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If meta-analysis is to provide valuable answers, then it is critical to ensure clarity about the questions being asked. Here, we distinguish two important questions concerning cognitive bias modification research that are not differentiated in the meta-analysis recently published by Cristea et al (2015) in this journal: (1) do the varying procedures that investigators have employed with the intention of modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability?; and (2) does the process of successfully modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability? We reanalyse the data from Cristea et al to address this latter question. Our new analyses demonstrate that successfully modifying cognitive bias does significantly alter emotional vulnerability. We revisit Cristea et al's conclusions in light of these findings.
The propagation of ocean waves in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) is investigated with the aim of determining whether the loading and scattering of waves by ice floes is significant. Measurements made using instrumented ice floes in the MIZ north of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, during June 1998 are used to determine the frequency-wavelength relationship for propagating ocean waves in that region. This measured-dispersion equation is related to the effective large-scale properties of the MIZ that occur in models for wave propagation and scattering. We present the measured wave speeds to enable estimation of the parameters in these models.
We present a method for measuring the characteristic length of sea ice based on fitting to a recently found solution for the flexural response of a floating ice sheet subject to localized periodic loading. Unlike previous techniques, the method enables localized measurements at single frequencies of geophysical interest, and since the measurements may be synchronously demodulated, gives excellent rejection of unwanted measurement signal (e.g. from ocean swell). The loading mechanism is described and we discuss how the effective characteristic length may be determined using a range of localized measurements. The method is used to determine the characteristic length of the sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.
We review the various numerical methods that have been developed for calculating the reflection and transmission of ocean waves at a land-fast ice boundary, including recent developments. While an integral form of the solution, found by the Wiener-Hopf technique, has been known for many years, direct numerical computation of this exact solution has been thought to be prohibitively difficult. Instead, several numerical "matching" procedures have been developed, including some that are only approximate, along with asymptotic solutions based on the integral form. Recently it has been discovered that direct calculation of the integral form is feasible, actually requiring less computation than the matching methods. We outline the actual computations required and contrast each method, and provide examples of computation from the integral form.
The possibility of long-period ocean waves coupling to an ice shelf is investigated. A thick elastic plate model is used for the ice shelf with comparisons made to the simpler thin-plate model. The strain set up on the ice shelf by a normally incident single frequency ocean wave is calculated by completely solving the equations governing the velocity potential for such a system. In the absence of measurements on an ice shelf, existing measurements of long-period strain on an ice tongue are used to estimate the required incident amplitude in the open water to induce the observed oscillations. It is found that the height of seas required indicates that ocean wave driving is a plausible forcing mechanism for observed oscillations.
The radiation stress at an ice edge due to incident sea and swell is reconsidered in the light of new theoretical results concerned with the calculation of the reflection and transmission coefficients at the edge of a thin elastic sheet. Both monochromatic seas and seas made up of a spectrum of periods are discussed, the latter invoking the Pierson-Moskowitz spectral model. It is found that the force per unit length due to radiation stress is comparable in magnitude with other driving mechanisms at the edge, i.e. with winds and currents.
The manner in which sea ice breaks up determines its floe-size distribution. This, together with any redistribution due to ocean currents or winds, alters the fluxes between the atmosphere and the underlying ocean. Many materials fail at stresses well below their flexural strength when subject to repeated bending, such processes being termed fatigue. in some materials a stress exists below which the material will maintain its integrity even if subjected to an infinite number of load cycles. This stress is termed the endurance limit. We report a scries of field experiments to investigate the fatigue behaviour of first-year sea ice that subjected in situ cantilever beams to repeated bending with zero mean stress. These tests suggest that an endurance limit exists for sea ice, and that it is approximately 60% of the flexural strength. Using theory and data from wave experiments performed in similar conditions to the fatigue experiments, estimates are made of the conditions under which wave-induced break-up occurs. These indicate that fatigue may be a neglected ingredient of sea-ice failure due to wave-induced motion.
Technetium-99 (99Tc) is a fission product produced during the burning of nuclear fuel and is particularly hazardous due to its long half life (210000 years), relatively high content in nuclear fuel (approx. 1 kg per ton of SNF), low sorption, and high mobility in aerobic environments. During spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing Tc is released either as a separate fraction or in complexes with actinides and zirconium. Although Tc has historically been discharged into the marine environment more stringent regulations mean that the preferred long term option is to immobilise Tc in a highly stable and durable matrix. This study investigated the feasibility of incorporating of Mo (as a Tc analogue) in a crystalline host matrix, synthesis by solid state synthesis under different atmospheres. Samples have been characterised with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS).
