To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In May 1994, 43 persons in a nursing home were reported with gastroenteritis. An outbreak investigation was conducted to determine risk factors for gastroenteritis among residents and staff.
Data were analyzed using contingency tables; relative risks (RR) and statistical significance were determined with Fisher's Exact Test. The chi-squared statistic to perform a goodness of fit test for the binomial distribution was used to determine whether cases occurred randomly and independently of each other. Stools were tested for bacterial enteric pathogens, ova, and parasites and were examined by electron microscopy, Southern hybridization, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Paired sera were collected to detect fourfold rises in antibody titer by enzyme immunoassay against Norwalk viruses.
Of 121 residents, 62 (51%) had gastroenteritis, as did 64 (47%) of the 136 staff. The index case was a nurse who became ill at work and continued to work, while symptomatic, for another 2 days. Only residents who had received medications from this nurse between May 17 and May 20 became ill on the first day of the outbreak (13 of 35 versus 0 of 5). Nurses and nurse aides were more likely than employees without direct resident contact to be cases (46 of 68 versus 18 of 58; RR, 2.18;P<.001). Bacterial stool cultures and parasite examinations were negative. Results of electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction with Southern hybridization, and enzyme immunoassay indicated the causative agent was a small, round, structured virus similar to the Snow Mountain Agent.
To minimize outbreaks in nursing homes, we recommend that ill staff be excluded from work until symptoms resolve.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.