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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) certifies a suite of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to evaluate specific aspects of instrument performance of both X-ray and neutron powder diffractometers. This report describes SRM 660c, the fourth generation of this powder diffraction SRM, which is used primarily for calibrating powder diffractometers with respect to line position and line shape for the determination of the instrument profile function (IPF). It is certified with respect to lattice parameter and consists of approximately 6 g of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) powder. So that this SRM would be applicable for the neutron diffraction community, the powder was prepared from an isotopically enriched 11B precursor material. The microstructure of the LaB6 powder was engineered specifically to yield a crystallite size above that where size broadening is typically observed and to minimize the crystallographic defects that lead to strain broadening. A NIST-built diffractometer, incorporating many advanced design features, was used to certify the lattice parameter of the LaB6 powder. Both Type A, statistical, and Type B, systematic, uncertainties have been assigned to yield a certified value for the lattice parameter at 22.5 °C of a = 0.415 682 6 ± 0.000 008 nm (95% confidence).
Self-harm in young people is associated with later problems in social and emotional development. However, it is unknown whether self-harm in young women continues to be a marker of vulnerability on becoming a parent. This study prospectively describes the associations between pre-conception self-harm, maternal depressive symptoms and mother–infant bonding problems.
The Victorian Intergenerational Health Cohort Study (VIHCS) is a follow-up to the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) in Australia. Socio-demographic and health variables were assessed at 10 time-points (waves) from ages 14 to 35, including self-reported self-harm at waves 3–9. VIHCS enrolment began in 2006 (when participants were aged 28–29 years), by contacting VAHCS women every 6 months to identify pregnancies over a 7-year period. Perinatal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale during the third trimester, and 2 and 12 months postpartum. Mother–infant bonding problems were assessed with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire at 2 and 12 months postpartum.
Five hundred sixty-four pregnancies from 384 women were included. One in 10 women (9.7%) reported pre-conception self-harm. Women who reported self-harming in young adulthood (ages 20–29) reported higher levels of perinatal depressive symptoms and mother–infant bonding problems at all perinatal time points [perinatal depressive symptoms adjusted β = 5.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.42–7.39; mother–infant bonding problems adjusted β = 7.51, 95% CI 3.09–11.92]. There was no evidence that self-harm in adolescence (ages 15–17) was associated with either perinatal outcome.
Self-harm during young adulthood may be an indicator of future vulnerability to perinatal mental health and mother–infant bonding problems.
The “Stop the Bleed” campaign advocates for non-medical personnel to be trained in basic hemorrhage control. However, it is not clear what type of education or the duration of instruction needed to meet that requirement. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a brief hemorrhage control educational curriculum on the willingness of laypersons to respond during a traumatic emergency.
This “Stop the Bleed” education initiative was conducted by the University of Texas Health San Antonio Office of the Medical Director (San Antonio, Texas USA) between September 2016 and March 2017. Individuals with formal medical certification were excluded from this analysis. Trainers used a pre-event questionnaire to assess participants knowledge and attitudes about tourniquets and responding to traumatic emergencies. Each training course included an individual evaluation of tourniquet placement, 20 minutes of didactic instruction on hemorrhage control techniques, and hands-on instruction with tourniquet application on both adult and child mannequins. The primary outcome in this study was the willingness to use a tourniquet in response to a traumatic medical emergency.
Of 236 participants, 218 met the eligibility criteria. When initially asked if they would use a tourniquet in real life, 64.2% (140/218) responded “Yes.” Following training, 95.6% (194/203) of participants responded that they would use a tourniquet in real life. When participants were asked about their comfort level with using a tourniquet in real life, there was a statistically significant improvement between their initial response and their response post training (2.5 versus 4.0, based on 5-point Likert scale; P<.001).
In this hemorrhage control education study, it was found that a short educational intervention can improve laypersons’ self-efficacy and reported willingness to use a tourniquet in an emergency. Identified barriers to act should be addressed when designing future hemorrhage control public health education campaigns. Community education should continue to be a priority of the “Stop the Bleed” campaign.
RossEM, RedmanTT, MappJG, BrownDJ, TanakaK, CooleyCW, KharodCU, WamplerDA. Stop the Bleed: The Effect of Hemorrhage Control Education on Laypersons’ Willingness to Respond During a Traumatic Medical Emergency. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):127–132.
