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To advance research from Dishion and others on associations between parenting and peer problems across childhood, we used a sample of 177 sibling pairs reared apart since birth (because of adoption of one of the siblings) to examine associations between parental hostility and children's peer problems when children were ages 7 and 9.5 years (n = 329 children). We extended conventional cross-lagged parent–peer models by incorporating child inhibitory control as an additional predictor and examining genetic contributions via birth mother psychopathology. Path models indicated a cross-lagged association from parental hostility to later peer problems. When child inhibitory control was included, birth mother internalizing symptoms were associated with poorer child inhibitory control, which was associated with more parental hostility and peer problems. The cross-lagged paths from parental hostility to peer problems were no longer significant in the full model. Multigroup analyses revealed that the path from birth mother internalizing symptoms to child inhibitory control was significantly higher for birth parent–reared children, indicating the possible contribution of passive gene–environment correlation to this association. Exploratory analyses suggested that each child's unique rearing context contributed to his or her inhibitory control and peer behavior. Implications for the development of evidence-based interventions are discussed.
The first ultraviolet photochemical oxidation (UVox) extraction method for marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as CO2 gas was established by Armstrong and co-workers in 1966. Subsequent refinement of the UVox technique has co-evolved with the need for high-precision isotopic (Δ14C, δ13C) analysis and smaller sample size requirements for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) measurements. The UVox line at UC Irvine was established in 2004 and the system reaction kinetics and efficiency for isolating seawater DOC rigorously tested for quantitative isolation of ∼1 mg C for AMS 14C measurements. Since then, improvements have been made to sampling, storage, and UVox methods to increase overall efficiency. We discuss our progress, and key UVox system parameters for optimizing precision, accuracy, and efficiency, including (1) ocean to reactor: filtration, storage and preparation of DOC samples, (2) cryogenic trap design, efficiency and quantification of CO2 break through, and (3) use of isotopic standards, blanks and small sample graphitization techniques for the correction of DOC concentrations and Fm values with propagated uncertainties. New DOC UVox systems are in use at many institutions. However, rigorous assessment of quantitative UVox DOC yields and blank contributions, DOC concentrations and carbon isotopic values need to be made. We highlight the need for a community-wide inter-comparison study.
Constraint is a universal feature of morphological evolution. The vertebral column of synapsids (mammals and their close relatives) is a classic example of this phenotypic restriction, with greatly reduced variation in the number of vertebrae compared with the sauropsid lineage. Synapsids generally possess only three sacral vertebrae, which articulate with the ilium and play a key role in locomotion. Dicynodont anomodonts are the exception to this rule, possessing seven or more sacral vertebrae while reaching a range of body sizes rivaled among synapsids only by therian mammals. Here we explore the evolution of this unusual sacral morphology in dicynodonts by (1) hypothesizing homologies of the additional sacral vertebrae, (2) using ancestral state reconstruction and phylogenetic regressions (e.g., logistic regression, Poisson regression) to track the coevolution of sacral count and body size, and (3) proposing mechanisms by which additional sacral vertebrae were incorporated during dicynodont evolution. We find that sacral vertebral morphology covaries with sacral count in consistent ways across dicynodonts, implying that sacra with a given number of vertebrae are composed of homologous elements. There is a correlation between increased sacral count and larger body size, especially at the shift from four to five sacrals near the origin of Bidentalia. Based on position, morphology, and the consistent number of presacral vertebrae among dicynodonts, we hypothesize that the additional sacrals anterior to the plesiomorphic three are duplications of the first sacral, and that a single caudosacral was incorporated by a shift in the identity of the anteriormost caudal vertebra. Although changes in sacral count appear to be correlated with shifts in body size in dicynodonts, the evolution of general morphological conservativism in the synapsid sacrum remains to be further explored.
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
One of the seminar topics scheduled for the summer of 1955 by the Society for American Archaeology was “The American Southwest: A Problem in Cultural Isolation.” The assignment was to “… examine the assumption that these Southwestern cultures resulted from local acceptance and development of generalized and/or specific traits which can be isolated in distant cultural contexts at earlier times than their climactic developments can be observed in the Southwest.”
