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The use of transdiagnostic mental health treatments in low resource settings has been proposed as a possible aid in scaling up mental health services. Modular, multi-problem transdiagnostic treatments can be used to treat a range of mental health problems and are designed to handle comorbidity. Two randomized controlled trials have been completed on one treatment – the Common Elements Treatment Approach, or CETA – delivered by lay counsellors in Iraq and Thailand. This paper utilizes data from two clinical trials to explore the delivery of CETA by lay providers, examining fidelity and flexibility of element use. Data were collected at every therapy session. Clients completed a short symptom assessment and providers described the clinical elements delivered during sessions. Analyses included descriptive statistics of delivery including selection and sequencing of treatment elements, and the variance in element dose, clustering at the counsellor level, using multi-level models. Results indicate that lay providers in low resource settings (with supervision) demonstrated fidelity to the recommended CETA elements, order and dose, and occasionally added in elements and flexed dosage based on client presentation (i.e. flexibility). This modular approach did not result in significantly longer treatment duration. Our analysis suggests that lay providers were able to learn decision-making processes of CETA based on client presentation and adjust treatment as needed with supervision. As modular multi-problem transdiagnostic treatments continue to be explored in low resource settings, research should continue to focus on ‘unpacking’ lay counsellor delivery of these interventions, decision-making processes, and the level of supervision required.
The persistently changing landscape of cyberspace and cybersecurity has led to a call for organizations’ increased attention toward securing information and systems. Rapid change in the cyber environment puts it on a scale unlike any other performance environment typically of interest to industrial and organizational (I-O) psychologists and related disciplines. In this article, we reflect on the idea of keeping pace with cyber, with a particular focus on the role of practicing I-O psychologists in assisting individuals, teams, and organizations. We focus on the unique roles of I-O psychologists in relation to the cyber realm and discuss the ways in which they can contribute to organizational cybersecurity efforts. As highlighted throughout this article, we assert that the mounting threats within cyberspace amount to a “looming crisis.” Thus, we view assisting organizations and their employees with becoming resilient and adaptive to cyber threats as an imperative, and practicing I-O psychologists should be at the forefront of these efforts.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Bladder cancer patients being considered for immune checkpoint blockade are often judged on immunohistochemical staining for the checkpoint target protein PD-L1 in the original surgery or biopsy sample. However, sampling error or the clinical evolution of most patients’ cancer can render the original PD-L1 assessment no longer accurate. In contrast, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) allow serial noninvasive sampling of the current tumor status throughout a patient’s clinical course including those with the highest metastatic potential. We therefore sought to develop a method for quantifying PD-L1 expression in CTCs towards addressing inherent limitations of current UC management. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This work utilizes both cancer cell lines as well as patient samples. Positive and negative control cancer cell lines were assessed via “industry standard” antibodies for PD-L1 expression via Western blots and immunofluorescence, and a threshold-based method was developed for reliable quantification. PDL-1 expression was additionally verified via interferon-mediated up-regulation. CTCs isolated from bladder cancer patient samples via a density centrifugation method were then assessed for PD-L1 via the same antibodies. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We will show preliminary preclinical and clinical data that validates the sensitivity and specificity of our assay. A case study will be presented that illustrate the potential useful of the novel approach we describe and which should be complementary to current clinical practices. In a patient with metastatic bladder cancer, this method effectively detected the PD-L1 expression in CTCs taken at a time coincident to when the patient derived an excellent response to the PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor Pembrolizumab. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This work highlights the potential utility of CTCs in the management of bladder cancer. It may be the case that this assay in conjunction with current methods of patient selection for immunotherapy may allow for better response prediction than either method alone.
Adler et al. (2016) open with a summary of the business case driving our field to change and close by providing principles for accomplishing that change, where they conclude that “there is no right answer to the ratings question” (p. 244). Lying between the opening and closing sections is a series of arguments for and against today's performance rating status quo, arguments illustrating just what happens when too many years are spent seeking answers along too narrow a path. In this commentary, we provide additional support for the strategy- and outcome-driven approach to performance management advocated in the article. In addition, we offer ideas for what has contributed to getting us and keeping us where we are. Unless we understand what has driven performance ratings research and practice to be the object of an intense and lengthy debate, these same forces may well drive us to carry out years-long experiments of questionable value along similarly narrow paths. We want to offer our views on how to foster outcome-based practice more broadly.
Thin films (∼1000 Å) of LaxCa1−xMnOδ (x=0.67) were deposited onto LaA1O3 (100) substrates at of 600 and 700°C. Varying the oxygen deposition pressure between 15 and 400 mTorr systematically changed the oxygen concentrations in the as deposited films. Asdeposited films exhibited an orthorhombic structure with an oxygen pressure dependent lattice parameter. The films were highly oriented as characterized by narrow x-ray ω-scans (FWHM ≤ 0.16 −0.70°). At low pressures, the films were preferentially (202) oriented while at high pressures deposited films had a (040) preferred orientation. A 900°C anneal in flowing oxygen for a film deposited at low oxygen pressures resulted in a decrease in the lattice parameter (associated with an increase in δ) and a change in the preferred orientation from (202) to (040). The resistivity as a function of temperature (R(T)) showed a significant variation as a function of growth conditions. At 600°C, the peak in the resistivity curve (Tm) varied between 73 and 93 K for P(O2) = 15 to 400 mTorr, while at 700°C, Tm was ∼150 K. For films deposited at 600°C, the resistivity was reduced by a factor of 103 for H = 9T and Tm was shifted to 150 K. The activation energy associated with the semiconducting phase was approximately the same for all as-deposited films (∼100 meV).