In spite of its frustrated lattice, the multiferroic
Lu0.5Sc0.5FeO3 exhibits two consecutive
magnetic transitions at TN1 ≈ 175 K and TN2 ≈ 70 K determined from neutron diffraction. In the ordered
state, magnetic fluctuations are present, most likely arising from the in-plane
frustrated interaction of the Fe hexagonal lattice. Furthermore, a crossover of
the magnetic intensity is observed from elastic to inelastic upon warming,
indicating that magnetic fluctuations persist well above TN1, a common feature in hexagonal multiferroics.
The definition of ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis was derived from community-based help-seeking populations. Prisoners have high rates of psychosis and other severe mental health (MH) problems. They also have high rates of risk factors for psychiatric morbidity and yet they are among the populations who are less likely to seek help in the community. Despite a policy of equivalence of care for individuals in prison there are no early intervention services for psychosis in prisons in the UK. This was a study exploring feasibility of introducing such a service into a local London prison. This paper discusses the differences in MH profile of prisoners who met criteria for at-risk mental state compared with those who did not.
A two-stage procedure was used. Participants in a local London prison were routinely screened in the first week of arrival in prison with the Prodrome Questionnaire – Brief Version (PQ-B; Loewy et al. 2011). Those that screened positive as well as a small sample of those who screened negative underwent a further semi-structured assessment to see whether they met criteria for UHR state. Data on self-harm and suicide attempt, family psychiatric history, and anxiety and depression was also collected.
A total of 891 prisoners were screened, 44% of whom screened positive. A total of 354 underwent second stage assessment, 60 of whom had screened negative. Four groups were identified: those that had no MH problems, a group experiencing First Episode Psychosis, those at UHR of psychosis and a group with other MH problems. The UHR state and Psychotic groups had very similar MH profiles of symptoms and distress. Prisoners with no MH problems were at the other end of the spectrum with few symptoms and little distress. The Other group fell in between this group and the psychotic spectrum group in terms of symptomology and distress.
This study is the first to examine risk for psychosis in an adult male prison population. We identified a broad spectrum of MH disorder for which there is little current service provision in prisons. Screening early in the custodial process has the potential to identify unmet MH need and has implications for keeping individuals safe in custody. A long-term strategic approach is required to address MH need in prisons.
Research is essential for the development of evidence-based emergency medical services (EMS) systems of care. When resources are scarce and gaps in evidence are large, a national agenda may inform the growth of EMS research in Canada. This mixed methods consensus study explores current barriers and existing strengths within Canadian EMS research, provides recommendations, and suggests EMS topics for future study.
Purposeful sampling was employed to invite EMS research stakeholders from various roles across the country. Study phases consisted of 1) baseline interviews of a subsample, 2) roundtable discussion, and 3) an online Delphi survey, in which participants scored each statement for importance. Consensus was defined a priori and met if 80% scored a statement as “important” or “very important.”
Fifty-three stakeholders participated, representing researchers (37.7%), EMS administrators (24.6%), clinicians/ providers (20.7%), and educators (17.0%). Participation rates were as follows: interviews, 13 of 13 (100%); roundtable, 47 of 53 (89%); survey round 1, 50 of 53 (94%); survey round 2, 47 of 53 (89%); and survey round 3, 40 of 53 (75%). A total of 141 statements were identified as important: 20 barriers, 54 strengths/opportunities, 31 recommendations, and 36 suggested topics for future research. Like statements were synthesized, resulting in barriers (n 5 10), strengths/opportunities (n 5 24), and recommendations (n 5 19), which were categorized as time, opportunities, and funding; education and mentorship; culture of research and collaboration; structure, process, and outcome of research; EMS and paramedic practice; and the future of the EMS Research Agenda.
Consensus-based key messages from this agenda should be considered when designing, funding, and publishing EMS research and will advance EMS research locally, regionally, and nationally.
In this paper, we report 11 AMS radiocarbon dates from 8 Prehispanic fortifications located in the Huaura Valley, central coast of Perú. Small fragments of organic material embedded in preserved mud mortar in architecture, and samples from construction layers exposed by looter's holes were used to date architectural features without undertaking extensive excavations. These dates contribute toward refining the chronology of fort building in the valley, and provide a test for assumptions about temporal change and architectural style. The results indicate that fortifications date to at least 3 periods. These data provide a starting point for exploring the occurrence of warfare through time on a regional scale.
Common genetic variants, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor
(BDNF) Val/66/Met polymorphism (rs6265), are known to interact with
environmental factors such as early adversity to increase the risk of
subsequent major depression. Much less is known about how they interact
with individual differences in cortisol, although these also represent a
risk for major depression.
To determine whether this BDNF variant moderated the risk represented by
higher levels of morning salivary cortisol in adult women.
