The aim of this work was to design, construct, install, and commission an on-line, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyzer capable of continuously monitoring phase abundances for use in process plant control. This has been achieved through a joint project between CSIRO Minerals and Fuel & Combustion Technology Pty. Ltd. with an instrument designed for use in a Portland cement manufacturing plant. Key factors in tailoring such an instrument to the cement industry were (i) the handling and presentation of a dry sample and (ii) the development of an analytical method suitable for the complex suite of phases contained within Portland cement. The instrument incorporates continuous flow of sample through the diffractometer using a purpose-built sample presentation stage. The XRD data are collected simultaneously using a wide range (120° 2θ) position sensitive detector, thus enabling rapid collection of the full diffraction pattern. The data are then analyzed using a Rietveld analysis method to obtain a quantitative estimate of each of the phases present. The instrument is controlled by a PC linked to the diffractometer through a purpose built interface. The phase abundance information is then transmitted to the central computer in the cement plant where it can be used for the control of mill parameters such as temperature and retention times as well as gypsum feed rate.