We present results of simultaneous efforts to develop: 1.) Bragg-Fresnel Optics(BFO) to be used in X-ray microdiffraction methods, in particular as applied to structural studies of complex fluids and biomaterials under confinement and flow conditions; and 2.) Methodologies for confining complex fluids and biomaterials for in-situ structural studies. Using microelectronics process technology, we have fabricated linear and circular Bragg-Fresnel Lenses (BFL) in Si and III-V compound semiconductor substrates such as InP, GaAs and GaAs heterostructures with outermost zone width to 0.25 μm. X-ray characterization of linear BFLs were performed on a wiggler beamline at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) at x-ray energies of 8 keV and 16 keV. A ∼5 μm focal spot size was obtained with a 50 μm incident beam, which was determined by the partial coherence of the source. On the confinement techniques, we have developed the X-ray Surface Force Apparatus (XSFA) which allows in-situ x-ray diffraction measurements to be made on fluid thin films confined between two atomically smooth surfaces. A new approach is being pursued to study the effects of confinement and flow on complex fluids and biological materials using microchannels fabricated on glass substrates.