We recruited 279 premenopausal women who were at high risk of major
depressive disorder because of either negative self-evaluation,
unsupportive core relationship or chronic subclinical symptoms of
depression or anxiety. Morning salivary cortisol was measured daily for
up to 10 days at entry. Participants were followed up for about 12 months
by telephone calls at 3–4 monthly intervals. Major depression and severe
life events were assessed through interviews at baseline and follow-up;
DNA was obtained from the saliva.
There were 53 onsets (19%) of depressive episodes during follow-up. There
was a significant U-shaped relationship between adjusted morning cortisol
levels at baseline and the probability of depression onset during
follow-up. In total, 51% experienced at least one severe life
event/difficulty, and this strongly predicted subsequent onsets of
depressive episodes. The BDNF Val/66/Met genotype was
not directly associated with onsets of depression or with cortisol
levels, but there was significant interaction between Val/66/Met and
cortisol: the association between baseline cortisol and depression was
limited to those with the Val/66/Val variant. There was no interaction
between life events and either this BDNF polymorphism or cortisol
Morning salivary cortisol interacts with the BDNF Val/66/Met polymorphism
in predicting new depressive episodes. This paper adds to the evidence
that single gene polymorphisms interact with endogenous factors to
This paper reports on the defect structures formed upon strain relaxation in pulsed laser-deposited complex oxide superlattices consisting of the ferromagnetic metal, La0.67Sr0.33MnO3, and the antiferromagnetic insulator, La0.67Sr0.33FeO3. Atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and chemistry of the defects. For thinner superlattices, strain relaxation occurs through the formation of 2-D stacking faults, whereas for thicker superlattices, the prolonged thermal exposure during film growth leads to the formation of nanoflowers and cracks/pinholes to reduce the overall strain energy.
Continual low-level exposure of sheep to the helminth Teladorsagia circumcincta elicits a temporary protective immunity, where factors in the immune abomasal mucosa prevent penetration of infective larvae, but which is essentially lost within 6 weeks of cessation of parasite challenge. Here, a proteomic approach was used to identify proteins that are differentially regulated in immune compared to naïve sheep, as potential key mediators of immunity. Six naïve sheep and 12 sheep trickle-infected with T. circumcincta were treated with anthelmintic, and the naïve (control) and 6 immune sheep were killed 7 days later. The remaining 6 sheep (immune waning) were killed 42 days after anthelmintic treatment. Abomasal tissue samples were subjected to 2D-gel electrophoresis and densitometric analysis. Selected spots (n=73) were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting and confirmatory Western blotting was carried out for 10 proteins. Spots selectively up-regulated in immune versus control, but not immune waning versus control sheep, included galectin-15 and thioredoxin, which were confirmed by Western blotting. In immune sheep, serum albumin was significantly down-regulated and albumin proteolytic cleavage fragments were increased compared to controls. Unexpectedly, albumin mRNA was relatively highly expressed in control mucosa, down-regulated in immune, and was immunolocalized to mucus-producing epithelial cells. Thus we have identified differential expression of a number of proteins following T. circumcincta trickle infection that may play a role in host protection and inhibition of parasite establishment.
Adsorption of hydrogen and the occupancy of different binding sites as a function of hydrogen loading in MOF-74 are studied using inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Hydrogen molecules are observed to fully occupy the strongest binding site before populating other adsorption sites. The comparison of the INS spectra at 4 K and 60 K indicates that hydrogen adsorbed at the strongest binding site is strongly bound and localized. We also show that when two hydrogen molecules are adsorbed into a single, attractive potential well, the shortest inter-H2 distance is about 3 Å, consistent with our previous observation of inter-H2 distance when adsorbed in two neighboring potential wells.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
A multi-technique approach was used to map the spatial distribution of seabed biotopes (i.e. physical habitats and their associated benthic assemblages) in the vicinity of Hastings Shingle Bank in the eastern English Channel, part of which is licensed for the extraction of marine aggregates for the construction industry. An area of seabed, approximately 12×4 km in size, was surveyed using a high-resolution sidescan sonar system, and a mosaic of the output was produced, covering 100% of the survey area. The area was then divided into acoustically distinct regions based on the sidescan sonar data, and the benthic communities and sediment types within each of the regions were ground-truthed using a Hamon grab fitted with a video camera, and using a heavy duty 2-m beam trawl. Additional information concerning the seabed was obtained through the application of video and photographic techniques. Sediments within the survey area ranged from cobbles and coarse gravels on the Shingle Bank, to various grades of sands to the north and south. Analysis of faunal data revealed the presence of statistically distinct biological assemblages within each acoustic region. Using all available data, four discrete biotopes were identified and their spatial distribution mapped across the survey area.
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