There is an expanding literature on the theoretical and empirical connections between personality and psychopathology, and their shared neurobiological correlates. Recent cybernetic theories of personality and psychopathology, as well as affective neuroscience theory, provide grounding for understanding neurobiological–personality–psychopathology (NPP) associations. With the emergence of large sample datasets (e.g., Human Connectome Project) advanced quantitative modeling can be used to rigorously test dynamic statistical representations of NPP connections. Also, research suggests that these connections are influenced by sex, and large samples provide the opportunity to examine how NPP associations might be moderated by sex. The current study used a large sample from the Duke Neurogenetics Study (DNS) to examine how amygdala activation to facial expressions was linked with self-report of personality traits and clinical interviews of internalizing and externalizing symptoms of psychopathology. Structural equation modeling results revealed direct associations of amygdala activation with personality trait expression, as well as indirect associations (though personality) with symptoms of psychopathology. Moreover, the NPP links were moderated by sex. The current results are in line with research that identifies a broader role played by the amygdala in personality and provide potential insights for continued research in personality neuroscience and recent theories on the neurobiology of personality.