Simultaneous temporal and spatial resolution of the monochromatic vacuum ultraviolet emission from an excimer laser ablated YBa2Cu3O7 plasma has yielded quantitative information on the plasma generation and velocity. From the time resolved spectral data, plasma velocities were measured and found to be ∼2.3x106 cm/s. It was observed that vacuum ultraviolet emission from above the YBa2Cu3O7 surface does not occur until ˜20 ns after the beginning of the laser pulse. Energetic material continues to be ejected from the target for more than 100 ns after the end of the laser pulse.
Thick films (0.6 and 2.0 μm) of the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) material, La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO), have been grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were grown from single-phase LCMO targets in 100 mTorr 02 pressures and the material deposited on (100) LaAlO3 substrates at deposition temperatures of 800°C. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetic field-dependent resistivity, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The LCMO films were shown by XRD to adopt an orthorhombic structure. Brief post-deposition annealing led to ~50,000% and ~12,000% MR effect in the 0.6 μm and 2.0 μm films, respectively.
A kinetic Monte Carlo model is developed to examine the influence of As/Ga flux ratio on the Ga desorption kinetics during molecular beam epitaxy of (100)-GaAs, based on data reported in desorption mass spectrometry experiments. A good match to experimental results is obtained when a mechanism involving desorption from a physisorbed state is included, in addition to desorption from a chemisorbed state. Analysis of the results revealed that the dependence of the Ga desorption energy on the As/Ga flux ratio, observed in growth experiments, is explained in terms of the component due to desorption from the physisorbed state. The Ga desorption energy associated with the chemisorbed state is independent of the As/Ga flux ratio. These predictions are similar to results reported in a recent study of In desorption during molecular beam epitaxy of InGaAs
A series of AlGaAs/GaAs depositions were monitored in-situ by spectroscopic ellipsometry and desorption mass spectroscopy, under various substrate temperatures (890 K - 990 K) where non-unity sticking conditions occur. An upper bound on the temperature where AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures may be grown was determined. Ex-situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy verified that the AlGaAs/GaAs layer thicknesses grown by molecular beam epitaxy were accurately determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry at these elevated temperatures. The substrate temperature dependence on Ga desorption rates was consistent with Monte Carlo simulation where desorption from both physisorbed and chemisorbed states were included.
In-plane magnetic anisotropy can be induced in Cr-underlayer/Co-alloy thin films by grooves or scratches in the substrate. To quantify this effect, silica substrates have been prepared with large areas of submicron grooves using interferometric lithography. The growth of Cr films and Cr/Co-alloy bilayer films on these substrates has been investigated, and in-plane magnetic anisotropy has been observed.
For the trajectory following problem of a robot manipulator, a robust estimation and control scheme which requires only position measurements is proposed to guarantee uniform ultimate bounded stability under significant uncertainties and disturbances in the robot dynamics. The scheme combines a class of robust control laws with a robust estimator where the robust control law can be chosen to be either a modification of the standard computed torque control law or simply a linear and decentralized “PD” control law. The proposed robust estimator is also linear and decentralized for easy implementation. Constructive choices of the gains in the control law and estimator are proposed which depend only on the coefficients of a polynomial bounding function of the unknown dynamics. The asymptotic stability of the tracking errors and the estimation error is also investigated. Experimentation results verify the theoretical analysis.
The Federal Trade Commission Improvement Act of 1975 (FTCIA) expressly authorizes the FTC to promulgate rules that “define with specificity acts or practices which are unfair or deceptive,” the knowing violation of which may result in a “civil penalty” of $10,000. The FTC has thus become a powerful consumer protection agency. Whether consumer welfare will thereby be enhanced depends on the manner in which this rule making authority is implemented by the FTC, particularly the care with which the Commission constructs its Trade Regulation Rules (TRRs) to comport with the economic realities of the marketplace. As the more detailed analysis of specific TRRs in succeeding chapters confirms, the experience to date is disquieting.
This chapter addresses in a general way the question of whether the FTC is implementing its rule-making power in a manner that will effectively improve consumer welfare. Particular rules are analyzed in depth in the chapters that follow. This chapter provides an overview of some of the recurring problems in the FTC's approach to rule making, and draws for the most part upon rules that are not the subjects of intensive particularized analysis in later chapters. It begins with a brief description of the origin and framework of the Commission's rule-making authority and summarizes the types of rules adopted or proposed. Because the statute authorizes rules that proscribe practices found to be “unfair or deceptive,” the Commission's efforts to provide some content to those vague concepts are then analyzed.
Afrail, deaf, dyspeptic little man is still, after some three decades of governmental service, one of the outstanding politicians in Australia. Although he left the cabinet when the Labor Party took charge in the fall of 1941, William Morris Hughes is now a member of the Advisory War Council. He is also the leader of the United Australian Party. There is little doubt that he will be one of the representatives of the Commonwealth when the next group of statesmen sit around the peace table, and that he will voice his convictions quite determinedly. An examination of some of his past views on foreign policy may well afford clues as to the position that he will take at the next peace conference.
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