05) had higher HEI scores than those within 1 km. Those attending schools with three or more fast-food outlets within 1 km had lower HEI scores than those attending schools with no fast-food outlet in the school surroundings (P < 0·05).
Close proximity to convenience stores in adolescents’ home environments is associated with low HEI scores. Within adolescents’ school environments, close proximity to convenience and fast-food outlets and a high density of fast-food outlets are associated with low HEI scores.
Using integral field spectroscopy, we detected the broad features
of massive Wolf-Rayet stars in the core of three Seyfert galaxies.
The observed high value of the WR/O number ratio is a clear signature
of a young and powerful starburst. The star-forming regions are distributed
in an arc/ring-like structure around the AGN, at a distance
of about 200 pc. These are the first spatially-resolved detections of
massive starbursts so close of an AGN.
Progress in the understanding of the volumes and viscosities of granitic and related pegmatitic melts generated by experimental studies are reviewed. The results of a series of investigations of the volumes and viscosities of melts derived from a haplogranitic base composition, HPG8, located near the 2 kbar water-saturated minimum melt composition in the albite—orthoclase—silica system are discussed. Melt volumes, obtained using a combination of dilatometric and calorimetric methods at 1 atm and relatively low temperatures yield an internally consistent set of partial molar volumes for 18 components in granitic melts. These partial molar volumes, combined with an estimate for water, allow the estimation of melt densities for granitic and related pegmatitic magmas.
Melt viscosities, obtained using a combination of high and low range viscometry techniques, provide a template for the estimation of melt viscosities in more complex natural systems. The parameterisation of the non-Arrhenian temperature-dependence of the viscosity of such melts is presented, together with some structural implications of the variation of melt viscosity with temperature and composition. Outstanding questions related to the PVT equation of state of granitic melts and to the mechanical response to shear stresses are discussed, with an outlook for the experimental solutions to those questions in the next few years.
We performed a series of dissolution experiments with well-characterized pyrochlore ceramics with the formula A2Ti2O7, where A = Y3+, Gd3+, or Lu3+ in H2O- and D2Obased solutions [pH(D) = 2] at 90°C. Normalized log10 dissolution rates (g·m−2·d−1) in H2O-based solutions increase from Lu2Ti2O7 (−3.2 to –3.3) to Gd2Ti2O7 (−2.6 to –2.9), to Y2Ti2O7 (−1.9 to –2.0). Rates in D20-based solutions are indistinguishable from rates in H2O, indicating that release of elements is probably not diffusion controlled. A recent dissolution model, based on ligand-exchange reactions, suggests that the rate of reaction should increase in inverse order of the cation field strength: Lu < Y < Gd (where the cation denotes the appropriate pyrochlore composition), which is not observed. Evaluation of the thermodynamic stability of the three solids was performed using a linear free-energy model and reported free energies of formation. The calculations indicate that reactivity should follow in the progression Lu < Gd < Y, as observed in the dissolution experiments. Our data indicates, therefore, that dissolution models based on ligand-exchange reactions may not be strictly applicable to simple pyrochlore minerals.