To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Duck production has the potential to play a major role in agricultural economy. Asian countries alone contribute 84.2% of total duck meat produced in the world. Driven by the demand of processed foods among consumers, the global duck meat market is expected to grow at a steady pace, reaching a value of about $11.23 billion in the coming years. Duck meat has higher muscle fibre content in breast meat compared to chicken, and is considered as red meat. Moreover, due to a higher fat content (13.8%) than chicken and a stronger gamey flavour, duck meat can be less appreciated by the consumer. Development and diversification of ready-to-eat duck meat products is expected to increase consumption levels. Hence, the status of duck meat production, physicochemical properties, processing, including traditional products, and development of novel value-added ready-to-eat products from spent duck meat is discussed in detail to explore its importance as an alternative to chicken.
Since the isolation of graphene, a monolayer of sp2-bonded carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have attracted a great deal of attention due to their outstanding mechanical, optical and electronic properties. The research areas of interest for these new materials include exploring their novel properties, developing scalable approaches to synthesize these materials, and integrating them into a new generation of nanodevices. The utilization of 2D materials in devices has many advantages, which includes scaled materials to the limit of atomic-scale membranes, and the potential to form device structures on flexible and transparent substrates, among others. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) monolayers in particular, have received increasing attention in recent years, especially molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), which is one of the most well explored semiconducting materials in the 2D materials system. In this work we present the synthesis of MoS2 using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), where we have varied the synthesis parameters and compared the structure and quality of the CVD synthesized MoS2. At the same time, we have compared the characteristics with those obtained for mechanically exfoliated flakes from the bulk MoS2 crystal. The MoS2 quality has been analyzed using Raman spectroscopy.
The work presents a comparative study on GaN/AlGaN type-II heterostructures grown on c-plane Al2O3 and Si (111) substrates by Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The in-depth structural characterizations of these samples were performed by High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction, X-ray Reflectivity and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The in-plane and out-of plane strains were determined from measured c- and a-lattice parameters of the epilayers from reciprocal space mapping of both symmetric triple axis (002) and asymmetric grazing incidence (105) double axis mode. The mosaicity parameters like tilt and correlation lengths were also calculated from reciprocal space mapping. Moreover, the twist angle was measured from skew symmetric off axis scan of (102), (103), and (105) planes along with (002) symmetric plane. The defect density were measured from the full width at half maxima of skew symmetric scan of (002) and (102) reflection planes. Also, the strained states of all the layers were analyzed and corresponding Al mole fraction was calculated based on anisotropic elastic theory. The thicknesses of the layers were measured from simulation of the nominal structure by fitting with X-ray Reflectivity experimental curves and also by comparing with cross sectional Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs.
Clostridium difficile was recovered from 33 (34%) of 98 rooms of patients who were excretors compared with 36 (49%) of 73 rooms of patients with active infection. Not all laboratory algorithms can distinguish between these 2 groups, yet both may be a significant source for ongoing transmission.
This article describes feasible and improved ways towards enhanced nanowire growth kinetics by reducing the equilibrium solute concentration in the liquid collector phase in a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) like growth model. Use of bi-metallic alloy seeds (AuxAg1-x) influences the germanium supersaturation for a faster nucleation and growth kinetics. Nanowire growth with ternary eutectic alloys shows Gibbs-Thompson effect with diameter dependent growth rate. In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) annealing experiments directly confirms the role of equilibrium concentration in nanowire growth kinetics and was used to correlate the equilibrium content of metastable alloys with the growth kinetics of Ge nanowires. The shape and geometry of the heterogeneous interfaces between the liquid eutectic and solid Ge nanowires were found to vary as a function of nanowire diameter and eutectic alloy composition.
Highly efficient Pt-TiO2 composite photoelectrodes were synthesized by combining two novel deposition methods: ACVD and a room temperature RF (radio frequency) magnetron sputtering method. A room temperature RF magnetron sputtering method allowed uniform deposition of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) onto the as-synthesized nanostructured columnar TiO2 films by ACVD. Pt NP sizes from 0.5 to 3 nm demonstrating a high particle density (>1012 cm−2) could be achieved by varying deposition time with constant pressure and power intensity. As-synthesized Pt-TiO2 films were used as photoanodes for water photolysis. Pt nanoparticles deposited onto the TiO2 film for 20s produced the highest photocurrent (7.92 mA/cm2 to 9.49 mA/cm2) and maximized the energy conversion efficiency (16.2 % to 21.2 %) under UV illumination. However, as the size of Pt particles increased, more trapping sites for photogenerated electron-hole pairs decreased photoreaction.
