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Human organoid models recapitulate many aspects of the complex composition and function of native organs. One of the main challenges in developing these models is the growth and maintenance of three-dimensional tissue structures and proper cellular organization that enable function. Biomaterials play an important role by providing a defined and tunable three-dimensional environment that is required for complex cellular organization and organoid growth in vitro or in vivo. This review summarizes organoids of the respiratory and digestive system, and the use of biomaterials to improve upon these model systems.
Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling ‘deprived’; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.
Systematic studies of the effects of pulsed laser deposition processing parameters on plume dynamics and resultant film properties have been performed. Plume angular distributions, cosm(θ), were observed to be variable between 1 > m > 15 depending on laser energy density and spot size. Under optimized conditions, epitaxial, superconducting thin films could be grown in‐situ on a variety of single‐crystal substrates. High quality, 2000 Å ss thick films were obtained at deposition rates approaching 150 Å/sec.
Y2O3 pressed powders were ablated by pulses from a XeCl excimer laser, operating at 308 nm, 150 mj/pulse, ≈15 nsec/pulse and 20 Hz. Emission spectra from Y∗ and YO∗ were recorded as a function of ambient oxygen pressure in the range 10−5 − 4×10−1 Torr, at a laser fluence of ≈ 4 J/cm2. A kinetic model is developed to describe the results, and the application to production of laser-deposited high-temperature superconductor thin films is discussed.
We report here on the pulsed laser deposition of high quality, superconducting, 200 nm thick films of YBa2Cu3O7-x at rates approaching 15 nm/s. Film crystallinity and electrical properties were studied as a function of deposition rate from 0.1 to 14.5 nm/s. Though some degradation in the film crystallinity is observed by RBS channeling and X-ray rocking curve measurements, critical current densities (Jc = 4 × 106 A/cm2, 77 K, B = 0) are effectively unchanged in going to the higher deposition rates.
We report here on two aspects of non-chemical, post-deposition processing of laser-deposited superconducting Yba2Cu3O7-δthin films. One patterning process consists of placing a contact mask over the film and removes the surrounding material by excimer laser ablation. Good edge definition for 30–100 μm etch features is obtained. However, some redeposition of material is observed. In separate patterning experiments, oxygen-deficient films were re-oxygenated by a direct-write laser heating method. This process produces very smooth edges between the superconducting patterns and the surrounding material.
Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been widely used for deposition of high Tc superconducting thin films, and is recognized as one of the best physical vapor techniques for the preparation of these films. The most important advantage of this technique is stoichiometric deposition; films can be made with the same composition as the target. Utilizing PLD, not only thin films but also multilayers and superlattices of high Tc superconductors have been fabricated. In this paper, the performance of the technique will be reviewed, and speculations regarding the future would be made.
Target modification by excimer laser exposure has been investigated. Under conditions typical in the fabrication of superconducting thin films, deposition rate decreases with exposure and significant physical and chemical modifications occur on the target surface. These modifications do not inhibit congruent evaporation.
Since early studies in language development, scholars have noticed that function words, in particular auxiliaries, often appear to be missing in early speech, with the result that child utterances sometimes exhibit verbs with non-finite morphology in seemingly matrix clauses. This has led to the idea of a ‘deficit’ in the child's syntactic representations. In contrast with previous studies, this article explores the possibility that the child's phonology may considerably impact her overt realization of auxiliaries. Specifically, it examines the hypothesis that non-finite verbs in early speech are in fact attempted periphrastics (i.e. auxiliary/modal+non-finite verb) in which the auxiliaries are just reduced phonetically, often to the point where they remain unpronounced. We studied 28 normally developing French-speaking children aged between 23 and 37 months. New observational data uncovered a continuum in a given child's phonetic realizations of auxiliaries. Children showed various levels of auxiliary reduction, suggesting that their non-finite verbs are best analyzed as being part of periphrastics involving an auxiliary form that represents the endpoint on this continuum, i.e. is (completely) deleted. Further examination of these verbs revealed that their semantics corresponds to the semantics of adult periphrastics. Additionally, the results of an experiment where children imitated sentences with either periphrastic or synthetic verbs showed that responses with non-finite verbs were predominantly produced when the target sentence involved a periphrastic, rather than a synthetic verb.
A prospective longitudinal survey of cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania peruviana) was carried out in Peru on a study population of 4716 persons living in 38 villages (Departments of Lima, Ancash and Piura). Demographic and clinical data were collected from all individuals, and a Montenegro skin test (MST) was carried out on 72% (3418) of the study population. Each household was revisited at 3-monthly intervals for up to 2 years to detect new leishmaniasis cases; 497 people received a second MST at the end of the study. Analysis of the epidemiological data indicated that (i) 17% (16/94) of all infections were subclinical, (ii) this percentage increased significantly with age, (iii) clinical infections led to 73·9 % protective immunity (95 % C.I. 53·0–85·5 %) and relatively permanent MST responsiveness (recovery rate = 0·0098/year; 95% C.I. 0·000–0·020/year), (iv) sub-clinical infections led to protective immunity, which was positively correlated with their MST induration size (increasing by 17·9% per mm; P < 0·0001), and a mean MST recovery rate of 0·114/year (4/421 man-months), and (v) recurrent leishmaniasis was dominated by reactivations, not by reinfections.
We present a direct detection of the growth of large-scale structure, using weak gravitational lensing and photometric redshift data from the COMBO-17 survey. Deep $R$-band imaging of two $0.5\times0.5$ square degree fields is used to provide shear estimates for over 52000 galaxies; these are combined with photometric redshift estimates from our 17 band survey, in order to obtain a 3-D shear field. We discuss how theoretical models for evolving matter power spectra and correlation functions cab be used to find a best fit to this 3-D shear field. We present the detection of the evolution of the power, and measurements of the rate of evolution for $0<z<1$. We discuss future refinements which will improve the accuracy with which the effect can be measured.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html