Background:ATP8A2 mutations have only recently been associated with human disease. We present the clinical features from the largest cohort of patients with this disorder reported to date. Methods: An observational study of 9 unreported and 2 previously reported patients with biallelic ATP8A2 mutations was carried out at multiple centres. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 9.4 years old (range: 2.5-28 yrs). All patients demonstrated developmental delay, severe hypotonia and movement disorders: chorea/choreoathetosis (100%), dystonia (27%) or facial dyskinesia (18%). Hypotonia was apparent at birth (70%) or before 6 months old (100%). Optic atrophy was observed in 75% of patients who had a funduscopic examination. MRI of the brain was normal for most patients with a small proportion showing mild cortical atrophy (30%), delayed myelination (20%) and/or hypoplastic optic nerves (20%). Epilepsy was seen in two older patients. Conclusions:ATP8A2 gene mutations have emerged as a cause of a novel phenotype characterized by developmental delay, severe hypotonia and hyperkinetic movement disorders. Optic atrophy is common and may only become apparent in the first few years of life, necessitating repeat ophthalmologic evaluation. Early recognition of the cardinal features of this condition will facilitate diagnosis of this disorder.
We report marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ∆14C from seawater collected from the North central Pacific Ocean (NCP) in 2015. These measurements show DOC ∆14C values averaged –235±5‰ (n=3) in the mixed layer (24–81 m) and –544±5‰ (n=5) in the deep water (1500–5139 m). A comparison of these data with two previously published DOC ∆14C profiles from the NCP in 1985 and 1987 reveals that deep DOC ∆14C values have decreased. We discuss several possible mechanisms that could cause such a shift in DOC ∆14C values, including spatial inhomogeneity and temporal variability due to changes in the dissolution and ∆14C value of surface derived particles in the deep sea. We find that forthcoming profiles of DOC ∆14C results from the NCP will determine the primary mechanisms controlling deep DOC ∆14C distributions, and changes over the past three decades.
The mid-infrared range contains many spectral features associated with large molecules and dust grains such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and silicates. These are usually very strong compared to fine-structure gas lines, and thus valuable in studying the spectral properties of faint distant galaxies. In this paper, we evaluate the capability of low-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys of galaxies that could be performed by SPICA. The surveys are designed to address the question how star formation and black hole accretion activities evolved over cosmic time through spectral diagnostics of the physical conditions of the interstellar/circumnuclear media in galaxies. On the basis of results obtained with Herschel far-infrared photometric surveys of distant galaxies and Spitzer and AKARI near- to mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of nearby galaxies, we estimate the numbers of the galaxies at redshift z > 0.5, which are expected to be detected in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features or dust continuum by a wide (10 deg2) or deep (1 deg2) blind survey, both for a given observation time of 600 h. As by-products of the wide blind survey, we also expect to detect debris disks, through the mid-infrared excess above the photospheric emission of nearby main-sequence stars, and we estimate their number. We demonstrate that the SPICA mid-infrared surveys will efficiently provide us with unprecedentedly large spectral samples, which can be studied further in the far-infrared with SPICA.
Our current knowledge of star formation and accretion luminosity at high redshift (z > 3–4), as well as the possible connections between them, relies mostly on observations in the rest-frame ultraviolet, which are strongly affected by dust obscuration. Due to the lack of sensitivity of past and current infrared instrumentation, so far it has not been possible to get a glimpse into the early phases of the dust-obscured Universe. Among the next generation of infrared observatories, SPICA, observing in the 12–350 µm range, will be the only facility that can enable us to trace the evolution of the obscured star-formation rate and black-hole accretion rate densities over cosmic time, from the peak of their activity back to the reionisation epoch (i.e., 3 < z ≲ 6–7), where its predecessors had severe limitations. Here, we discuss the potential of photometric surveys performed with the SPICA mid-infrared instrument, enabled by the very low level of impact of dust obscuration in a band centred at 34 µm. These unique unbiased photometric surveys that SPICA will perform will fully characterise the evolution of AGNs and star-forming galaxies after reionisation.
The SALT transient follow-up programme began in 2016 and will continue for 5 semesters (until 31 Oct 2018), with an expectation of renewal thereafter. It is currently the only SALT Large Science Programme, and was awarded ~250 ksec. per semester, with a significant fraction (60%) given for the highest priority target-of-opportunity time. The aim is to characterise and study transients across a wide range of classes, currently including (from closest to most distant) cataclysmic variables, novæ and other associated eruptive variables, low- and high-mass X-ray binaries, OGLE and Gaia transients (including tidal disruption events), super-luminous and unusual core-collapse supernovæ, kilonovæ and other candidate optical counterparts to gravitational-wave events, flaring blazars and AGN, and gamma-ray bursts. This programme currently involves four SALT partners, of which South Africa is the major contributor of time (74%) and resources and includes five institutions with over 30 co-investigators. This talk reviewed the nature of the programme and highlighted some of the results to date.