The need to improve the skills of primary care workers in the management of mild-to-moderate mental health problems in children and adolescents is widely recognized. One model for providing such skills is the use of specialist psychiatric nurses as interface workers in a consultation–liaison role. This aims to provide training and expert advice to facilitate the detection, assessment and management of child and adolescent mental health problems. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of a pilot scheme which placed three consultation–liaison interface workers, for 15% of their time, in primary care. This study involved a qualitative assessment of health professionals' experiences of the new system, using constant comparison analysis of the transcribed texts of five focus groups. The setting was within the participating surgeries and at the secondary care centre. The participants comprised ten secondary care workers, ten GPs, seven health visitors and three school nurses. The main outcome measure was the views of the health care professionals of the interface worker service. The results showed that primary care staff reported strong, positive effects on confidence, morale and patient care, although a few possible problems were perceived in terms of carers' understanding of brief intervention. Prior to the introduction of the new system, they felt they had little to offer children and adolescents with mental health problems, but now they had a service to offer. The interface workers had particularly enhanced their treatment skills/options. However, the secondary care workers felt that there had been little effect on their workload although only four out of 54 practices feeding into them had had interface workers appointed. Although they recognized the potential benefits for mild to moderate cases in primary care, they were also concerned that scarce resources might be being directed towards lower priority cases. This pilot study concluded that this was an efficient, effective service offering a quick response to patients, equipping primary care workers with treatment skills and having a positive effect on the numbers of referrals to secondary care. Further, more extensive quantitative work is needed to find out if these conclusions are really justified.
Basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) movement patterns and growth rates over annual cycles remain entirely unknown. Here the re-sighting of a female identified by a highly distinctive first dorsal fin, after a 3·1 year period is described. Our results show this individual foraged at the surface in coastal areas off south-west England in at least two of four summer seasons and increased in total length by 2·4 m over this period. The growth increment observed was similar to that predicted from the growth model for this species.
The decision of the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords, given on 24 March 1999,1 confirms, by the impressive vote of 6 to 1, the earlier majority ruling that a former head of state enjoys no immunity in extradition or criminal proceedings brought in the United Kingdom in respect of the international crime of torture.
The case of Pinochet has aroused enormous interest, both political and legal. The spectacle of the General, whose regime sent so many to their deaths, himself under arrest and standing trial has stirred the hopes of the oppressed. His reversal of fortune, loss of liberty with a policeman, on the door, has been heralded by organisations for the protection of human rights as one small step on the long road to justice. For lawyers generally, the House of Lords' majority decision of 1998 that General Pinochet enjoyed no immunity signalled a shift from a State-centred order of things.1 It suggested that the process of restriction of State immunity, so effectively begun with the removal of commercial transactions from its protection, might now extend some way into the field of criminal proceedings. And it further posed the intriguing question whether an act categorised as within the exercise of sovereign power, so as to relieve the individual official of liability in civil proceedings, may at the same time, as well as subsequent to his retirement, attract parallel personal criminal liability.
If A is a T-orderable R-module and S is a multiplicative subsemigroup of R, each s∈S acting as a monomorphism of A, then it is possible sometimes A in a T-orderable R-module on which each s∈S as an automorphism. We show that such an embedding does not always exist and, by generalizing a theorem of Kokorin and Kopytov, provide a partial answer to the question “when is such an embedding possible?”
Subject classification (Amer. Math. Soc. (MOS) 1970): 06 A 70, 16 A 08, 16 A 64.
Davis and Bolz (1974) considered, and to some extent classified, compatible tight Riesz order on the group of all order-preserving permutations of a totally ordered field. Glass (1976) carried out a more general study of compatible tight Riesz orders on ordered permutation groups and, in particular, showed the importance of determining compatible tight Riesz orders on O-primitive ordered permutation groups. However, the general problems of existence and classification of compatible tight Riesz orders on O-primitive ordered permutation groups remained open.
We show that if the normal, closure of an element a, of an orderable group, G, is abelian, then G can be embedded in an orderable group, G#, which contains an n-th root of a for every positive integer, n. Furthermore, every order of G extends to an order of G#.