All photosynthetic organisms contain light-harvesting antenna complexes and electron transfer complexes called reaction centers. Some photosynthetic bacteria contain large (~100 MDa) peripheral antenna complexes known as chlorosomes. Chlorosomes lose their reaction center when they are extracted from organisms. Lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) were used for artificial reaction centers. Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) allows different sizes of PbS QDs with different cycles to be easily deposited onto the nanostructured columnar titanium dioxide (TiO2) film with single crystal. Chlorosomes were sequentially deposited onto the PbS QDs surface by electrospray. Compared to the typical PbS QD sensitized solar cells, overall energy conversion efficiency increased with the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) effect between PbS QDs and chlorosomes.
Light trapping is essential to harvest long wavelength red and near-infrared photons in thin film silicon solar cells. Traditionally light trapping has been achieved with a randomly roughened Ag/ZnO back reflector, which scatters incoming light uniformly through all angles, and enhances currents and cell efficiencies over a flat back reflector. A new approach using periodically textured photonic-plasmonic arrays has been recently shown to be very promising for harvesting long wavelength photons, through diffraction of light and plasmonic light concentration. Here we investigate the combination of these two approaches of random scattering and plasmonic effects to increase cell performance even further. An array of periodic conical back reflectors was fabricated by nanoimprint lithography and coated with Ag. These back reflectors were systematically annealed to generate different amounts of random texture, at smaller spatial scales, superimposed on a larger scale periodic texture. nc-Si solar cells were grown on flat, periodic photonic-plasmonic substrates, and randomly roughened photonic-plasmonic substrates. There were large improvements (>20%) in the current and light absorption of the photonic-plasmonic substrates relative to flat. The additional random features introduced on the photonic-plasmonic substrates did not improve the current and light absorption further, over a large range of randomization features.
The effect of silver nanoparticles showing localised plasmonic resonances on the efficiency of thin film silicon solar cells is studied. Silver (Ag) nanodiscs were deposited on the surface of silicon cells grown on highly doped silicon substrates, through hole-mask colloidal lithography, which is a low-cost and bottom-up technique. The cells have no back reflector in order to exclusively study the effect of the front surface on their properties. Cells with nanoparticles were compared with both bare silicon cells and cells with an antireflection coating. We optically observe a resonance showing an absorption increase controllable by the disc radius. We also see an increase in efficiency with respect to bare cells, but we see a decrease in efficiency with respect to cells with an antireflection coating due to losses at wavelengths below the plasmon resonance. As the material properties are not notably affected by the particles deposition, the loss mechanism is an important absorption in the nanoparticles. We confirm this by numerical simulations.
In this paper, we report on the growth and fabrication of thin film Si photovoltaic devices on photonic structures which were fabricated on steel and PEN and Kapton substrates. Both amorphous Si and thin film nanocrystalline Si devices were fabricated. The 2 dimensional photonic reflector structures were designed using a scattering matrix theory and consisted of appropriately designed holes/pillars which were imprinted into a polymer layer coated onto PEN, Kapton and stainless steel substrates. The photonic structures were coated with a thin layer of Ag and ZnO. Both single junction and tandem junction (amorphous/amorphous and amorphous/nanocrystalline) cells were fabricated on the photonic layers. It was observed that the greatest increase in short circuit current and efficiency in these cells due to the use of photonic reflectors was in nanocrystalline Si cells, where an increase in current approaching 30% (compared to devices fabricated on flat substrates) was obtained for thin (∼ 1 micrometer thick i layers) films of nano Si deposited on steel structures. The photonic structures (which were nanoimprinted into a polymer) were shown to stand up to temperatures as large as 300 C, thereby making such structures practical when a steel (or glass) of kapton substrate is used. Detailed measurements and discussion of quantum efficiency and device performance for various photonic back reflector structures on steel, kapton and PEN substrates will be presented in the paper.
CW Argon-ion laser initiated aluminum induced crystallization (AIC) of RF magnetron sputtered amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films has been investigated. It was found that lasers could be effectively used to initiate AIC process at very low threshold power densities. An argon-ion laser (λ=514.5 nm) was used to anneal Al/a-Si/glass structures with varying power densities ranging between 55 and 125 W/cm2 and exposure times ranging from 10 to 120 s. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the resulting films to be polycrystalline. The crystallization rate increased both with power density and exposure time. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis showed that the surface features change with increasing power density and irradiation time. A dendritic growth pattern was observed in the initial stages of interaction between the films. A strong crystalline Raman peak at around 520 cm-1 was observed in the Raman spectra of the crystallized samples.
Polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells have shown high potential for low cost, large-area module fabrication. But successful large-scale commercial production has been elusive. Fabrication of the basic n-CdS/p-CdTe heterojunction is possible by a wide variety of methods, including close-spaced sublimation, vapor-transport deposition, electrodeposition, chemical bath deposition, and magnetron sputtering. An overview of these methods is presented as well as the role of the postdeposition “activation” treatment using CdCl2 and issues related to the difficulty of obtaining low resistance back contacts to CdTe. We present some of our recent fabrication results using rf magnetron sputtering and discuss some of the advantages that appear possible from the use of sputtering methods in this class of materials. Some of these advantages are particularly relevant as the polycrystalline thin-film PV community addresses the challenges of fabricating tandem cells with efficiencies over 25%.