This contribution gave three examples of X-ray transients in the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way that have been observed as part of the SALT Transients Large Programme. The transients (SMC X-3, MAXI J1957+032 and ASASSN-16oh) have been triggered from both space-based wide-field monitoring facilities (Swift/XRT, MAXI) and ground-based ones (ASASSN, the All Sky Automated Survey for SN), providing insights into the physics of super-Eddington accretion onto neutron stars and white dwarfs, and also into the long-term properties of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars.
The Hubble Source Catalog (HSC) combines lists of sources detected on images obtained with the WFPC2, ACS and WFC3 instruments aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and now available in the Hubble Legacy Archive. The catalogue contains time-domain information for about two million of its sources detected using the same instrument and filter on at least five HST visits. The Hubble Catalog of Variables (HCV) aims to identify HSC sources showing significant brightness variations. A magnitude-dependent threshold in the median absolute deviation of photometric measurements (an outlier-resistant measure of light-curve scatter) is adopted as the variability detection statistic. It is supplemented with a cut in χred2 that removes sources with large photometric errors. A pre-processing procedure involving bad image identification, outlier rejection and computation of local magnitude zero-point corrections is applied to the HSC light-curves before computing the variability detection statistics. About 52 000 HSC sources have been identified as candidate variables, among which 7,800 show variability in more than one filter. Visual inspection suggests that ∼70% of the candidates detected in multiple filters are true variables, while the remaining ∼30% are sources with aperture photometry corrupted by blending, imaging artefacts or image processing anomalies. The candidate variables have AB magnitudes in the range 15–27m, with a median of 22m. Among them are the stars in our own and nearby galaxies, and active galactic nuclei.
We present the first time-resolved spectroscopic observations, made with the SALT HRS instrument, of a rapidly oscillating Ap star. We used the instrument in the High Stability mode, with the fastest readout settings – a setup never previously used. Over a 2.5-hr track length, we obtained 280 spectra at 8-second integration times and a cadence of 30 seconds. The target, α Circini, is the brightest of the roAp stars, and thus provides an excellent opportunity to test the instrument. Previous time-resolved spectroscopic studies of this star have been conducted by Kurtz, Elkin & Mathys† with the VLT/UVES instrument, and by Mkrtichian & Hatzes‡ with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6-m telescope. Those two studies provide us with benchmarks to compare the performance of SALT/HRS for this type of project. With the upcoming TESS mission, the ability to perform high-precision, time-resolved spectroscopy of pulsating stars will be key for the scientific output of SALT.
Astrophysical jets have been detected in objects as diverse as protostellar objects and supermassive black holes, yet we still have not answered the key question of what system properties are necessary to launch a jet. This talk described multi-wavelength time-domain studies to determine if two classes of objects at opposite ends of the energy scale are launching jets. First, Cataclysmic Variables (binaries with mass accretion rates of ≤ 10−8 M⊙y−1) were previously thought not to launch jets, and have been used to constrain jet launching models. Nevertheless, recent radio observations have indicated a jet in one system, and have shown that that system is not unique. As regards the other end of the energy scale, we still do not know if the most powerful stellar explosions (Super-Luminous Supernovæ) launch jets. Recent improvements in sensitivity (particularly at radio wavelengths), higher-cadence transient surveys, significantly improved telescope response times and longer-term monitoring have led to substantial advances in these fields. The talk discussed how we are using multi-wavelength studies (with different cadences and coverage times) of these two extremely different classes of object to determine if they launch jets, thereby to constrain the properties necessary to do so.
The broad-lined Type Ic Supernovæ (SNe) associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) were long considered the most luminous class as a whole among core-collapse SNe, until the discovery of Superluminous SNe (SLSNe) during the last decade. There are many differences between the two classes, but in recent years events have been discovered which form a link between them. Associated with GRBs but more luminous and hotter, and in one case clearly dissimilar spectrally from any other known GRB-SNe, these sources point the way towards common mechanisms underlying GRBs and SLSNe.