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Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a form of intracranial vascular disease that may arise sporadically or be dominantly inherited. Linkage studies have revealed genetic heterogeneity among the dominantly inherited forms suggesting the existence of at least three loci called CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3.
In the present study, we screened five families with dominantly inherited CCM for CCM1 gene mutations with denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). Then, we performed linkage analysis and haplotyping on these five families using highly polymorphic markers at the candidate CCM loci.
None of the five families tested with DHPLC were found to have mutations in the CCM1 gene. Based on haplotyping, we identified three families segregating alleles for CCM2, while two families segregated alleles for CCM3. Using linkage analysis, we could confirm that one family (IFCAS-1) had a positive Lod score of 2.03 (p<0.0001) at the CCM2 locus using marker D7S678.
The present study is the first one to replicate linkage at the CCM2 locus and provides a fifth family identified as such. It also supports the concept of genetic heterogeneity in CCM, identifying four other families that showed no mutations in the CCM1 gene.
The aim of the present study was to identify the mutations in the connexin 32 gene in French-Canadian families with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX).
Molecular analysis was performed by nonisotopic single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing. Clinical evaluation was carried out according to the scale defined by the European Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy Consortium.
In one family, the mutation Arg142Trp was located in the transmembrane domain III whereas, in four other families we identified a novel mutation (Ser26Trp) located in the transmembrane domain I of the connexin 32 gene. Haplotype analysis revealed that these four families are related and suggests a founder mutation. Sixteen patients from these four families were studied. As expected, all the affected males were more clinically affected than the females and all affected patients exhibited some electrophysiological characteristics of demyelination.
Our study suggests that the Ser26Trp mutation may cause a primary demyelinating neuropathy that is not associated with a specific clinical phenotype. We also find evidence that the majority of kindreds share a common ancestor.
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