This paper presents results of the spatial and frequency detection limits of an integrated array of 32 one-dimensional amorphous silicon thin film position sensitive detectors with a nip structure, under continuous and pulsed laser operation conditions. The data obtained show that 0.45×0.06 cm arrays, occupying a total active area of about 1 cm2 have a spatial resolution better than 10 m m (modulation transfer function of about 0.2), with a cut-off frequency of about 6.8 KHz. Besides that, under pulsed laser conditions the device non-linearity has its minimum (about 1.6%), for a frequency of about 200Hz. Up to the limits of the cut-off frequency, the device nonlinearity increases to values above 4%.
Glow discharge amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) prepared at near room temperature typically results in an inhomogeneous morphology that is undesirable for a number of thin film applications. The most commonly observed features of this include columnar morphology and surface roughness. This usually results from anodic deposition, where substrates are placed on the grounded electrode. We have discovered that placing substrates on the RF-powered electrode (referred to as cathodic deposition) offers a much wider processing range for homogenous growth than anodic growth. We have also found that the magnitude of the surface roughness and the bulk void fraction of both anodic and cathodic a-Si:H thin films processed at low-temperatures is proportional to ∼D/F, where D is the surface diffusivity and F, the adatom flux, though anodic and cathodic deposition affect these global parameters differently. Surface processes unique to cathodic deposition can enhance adatom surface diffusion, while diffusion during anodic deposition is fixed and cannot attain homogeneous growth at high adatom fluxes. Processing a-Si:H on the cathode, associated with enhanced adatom surface diffusion, allows for homogeneous growth even at high deposition rates that has benefits for a number of applications.
Metal induced lateral crystallization (MILC) of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) was studied and a model was developed based on the resistance measurement of the films. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films of 300 nm thickness were deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on oxidized p-type (100) silicon wafers. Thermally evaporated 200 nm thick aluminum layer was deposited over amorphous silicon and patterned using photolithography. The samples were annealed at different temperatures for different time periods. After annealing the resistance of amorphous silicon between aluminum pads was measured. Based on these measurements, a model was developed to predict the lateral crystallization velocity. In this model, the resistance change due to loss of hydrogen from the film was also taken into account. For this purpose, another set of experiments was conducted. In this set, hydrogenated amorphous silicon films of 300 nm thickness were deposited on Corning 7059 glass. The samples were annealed for different period of time at different temperatures. After annealing, parallel bars of silver paint were formed on the samples and the resistance of each sample was measured. The theoretically determined lateral crystallization velocity was verified using optical microscope observations and X-ray diffraction analysis and was found to be in close agreement.
Vertically integrated particle sensors have been developed using thin-film on ASIC technology. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon n-i-p diodes have been optimized for particle detection. These devices were first deposited on glass substrates to optimize the material properties and the dark current of very thick diodes (with thickness up to 50 m). Corresponding diodes were later directly deposited on two types of CMOS readout chips. These vertically integrated particle sensors were tested in beta particle beam from 63Ni and 90Sr sources. Detection of single low- and high- energy beta particle was achieved.
The effect of substrate temperature and interface oxide layer on aluminum induced crystallization (AIC) of amorphous silicon (a-Si) is investigated. The effect of substrate temperature on the AIC process was studied by changing the deposition temperate of a-Si from 200 to 300°C in a Al/a-Si/glass configuration. To study the effect of interface oxide on AIC, samples with a-Si/Al/glass, a-Si/Al-oxide/Al/glass, and Al/Si-oxide/a-Si/glass configurations were prepared at a fixed substrate temperature. The samples were annealed in the temperature range from 300°C to 525°C for different periods of time. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the crystallization of the a-Si films in the various configurations. From the analysis, we report that crystallization of a-Si happen at 350°C annealing temperature in the Al/a-Si/glass configuration. However, with or without the presence of Si-oxide at the interface, crystallization saturated after annealing for 20 minutes at 400°C. On the other hand, when Al-oxide is present at the interface, higher annealing temperatures and longer annealing times are required to saturate the crystallization of a-Si. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) mapping were used to study the surface morphology as well as the layer sequence after crystallization. This analysis revealed that Si-Al layer-exchange happens regardless of the deposited film configuration.
We have applied a high resolution scanning Kelvin probe to perform dark surface potential topographies of multicrystalline silicon solar cells having thin coatings of Si3N4 and SiO2. We clearly observe the electrical characteristics of the screen printed bus-bar and associated fingers, grain boundaries, together with characteristic structures on the oxide and nitride, coupled to significant surface potential variations across larger sections of the wafer. Associated surface photovoltage measurements can be unambiguously decoded to show coating and bulk contributions. The nitride coating exhibits carrier trapping lifetimes in excess of 13 minutes at 300K.