To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Institute of Medicine recommended the advance of innovation and entrepreneurship training programs within the Clinical & Translational Science Award (CTSA) program; however, there remains a gap in adoption by CTSA institutes. The University of Michigan’s Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research and Fast Forward Medical Innovation (FFMI) partnered to develop a pilot program designed to teach CTSA hubs how to implement innovation and entrepreneurship programs at their home institutions.
Materials and methods
The program provided a 2-day onsite training experience combined with observation of an ongoing course focused on providing biomedical innovation, commercialization and entrepreneurial training to a medical academician audience (FFMI fastPACE).
All 9 participating CTSA institutes reported a greater connection to biomedical research commercialization resources. Six launched their own version of the FFMI fastPACE course or modified existing programs. Two reported greater collaboration with their technology transfer offices.
The FFMI fastPACE course and training program may be suitable for CTSA hubs looking to enhance innovation and entrepreneurship within their institutions and across their innovation ecosystems.
Semiconductor diode lasers emitting normal to the substrate plane, known as surface-emitting lasers, are extremely promising for addressing a range of applications from optical interconnects, optical communications and optical recording to remote sensing. The most promising aspect perhaps lies in the prospect of eliminating low yield laser fabrication steps, i.e. laser packaging processing including wafer lapping, cleaving and dicing, facet coatings and diode bonding. The possibility of being able to make any number of lasers anywhere on a wafer is also an increasingly important factor for applications such as optical interconnects. At present two completely different approaches are aimed at realizing surface-emitting lasers. The first represents an extension of the existing technology for semiconductor edge-emitting lasers that uses a 45° slanted mirror or a second-order grating to vertically couple the light out (Figure 9.1(1). (2)). The second, pioneered by K. Iga in 1979, uses highly reflective mirrors to clad the active region, resulting in a vertical cavity that produces an output beam propagating normal to the substrate surface (Figure 9.1(3)).
The vertical cavity design offers important advantages over other surface-emitting laser designs. The unique topology of a vertical cavity facilitates large-scale processing, on-wafer testing and pre-process screening. The small lateral dimensions allow for fabrication of large 2-D arrays with high packing density and integration with other optical and electronic devices.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.